Triplicate Groups (triplicate + groups)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effects of vegetable feed ingredients on bone health in Atlantic salmon

P. G. Fjelldal
Summary The aim of the present study was to examine if dietary inclusion of vegetable lipids (VL) and proteins (VP) influenced markers of bone health in Atlantic salmon. Triplicate groups were fed one of four different diets; 100% fish protein (FP) and fish lipids (FL) (FPFL), 80% VP and 35% VL (80VP35VL), 40% VP and 70% VL (40VP70VL), or 80% VP and 70% VL (80VP70VL) for 12 months on-growth in sea water. Fish were analyzed for vertebral bone mineralization (mineral content, as % of bone dry weight), vertebral deformities (radiology), vertebral bone mRNA expression of factors involved in mineralization (bone gla protein, bgp) and growth regulation (igf-I and growth hormone receptor), as well as plasma vitamin D metabolites. The fish grew from 0.35 to 4 kg during the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, significantly lower prevalence of fish with one or more deformed vertebrae was observed in the 80VP70VL group (11%) compared to the other groups (33,43%). There was a significant higher relative expression of igf -I mRNA in vertebral bone of fish fed the 80VP70VL diet compared to control fish (FPFL), while the other genes studied were unaffected. Elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 recorded in the marine feed group is discussed as a predictor for later development of bone deformities. In conclusion, the present study shows that high inclusion levels of vegetable lipids and proteins may have a positive effect on bone health in Atlantic salmon postsmolts. [source]

Growth and feed utilization in two strains of gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio: paternal effects in a gynogenetic fish


Gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) is a natural gynogenetic fish which requires sperm of the same or related species to activate egg development. The eggs of one gibel carp were divided into two batches. One batch was ,fertilized' with sperm from gibel carp (strain DD), and the other ,fertilized' with sperm from red common carp (Cyprinus carpio red variety) (strain DR). The juveniles were transferred to the laboratory 36 days post-hatch. Triplicate groups of each strain were fed a formulated diet at either 3% or satiation ration for 8 weeks. At both the restricted and satiation rations, specific growth rate was significantly higher in strain DR than in strain DD. At the 3% ration, there was no significant difference in feeding rate or feed conversion efficiency between the two strains. At the satiation ration, strain DR had a significantly lower feeding rate but higher feed conversion efficiency than strain DD. At the satiation ration, strain DR had a significantly lower intake protein, but higher recovered protein than strain DD. There was no significant difference in faecal protein loss between the two strains. At the 3% ration, strain had no significant effects on intake protein, faecal protein or recovered protein. Neither faecal energy loss nor recovered energy was affected by strain or ration. At both the 3% and satiation ration, final body contents of dry matter and lipid were significantly lower in strain DR than strain DD, while there was no significant difference in protein and energy content between the two strains at either ration level. The results suggested that gibel carp ,fertilized' with sperm of common carp grew faster than those ,fertilized' with sperm of gibel carp through increased feed conversion efficiency and protein retention. [source]

Growth and hepatopancreas performances of gibel carp fed diets containing low levels of aflatoxin B1

Abstract The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on growth, physiological responses and histological changes were investigated in juvenile gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Triplicate groups of gibel carp (3.53 ± 0.02 g) were fed seven semipurified diets (Diet 1 to 7) containing 3.20, 5.37, 7.08, 9.55, 12.70, 17.90 and 28.60 ,g AFB1 kg,1 diet for 3 months. The results showed fish weight gain fed Diet 6 was 112.6% of that of control group (Diet 1) after 3 months, but there was no significant difference of weight gain between fish fed Diet 7 and the control group. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of fish hepatopancreas fed Diet 7 was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed in ALT activities of the fish fed with more than 10 ,g AFB1 kg,1 (Diet 4, 5, 6 and 7). No significant histological lesions were identified between the control and increasing AFB1 treatments. AFB1 accumulated in hepatopancreas was logarithmically related to the dietary AFB1 levels, and AFB1 also accumulated in muscles and ovaries of gibel carp fed Diet 3 to Diet 7. The present results indicated that fish fed with more than 10 ,g AFB1 kg,1 diet showed impaired physiological responses and more AFB1 residue of muscles and ovaries above the safety limitation of European Union. [source]

Effects of the commercial probiotic Lactobacillus casei on the growth, protein content of skin mucus and stress resistance of juveniles of the Porthole livebearer Poecilopsis gracilis (Poecilidae)

Abstract A 11-week feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei from the commercial product Yakult® on the growth performance, proximal composition, protein content of skin mucus and stress resistance of juvenile Porthole livebearer Poeciliopsis gracilis. Triplicate groups of 15 juveniles per tank with an initial weight of 47 ± 9 mg (mean ± standard deviation) were fed with Artemia nauplii enriched with the probiotic, by using the bacteria cells plus the fermented milk (group ProN) and the other (group ProC) by using only the bacterial cells, eliminating the fermented milk by centrifugation. A control of fish was set up, by feeding non-enriched Artemia nauplii. Growth performance and survival rates did not show significantly differences among the treatments and control group, but a slightly tendency of higher values for body weight, weight gain and specific growth rate was observed in the juveniles of ProC treatment. Whole body proximate composition did not show significant differences among the groups, but higher values of protein and lipid contents were observed in the groups fed with the probiotic. Content of protein in the skin mucus were significantly higher in the ProC treatment than control group. Recovery rates after an air-dive test were significantly higher on the fish fed with the probiotic cells than the control group. These results show that L. casei might be used as a probiotic for fish and would help during the culture of juvenile of the Porthole livebearer P. gracilis. [source]

Influences of dietary fatty acid profile on growth, body composition and blood chemistry in juvenile fat cod (Hexagrammos otakii Jordan et Starks)

Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary lipid source and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) level on growth, body composition and blood chemistry of juvenile fat cod. Triplicate groups of fish (13.2 ± 0.54 g) were fed the diets containing different n-3 HUFA levels (0,30 g kg,1) adjusted by either lauric acid or different proportions of corn oil, linseed oil and squid liver oil at 100 g kg,1 of total lipid level. Survival was not affected by dietary fatty acids composition. Weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of fish fed the diets containing squid liver oil were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those fed the diets containing lauric acid, corn oil or linseed oil as the sole lipid source. Weight gain, feed efficiency and PER of fish increased with increasing dietary n-3 HUFA level up to 12,16 g kg,1, but the values decreased in fish fed the diet containing 30 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA. The result of second-order polynomial regression showed that the maximum weight gain and feed efficiency could be attained at 17 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA. Plasma protein, glucose and cholesterol contents were not affected by dietary fatty acids composition. However, plasma triglyceride content in fish fed the diet containing lauric acid as the sole lipid source was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of fish fed the other diets. Lipid content of fish fed the diets containing each of lauric acid or corn oil was lower than that of fish fed the diets containing linseed oil or squid liver oil only. Fatty acid composition of polar and neutral lipid fractions in the whole body of fat cod fed the diets containing various levels of n-3 HUFA were reflected by dietary fatty acids compositions. The contents of n-3 HUFA in polar and neutral lipids of fish increased with an increase in dietary n-3 HUFA level. These results indicate that dietary n-3 HUFA are essential and the diet containing 12,17 g kg,1 n-3 HUFA is optimal for growth and efficient feed utilization of juvenile fat cod, however, excessive n-3 HUFA supplement may impair the growth of fish. [source]

Effects of dietary protein, and fat level and rapeseed oil on growth and tissue fatty acid composition and metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared at low water temperatures

Abstract A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to elucidate the interactive effects of dietary fat, protein contents and oil source on growth, whole body proximate composition, protein productive value (PPV) and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle and liver in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)` at low water temperatures (4.2 °C). Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (initial weight 1168 g) were fed six isoenergetic diets, formulated to provide either 390 g kg,1 protein and 320 g kg,1 fat (high-protein diets) or 340 g kg,1 protein and 360 g kg,1 fat (low-protein diets). Within each dietary protein/fat level, crude rapeseed oil (RO) comprised 0, 30 or 60% (R0, R30, R60, respectively) of the added oil. After 12 weeks, the overall growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were very good for all treatments [thermal growth coefficient (TGC): 4.76 (±0.23); FCR: 0.85 (±0.02)]. Significant effects were shown owing to the oil source on specific growth rate and TGC only. The liver and muscle FA compositions were highly affected by the graded inclusion of RO. The PPV was significantly affected by the dietary protein level. The results of this study suggest that more sustainable, lower protein diets with moderate RO inclusion can be used in Atlantic salmon culture at low water temperatures with no negative effects on growth and feed conversion, no major detrimental effects on lipid and FA metabolism and a positive effect on protein sparing. [source]

Influence of dietary palm oil on growth, tissue fatty acid compositions, and fatty acid metabolism in liver and intestine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary crude palm oil (CPO) on fatty acid metabolism in liver and intestine of rainbow trout. Triplicate groups of rainbow trout for 10 weeks at 13 °C were fed on diets in which CPO replaced fish oil (FO) in a graded manner (0,100%). At the end of the trial, fatty acid compositions of flesh, liver and pyloric caeca were determined and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) synthesis and fatty acid oxidation were estimated in isolated hepatocytes and caecal enterocytes using [1- 14C]18:3n-3 as substrate. Growth performance and feed efficiency were unaffected by dietary CPO. Fatty acid compositions of selected tissues reflected the dietary fatty acid composition with increasing CPO resulting in increased proportions of 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 and decreased proportions of n-3HUFA, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Palmitic acid, 16:0, was also increased in flesh and pyloric caeca, but not in liver. The capacity of HUFA synthesis from 18:3n-3 increased by up to threefold in both hepatocytes and enterocytes in response to graded increases in dietary CPO. In contrast, oxidation of 18:3n-3 was unaffected by dietary CPO in hepatocytes and reduced by high levels of dietary CPO in enterocytes. The results of this study suggest that CPO can be used at least to partially replace FO in diets for rainbow trout in terms of permitting similar growth and feed conversion, and having no major detrimental effects on lipid and fatty acid metabolism, although flesh fatty acid compositions are significantly affected at an inclusion level above 50%, with n-3HUFA reduced by up to 40%. [source]

Partial substitution of fish meal with soybean and cottonseed meals in diets for African bonytongue, Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829) fingerlings: effects on growth, feed efficiency and body composition

Serge-Eric Monentcham
Abstract A feeding trial was conducted to examine the suitability of soybean meal (SBM) and cottonseed meal (CSM) as a partial substitute for the dietary protein supplied by fish meal for H. niloticus fingerlings. Fish were fed with four isonitrogenous (350 g kg,1 crude protein) and isoenergetic (18.8 kJ g,1 GE) diets in which fish meal protein was gradually replaced by plant protein from a mixture of SBM and CSM (0%, 25%, 50% and 75% in diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively). Triplicate groups of fingerlings H. niloticus (mean weight of 5 g) were handfed twice daily to apparent satiation for 60 days inside net hapas. Growth performances (SGR varied from 3.09% to 3.16% day,1) of fingerlings fed diets containing 0%, 25% and 50% plant protein were not significantly different (P>0.05). At 75% fish meal substitution, growth and feed utilization efficiency indicators were significantly reduced (P<0.05). The carcass composition were also significantly (P<0.05) affected by the replacement level of fish meal, except dry matter and ash. Results suggest that the dietary fish meal protein could efficiently be substituted by a mixture of soybean and cottonseed meals up to 50%, without adverse effects on maximal growth in practical diets for H. niloticus fingerlings. [source]

Effects of feeding frequency and feed type on the growth, feed utilization and body composition of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

Sang-Min Lee
Abstract A factorial (3 × 4) feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding frequency and feed type on the growth performance, feed utilization and body proximate composition of juvenile olive flounder. Three feed types including a sinking moist pellet (MP), a sinking dry pellet (DP) and a floating extruded pellet (EP) were used. Fish (average weight, 11.1 ± 0.4 g) were randomly distributed in thirty-six 300 L tanks in a flowthrough system. Triplicate groups (30 fish per tank) of fish were fed each feed type to visual satiation at three meals per day, two meals per day, one meal per day and one meal every 2 days for 7 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the survival of fish was not significantly different among the treatments. Weight gain was affected by the feeding frequency. The highest weight gain was observed in fish fed the EP at three meals per day. The daily feed intake of fish fed the MP and DP tended to be higher than that of fish fed the EP at each feeding frequency. The feed efficiency and the protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the EP were higher than those of fish fed the MP and DP. The body proximate composition of fish was altered by the feeding frequency. The crude lipid content increased with the increase in the feeding frequency. The present findings suggest that three feedings per day at visual satiation of the floating EP may be sufficient for the maximal growth performance of olive flounder grown from 11 to 60 g. [source]

Effects of dietary lipid levels on the growth, digestive enzyme, feed utilization and fatty acid composition of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus L.) reared in freshwater

Gang Luo
Abstract Triplicate groups of 40 Japanese sea bass Lateolabrax japonicus reared in freshwater (average weight, 9.52±0.47 g) were fed with six isonitrogenous (,46% crude protein) diets containing 6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, 14% or 16% lipid for 10 weeks respectively. The results showed that the maximum weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake (FI) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) all occurred at the 10% lipid level (P<0.05) and growth depression occurred when the dietary lipid level was over 12%. Whole body and liver lipid concentrations were enhanced with the increase in the dietary lipid levels, but the muscle lipid content did not significantly change with the increase in the dietary lipid levels. Both liver pepsin and trypsin activities increased with dietary lipid levels ranging from 6% to 10%, and then decreased with a further increase in the dietary lipid content. Liver lipase activities showed a positive correlation with dietary lipid levels, but amylase activities were not markedly influenced by dietary lipid levels. High proportions of 18:1n-9, 20:1n-9, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA), 22:1n-11 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA), and low concentrations of n-6 fatty acids, particularly 18:2n-6 occurring in the liver and muscle, to some extent, reflected the fatty acid composition in experimental diets. [source]

Effects of dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile and grower rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli

Sang-Min Lee
Abstract Two feeding trials were conducted to determine the optimal dietary carbohydrate to lipid (CHO:L) ratio for juvenile and grower rockfish. Triplicate groups of juvenile (initial mean weight 3.6 g) and duplicate groups of grower (initial mean weight 166 g) were fed the five isonitrogenous (51% CP) and isoenergetic (4.0 kcal g,1) diets with the different CHO:L ratios (0.4,5.6 g:g) for 8 weeks respectively. The survival of juvenile and grower was above 93% and was not affected by the dietary CHO:L ratios. Weight gain of juvenile fed the diets with CHO:L ratios of 0.8 and 1.6 was significantly higher than that of the fish fed diets with CHO:L ratios of 2.8 and 5.6 (P<0.05). The feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of juvenile fed the diet with CHO:L ratio of 5.6 were the lowest among all groups (P<0.05). The daily feed intake of juvenile fed the diet with a CHO:L ratio of 5.6 was significantly higher than that of the other groups (P<0.05). The condition factors of juvenile fed the diets with CHO:L ratios of 0.8 and 1.6 were significantly higher than that of 5.6 (P<0.05). The crude lipid content of whole body, liver and viscera of juvenile decreased as the dietary CHO:L ratio increased, and the opposite was found for the moisture content. Weight gain, feed efficiency, daily feed intake, protein efficiency ratio and condition factor of grower were not affected by the dietary CHO:L ratio. Hepatosomatic and viscerasomatic indexes of grower were significantly influenced by dietary CHO:L ratio (P<0.05). Significant differences were observed in the lipid content of whole body and viscera of grower. Dietary CHO:L ratios significantly affected the major fatty acid composition of whole body in both juvenile and grower. The contents of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 linearly decreased as the dietary CHO:L ratio increased, whereas the 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 contents increased. Based on growth, feed efficiency and body composition, the optimal dietary CHO:L ratio was 1.6 for juvenile rockfish fed isonitrogenous (51% CP) and isoenergetic (4.0 kcal g,1) diets, and starch could partially replace lipids in the diets with CHO:L ratios ranging from 0.4 to 5.6 for grower. [source]

Effect of water temperature on the growth performance and digestive enzyme activities of Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris Günther)

Hongyue Zhao
Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of water temperature on the growth performance and digestive enzyme (pepsin, trypsin and lipase) activities of Chinese longsnout catfish. Triplicate groups of Chinese longsnout catfish (35.6±0.48 g, mean±SE) were reared at different water temperatures (20, 24, 28 and 32 °C). The feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) were significantly affected by water temperatures and regression relationships between water temperature and FI, SGR as well as FER were expressed as FR=,0.016T2+0.91T,10.88 (n=12, R2=0.8752), SGR=,0.026T2+1.39T,17.29 (n=12, R2=0.7599) and FER=,0.013T2+0.70T,8.43 (n=12, R2=0.7272). Based on these, the optimum temperatures for FR, SGR and FER were 27.66, 26.69 and 26.44 °C respectively. The specific activities of digestive enzymes at 24 or 28 °C were significantly higher than that at 20 or 32 °C. In addition, there was a significant linear regression between FR or SGR and specific activities of pepsin and lipase, which indicated that pepsin and lipase played important roles in regulating growth through nutrient digestion in Chinese longsnout catfish. [source]

Timing and duration of constant light affects rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth during autumn,spring grow-out in freshwater

John Taylor
Abstract Photoperiod enhancement of growth is becoming an area of increasing interest as a means of enhancing rainbow trout production efficiency in commercial practice. This paper examines the possible implications of shortening periods of constant light (LL) exposure on rainbow trout growth during autumn,spring grow-out under ambient water temperatures in freshwater to portion size. Triplicate groups of juvenile all-female rainbow trout were permanently exposed to LL in October, November, December or January. Growth was monitored and compared with those maintained under a simulated natural photoperiod (SNP) until the following May. Permanent exposure to LL (all treatments) resulted in significantly greater weight gain of rainbow trout than those under SNP. Furthermore, greatest growth was achieved when fish were left permanently exposed to LL from October. These findings suggest there may be implications for fish farmers if the period of photoperiod exposure is reduced, or timing of application is not considered with regards to ambient water temperatures. [source]

Effect of high dietary starch levels on the growth performance, blood chemistry and body composition of gibel carp (Carassius auratus var. gibelio)

Qingsong Tan
Abstract An 8-week growth trial was carried out in a semi-recirculation system to investigate the effect of high dietary starch levels on the growth performance, blood chemistry, starch utilization and body composition of gibel carp (Carassius auratus var. gibelio). Five isonitrogenous and isocarloric experimental diets were formulated to contain different starch levels (24%, 28%, 32%, 36% and 40% respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (24 fish per tank with an average body weight, of 8.5 g) were assigned to each diet. The results showed that dietary carbohydrate levels significantly affected the growth performance, hepatopancreatic lipid content, pyruvate kinase (PK) activity and whole-body lipid content. Growth performance, body crude lipid and plasma glucose concentrations showed a decreasing trend with an increase in dietary starch from 24% to 40%. Pyruvate kinase activities and hepatopancreatic lipid content showed an increasing trend with the dietary starch increasing from 24% to 32%, and then a decreasing trend with the dietary starch increasing from 32% to 40%. No significant difference in the hepatopancreatic hexokinase (HK) activity, plasma triglyceride contents, body crude protein, ash and calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents was observed between different treatments. In conclusion, higher dietary starch levels (32,40%) significantly (P<0.05) decreased the growth of gibel carp in the present study. [source]

Effects of dietary protein and lipid content on growth performance and biological indices of iridescent Shark (Pangasius hypophthalmus, Sauvage 1878) fry

Preeda Phumee
Abstract Dietary protein and lipid effects on growth, body composition and indices of iridescent Shark Pangasius hypophthalmus (Sauvage 1878) fry were studied using a 4 × 2 factorial design. Triplicate groups of 10 fish per tank, with initial mean weights of 3.54,3.85 g were fed eight isocaloric diets comprising a combination of four protein levels (250, 300, 350 and 400 g kg,1 or 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) and two lipid levels (60 and 120 g kg,1 or 6% and 12%) respectively. The fish were hand-fed to satiety twice daily for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed significant effects (P<0.05) with variations in dietary protein and lipid. The highest SGR was observed in fish fed 40% protein/12% lipid diet but this value was not significantly (P>0.05) different from the fish fed 30% protein/12% lipid diet. The FCR was lowest for the 40/12 diet and differed significantly only with the 25/6, 25/12 and 30/6 treatments respectively. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) was significantly affected by the level of protein, but intraperitoneal fat (IPF) showed significant variation due to dietary lipid level. The HSI significantly (P<0.05) decreased when dietary protein increased from 25% to 30% but increased marginally thereafter. The IPF values increased with increased dietary lipid but decreased with increased dietary protein. Body protein was positively correlated with dietary protein content; conversely, body lipid content decreased with increase in dietary protein. The results of this experiment indicate the presence of a protein-sparing effect of lipid as fish fed 30% protein/12% lipid diet had growth and feed utilization comparable to those fed 40% protein/12% lipid diet. [source]

Evaluation of rendered animal protein ingredients for replacement of fish meal in practical diets for gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch)

Menghong Hu
Abstract A 12-week feeding trial was carried out in fibreglass tanks to examine partial replacement of fish meal (FM) with poultry by-product meal (PBM), meat and bone meal (MBM) and blood meal (BM) in practical diets for gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight 15.3 g fish,1) were fed eight isonitrogenous (crude protein: 37.5%) and isolipidic diets (crude lipid: 7%). The control diet is the commercial diet of gibel carp, which used 18% of FM as the sole animal protein source. In the other seven diets (Diet 2,Diet 8), 17,83% of FM protein was substituted by a blend of PBM and BM or a blend of PBM, MBM and BM. The final body weight and thermal-unit growth coefficient of fish fed the feeds in Diet 8 in which 83% of FM protein was replaced by the blend of 3% BM, 10% PBM and 5% MBM is significantly lower than Diet 1 (the control). The feed efficiency ratio in Diet 8 group is significantly lower than Diet 1, 2, 4 and 7 groups. The results of the present study indicated that a combination of PBM, BM and MBM can replace most of the FM protein and the FM level can be reduced to about 6% with satisfactory growth and feed utilization in practical diets for gibel carp. [source]

Feed intake, growth and nutrient utilization in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) fed diets containing a bacterial protein meal

Turid Synnøve Aas
Abstract Triplicate groups of Atlantic halibut were fed diets containing 0%, 9% or 18% of a bacterial protein meal (BPM) produced from natural gas in a 9-week trial. Growth rates, relative feed intake, feed efficiency ratio and retention of all indispensable amino acids were significantly lower in fish fed the 18% BPM diets than in those fed the 0% and 9% BPM diets. There were no significant treatment effects on urea levels in plasma, liver or muscle, or in uric acid levels in plasma. The hepatosomatic index was lowest in fish fed the 18% BPM diet. Although the concentration of copper, an element abundant in BPM, increased in the liver as dietary BPM level increased, the total copper content in liver decreased. Fish fed the 0% and 9% BPM diets had a higher degree of supranuclear vacuolization of pyloric caeca and mid-intestine epithelia compared with fish fed the 18% BPM diet. In conclusion, the halibut fed the 9% BPM diet performed equally well as the control group regarding growth, feed intake and feed efficiency ratio, whereas performance was reduced in the fish fed the 18% BPM diet. [source]

Effects of dietary l -carnitine supplements on growth and body composition in beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles

M. Mohseni
Summary The effects of dietary l -carnitine on growth performance, whole body composition and feed utilization were studied in beluga, Huso huso. Fish were randomly allocated in 15 tanks (30 fish per tank) and triplicate groups were fed to satiety during 84 days one of five isonitrogenous (41% CP) and isoenergetic (20 MJ kg,1) diets, each differing in l -carnitine content [0 (control), 300, 600, 900 and 1200 mg kg,1 diet]. At the end of the trial, fish grew from 19- to 23-fold in weight, from 8.4 g to a maximum of 191 g. Fish fed 300,600 mg l -carnitine had the highest specific growth rate (SGR, 3.69 and 3.72% day,1) and protein efficiency ratio (PER, 0.95 and 0.99), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR, 1.4 and 1.3) than the other groups (P < 0.0001). SGR, PER and FCR were the poorest for fish fed 1200 mg l -carnitine, while fish fed the unsupplemented and 900 mg l -carnitine supplemented diet showed intermediate performance. Body lipid concentration decreased significantly from 5.8 to 5.1% (P < 0.0001) with dietary l -carnitine supplementation increasing from 0 to 300 mg. Energy content was significantly lower in fish fed the 900 and 1200 mg l -carnitine diet (5.8 MJ kg,1), when compared with the other treatment groups (6.4,6.6 MJ kg,1). The results indicated that feeding sturgeon on diets supplemented with 300 mg l -carnitine kg,1 diet improved growth performance, and stimulated protein-sparing effects from lipids. [source]

Effects of Dietary Lipids on Growth and Feed Utilization of Jade Perch, Scortum barcoo

Li Ping Song
To examine the effects of dietary lipids on the growth and feed utilization of jade perch juveniles, Scortum barcoo, diets containing 36.3% crude protein supplemented with increasing lipid levels (6, 9, 12, and 15% of the dry matter) were used to feed triplicate groups of 30 fish for 60 d. At the end of the experiment, more than 95% fish survived well from all diet groups (P > 0.05). Measurements on the weight gains and the daily specific growth rates indicated that fish fed with diets of 12 and 15% lipids exhibited higher growth rates (P < 0.05); evaluations for the feed conversion ratio and the protein efficiency ratio indicated that fish fed with 12 and 15% lipid diets used their feed and dietary proteins more efficiently (P < 0.05). The muscle lipid and dry matter contents increased dramatically in fish fed with higher dietary lipid levels (P < 0.05). The highest lipid contents were obtained from fish in the 15% lipid diet group and the highest amount of dry matters from the 12% lipid diet group. On the other hand, protein contents in fish muscles declined with increasing dietary lipid levels (P < 0.05), and the lowest values were shown in the 15% lipid diet group. Ash contents showed no significant differences from muscles of fish fed with four different diets (P > 0.05). Together, increasing lipid levels in fish diets was effective to improve fish growth, feed efficiency, and protein utilization. [source]

Effects of Restricted Feeding Regimes on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Gilthead Sea Bream, Sparus aurata

Orhan Tufan Eroldo
The effect of restricted feeding on growth, feed efficiency, and body composition was studied in juveniles of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Juveniles (6.4 g) were stocked into 12 tanks at a density of 16 fish per tank. Four different feeding schedules were tested on triplicate groups of juvenile fish: (1) control fed for 48 d without deprivation, (2) starvation for 1 d and then refed for 2 d (S1), (3) 50% satiation for 2 d and then refed to apparent satiation for 2 d (R2), and (4) 50% satiation for 6 d and then refed to apparent satiation for another 6 d (R6). Results indicated that all fish subjected to cycled restricted feeding regimes were unable to achieve catching up with control group. The specific growth rate of fish in the control was significantly higher than those in S1, R2, and R6, which were not significantly different from each other. Protein efficiency and protein productive value were significantly higher in R2 compared to control, S1, and R6. Fish in R2 had lowest feed conversion ratio (1.12) compared to the control (1.17). Body protein composition in R6 was less than that of the control, S1, and R2, while moisture, lipid, and ash content were not significantly different compared to the control. [source]

Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance and whole body composition of summerling and winterling spotted barbel (Hemibarbus maculates Bleeker)

Abstract Six test diets with protein levels varying from 250 to 500 g kg,1 were fed to six triplicate groups of summerling (initial weight: 1.56 g) and seven test diets with protein levels varying from 200 to 500 g kg,1 were fed to seven triplicate groups of winterling (initial weight: 9.49 g) for 8 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) of summerling significantly increased with increasing dietary protein levels from 250 to 350 g kg,1 and slightly declined, but without statistical significance at a dietary protein level of 400 g kg,1, then further significantly decreased with increasing protein levels to 450 and 500 g kg,1; WG of winterling increased significantly with increasing dietary protein levels from 200 to 300 g kg,1 (P < 0.05), and above this level, WG had a tendency to decrease with increasing dietary protein levels. Winterling fed diets with 300 and 400 g kg,1 of dietary protein had significantly higher FE than those fed other diets. WG data analysis by quadratic regressions showed that the optimum dietary protein levels required for the maximum growth of summerling and winterling were 374 and 355 g kg,1 of dry diet respectively. Protein efficiency ratio of both summerling and winterling negatively correlated with levels of dietary protein. The whole body moisture, protein, lipid and ash of summerling after being fed various test diets for 8 weeks were significantly different among treatments (P < 0.05). The whole body moisture and fat of winterling were also significantly affected by dietary protein levels (P < 0.05), while the whole body protein and ash of winterling were not (P > 0.05). [source]

The interactive effects of dietary protein and energy on feed intake, growth and protein utilization of juvenile mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus)

Abstract The objectives of this study were to describe the interactive effects of varying digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) contents on the feed intake, growth, protein utilization and whole body composition of juvenile mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) and to determine the optimal DP : DE ratio for growth. This was achieved by feeding mulloway diets containing one of four different DP levels (250,550 g kg,1) at two DE levels (16 or 21 MJ kg,1). Juvenile mulloway were stocked at each of two different sizes (70 or 200 g) in triplicate groups for each dietary treatment and fed twice daily to apparent satiation over 58 days. The results indicated that feed intake was not governed solely by energy demands but was also dependant on the DP content of the diet. Protein utilization did not improve with diets containing decreasing protein and increasing lipid content indicating that mulloway have a limited capacity to spare DP. Optimal DP content was found to be 444,491 g kg,1 depending on the DE content of the diet and the size of mulloway and is within the range reported for other sciaenid species. The use of formulated diets with 28.6 g of DP MJ DE,1 will achieve optimal growth and protein deposition for 70,275 g mulloway. [source]

A dietary energy level of 14.6 MJ kg,1 and protein-to-energy ratio of 20.2 g MJ,1 results in best growth performance and nutrient accretion in silver barb Puntius gonionotus fingerlings

Abstract Five iso-nitrogenous (300 g protein kg,1 diet) and iso-lipidic (80 g kg,1 diet) semi-purified experimental diets with variable energy levels of 10.5 (D-1), 12.5 (D-2), 14.6 (D-3), 16.7 (D-4) and 18.8 (D-5) MJ kg,1 diets were fed to Puntius gonionotus fingerlings (average weight 1.79 ± 0.02 g) in triplicate groups (15 healthy fishes per replicate) for a period of 90 days to assess the optimum dietary energy level and protein-to-energy ratio (P/E). Fifteen flow-through cement tanks of 100 L capacity with a flow rate of 0.5 L min,1 were used for rearing the fish. Maximum specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive value, RNA : DNA ratio, whole body protein content, digestive enzyme activity and minimum feed conversion ratio was found in fish-fed diet D-3 with 14.6 MJ kg,1 energy level. There were no improvements in all these parameters with the further rise in dietary energy level. Hence, it may be concluded that the optimum dietary gross energy level for maximum growth and nutrient utilization of silver barb is 14.6 MJ kg,1 diet with a resultant P/E ratio of 20.2 g protein MJ,1 diet, when the dietary protein and lipid are maintained at optimum requirement levels of 300 and 80 g kg,1 diet, respectively, for this species. [source]

Dietary intake of probiotics and maslinic acid in juvenile dentex (Dentex dentex L.): effects on growth performance, survival and liver proteolytic activities

Abstract Two feeding trials were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of probiotics and maslinic acid, on growth and survival of juvenile dentex; liver proteolytic activities were also investigated in the second trial. For experiment 1, triplicate groups were fed six diets with two probiotics (Bacillus toyoi, T, and B. cereus, E) at increasing levels (0.5, 1 and 2 g kg,1 diet) and a control diet. Growth and feed conversion were not significantly influenced by the probiotics. The diet T1 produced the lower mortality, whereas diet E1 rendered the higher mortality. It was concluded that no significant effects on growth and survival were found following the addition of two kinds of probiotics to dentex diets. However, the diet E0.5 showed a tendency to ameliorate the growth and feed utilization of the diet. In a second trial, triplicate groups were fed four diets with increasing levels of maslinic acid (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg,1 diet). Growth of fish given diets with the highest level of maslinic acid (D80) was slightly but not significantly lower than those from the other groups. Furthemore, mortality of fish fed diet D40 was the lowest. Changes in liver proteasome and endoprotease activities measured on sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)/gelatin gels were also detected in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that a dietary maslinic acid at a level of 80 mg kg,1 diet seems to be too high for juvenile dentex to maintain a maximal growth and survival rate. [source]

Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone

Qihui Yang
Abstract Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM), crude protein, crude lipid, gross energy, phosphorus and amino acids in Peruvian fish meal (FM), fermented soybean meal, extruded soybean meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, wheat gluten meal, corn gluten meal, shrimp byproduct meal, meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry meat meal and plasma protein meal (PPM) were determined for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). A reference diet (RF) and test diets (consisting of 70% RF diet and 30% of the feedstuff) were used with 0.5% chromic oxide as an external indicator. A total of 1440 shrimp (initial mean body weight 1.05 ± 0.01 g) were randomly stocked into thirty-six 500-L fibreglass tanks with 40 shrimp per tank and three tanks per diet. Faeces were collected from triplicate groups of shrimp by a faecal collection vessel attached to the shrimp-rearing tank. The shrimp were fed to apparent satiation four times a day and the feeding experiment lasted for 6 weeks. Statistics indicate that apparent DM digestibilities for white shrimp (L. vannamei) were the highest for FM, ranged 52.83,71.23% for other animal products and 69.98,77.10% for plant products. The protein and lipid from plant and animal sources were well digested by white shrimp. Apparent protein and lipid digestibility were in the range 87.89,93.18% and 91.57,95.28%, respectively, in plant products, and 75.00,92.34% and 83.72,92.79%, respectively, for animal products. The white shrimp demonstrated a high capacity to utilize phosphorus in the ingredients. The apparent phosphorus digestibility ranges of animal feedstuffs and plant feedstuffs were 58.90,71.61% and 75.77,82.30% respectively. Amino acid availability reflected protein digestibility, except that in MBM, for which the availability of some amino acid was lower, possibly due to protein damage during processing. Digestibility information could promote the use of ingredient substitution in least-cost formulated diets for white shrimp. [source]

Carbohydrate level in the diet of silver barb, Puntius gonionotus (Bleeker) fingerlings: effect on growth, nutrient utilization and whole body composition

Kedar Nath Mohanta
Abstract Five iso-nitrogenous (300 g crude protein kg,1 diet) semi-purified diets with graded levels of carbohydrate at 220 (D-1), 260 (D-2), 300 (D-3), 340 (D-4) and 380 (D-5) g kg,1 diet were fed ad libitum to Puntius gonionotus fingerlings (average weight 0.59±0.01 g) in triplicate groups (20 fish replicate,1) for a period of 90 days to determine the effect of the dietary carbohydrate level on the growth, nutrient utilization, digestibility, gut enzyme activity and whole-body composition of fish. Fifteen flow-through cement tanks of 100 L capacity with a flow rate of 0.5 L min,1 were used for rearing the fish. The maximum weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, RNA:DNA ratio, whole-body protein content, protease activity, protein and energy digestibility and minimum feed conversion ratio (FCR) were found in the D-2 group fed with 260 g carbohydrate kg,1 diet. The highest protein and energy retention was also recorded in the same group. However, from the second-order polynomial regression analysis, the maximum growth and nutrient utilization of P. gonionotus fingerlings was 291.3,298.3 g carbohydrate kg,1 diet at a dietary protein level of 300 g kg,1 with a protein/energy (P/E) ratio of 20.58 ,20.75 g protein MJ,1. [source]

Evaluation of pea protein isolate as alternative protein source in diets for juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Carsten Schulz
Abstract To evaluate isolated pea protein as feed ingredient for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles, triplicate groups were fed with four isonitrogenous [crude protein: 421.1,427.5 g kg,1 in dry matter (d.m.)] and isoenergetic (gross energy: 20.46,21.06 MJ kg,1 d.m.) diets with varying protein sources for 8 weeks. Fish meal-based protein content of diets was substituted with 0% (diet 100/0=control group), 30% (diet 70/30), 45% (diet 55/45) and 60% (diet 40/60) isolated pea protein. Tilapia juveniles with an initial body weight of 2.23,2.27 g were fed in average at a level of 5% of their body weight per day. Highest individual weight gain (WG: 21.39 g) and specific growth rate (SGR: 4.21% day,1) and best feed conversion ratio (FCR: 0.90) were observed in tilapia fed diet 100/0, followed by fish-fed diet 70/30 (WG: 19.09 g; SGR: 4.03% day,1; FCR: 0.98), diet 55/45 (WG: 16.69 g; SGR: 3.80% day,1; FCR: 1.06) and diet 40/60 (WG: 16.18 g; SGR: 3.74% day,1; FCR: 1.06). Although fish fed diet 100/0 showed the best performance, inclusion of 30% protein derived from pea protein isolate resulted in a growth performance (in terms of WG and SGR) that did not differ significantly from diet 100/0 in contrast to fish fed diet 55/45 and 40/60. Crude ash content in the final body composition of the experimental fish decreased with increasing dietary pea protein content, while crude protein and lipid content remained equal between the groups. Significant decreasing growth performance and body ash incorporation of tilapia at higher inclusion levels seem to be mainly related to the dietary amino acid profile and phytic acid contents. [source]

Nutritive value of partially dehulled and extruded sunflower meal for post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in sea water

Navneet Gill
Abstract This study determined the digestibility of protein in partially dehulled sunflower meal (SFM) and then, as the main goal, the nutritive value of high-temperature extruded (,149°C) partially dehulled SFM (SFMEX) for post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in sea water. The digestibility study was conducted using the settling column approach (,Guelph system') for faeces collection as described by Hajen, Higgs, Beames and Dosanjh. In the nutritive value study, triplicate groups of 50 salmon (mean weight ,116 g) in 4000-L outdoor fibreglass tanks supplied with 25,40 L min,1, filtered, oxygenated (dissolved oxygen, 7.0,8.5 mg L,1), 11,12°C sea water (salinity, 29,31 g L,1), were fed twice daily to satiation one of five steam-pelleted dry diets that contained 422 g of digestible protein (DP) kg,1 and ,16.4 MJ of digestible energy (DE) kg,1 on a dry weight basis for 84 days. Low-temperature-dried anchovy meal (LT-AM) comprised 68.2% of the basal diet protein whereas in four test diets, SFMEX progressively replaced up to 33.0% of the DP provided by LT-AM in the basal diet (SFMEX,271 g kg,1 of dry matter). Sunflower meal had 87.9% DP. Diet treatment did not significantly affect specific growth rate (1.39,1.45% day,1), feed efficiency (1.19,1.26), percentage of dietary protein retained (45.8,47.5), gross energy utilization (46.5,49.4%), per cent survival (96.0,99.3) or terminal whole body and muscle proximate compositions. We conclude that SFMEX can comprise ,271 g kg,1 of the dry diet or ,22.7% of the digestible dietary protein of post-smolt Atlantic salmon in seawater without any adverse effects on their performance. [source]