Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Triangle

  • equilateral triangle
  • koch triangle
  • posterior triangle
  • ward triangle

  • Terms modified by Triangle

  • triangle mesh
  • triangle test

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    An Unlikely Triangle: Philanthropists, Commissars, and American Statesmanship Meet in Soviet Crimea, 1922,37

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 3 2003
    Jonathan Dekel-Chen
    First page of article [source]

    The drug situation in Thailand: the role of government and the police

    Abstract Thailand has long dealt with the drug problem and has used several strategies to control it, including promulgating and amending drug laws, implementing drug suppression and prevention policies, cooperating with international organizations and, more recently, developing treatment facilities. Although Thailand has recently received positive results regarding reducing the opium cultivation area in the Golden Triangle and in arresting some major drug-trafficking individuals, three important issues still remain: (1) the continuation of using Thailand's advanced transportation system for the movement of illicit drug activities, (2) the rapid increase of amphetamine use among teenagers and (3) the Thai police officers' lack of concern about the drug problem and insufficient knowledge about drug laws. The article concludes that the Thai government must emphasize drug prevention strategies and the interception of illicit transported drugs and motivate its police officers to more fully enforce drug laws. In addition, more research is needed to measure the effectiveness of the drug prevention strategies and treatment programs. [source]

    Marketisation in Higher Education, Clark's Triangle and the Essential Ingredients of Markets

    Ben Jongbloed
    While government intervention in the higher education market may be justified, it may come at the cost of lower consumer sovereignty and restricted producer autonomy. Through marketisation policy, students and higher education providers have more room to make their own trade-offs and interact more closely on the basis of reliable information. This article discusses eight conditions for a market and the extent to which these are met in Dutch higher education. It is argued that there is still a key role for the government to co-design framework conditions and facilitate interaction in a more demand-driven and liberalised higher education sector. [source]

    Global City Frontiers: Singapore's Hinterland and the Contested Socio-political Geographies of Bintan, Indonesia

    During the 1980s, Singapore's policy-makers perceived that the continued expansion of the Singapore economy required more spaces and workers beyond the 680-square-kilometre territorial limits of the city-state. While planning to extend these limits through further land reclamation, Singapore also began to foster economic cooperation with regional neighbours, most famously in the form of a so-called Growth Triangle incorporating proximate areas of Malaysia and Indonesia. The empirical focus of this article is on the tourist enclave developed on the Indonesian island of Bintan, a 45-minute ferry ride from Singapore. This enclave embodies complex re-territorializations. We specify how, despite a decade of re-fashioning zones of Bintan into quasi-enclaves and the literal and metaphorical cultivation of a tourist haven, other claims on these transfrontier zones resurfaced in the form of resistances and struggles over the terms of access to land and resources. It is argued that the trajectory of Bintan is symptomatic of wider transformations and epitomizes new configurations of sovereignty, urbanity and ,gated globalism'. [source]

    Distinguishing between the nests of sympatric chimpanzees and gorillas

    Summary 1Our current inability to estimate precisely the population sizes of chimpanzees and gorillas across much of the Congo Basin has been detrimental to the development of conservation strategies for the preservation of these endangered apes. Systematic counts of nests are currently the most commonly used method to estimate ape abundance, but distinguishing between the nests of sympatric chimpanzees and gorillas has proven to be an enduring obstacle to estimating species-specific abundance. In general, the builder of more than 75% of nests recorded during surveys is undetermined. We hypothesized that sleeping habits and nest building patterns would allow us to differentiate between the nests of these apes. 2We constructed a predictive model using stepwise discriminant function analysis to determine characteristics that accurately distinguished between chimpanzee and gorilla nests. We analysed 13 variables associated with 3425 ape nests from three independent surveys conducted in the Goualougo Triangle of the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo. 3The model correctly classified more than 90% of nests in our validation subsample. Nest height, nest type, forest type and understorey closure were identified as important variables for distinguishing between chimpanzee and gorilla nests at this site. Attributing nests to either species increased the precision of resulting density estimates, which enhanced the statistical power to detect trends in population fluctuation. 4Although specific variables may differ between study sites, we have demonstrated that predictive models to distinguish between the nests of sympatric chimpanzee and gorillas provide a promising approach to improving the quality of ape survey data. 5Synthesis and applications. Our study introduces an innovative solution to the dilemma of discriminating between the nests of sympatric chimpanzees and gorillas, which increases the specificity and precision of resulting ape abundance estimates. There is an urgent need to improve methods to evaluate and monitor remaining ape populations across western and central Africa that are experiencing the imminent threats of emergent diseases, poaching and expanding human development. Increasing the quality of density estimates from field survey data will aid in the development of local conservation initiatives, national strategies and international policies on behalf of remaining ape populations. [source]

    Diversity, endemism and evolution in the Coral Triangle

    J. C. Briggs
    Abstract In a recent paper by D. R. Bellwood and C. P. Meyer (,Searching for heat in a marine biodiversity hotspot', Journal of Biogeography, 2009, 36, 569,576), the authors had two evident objectives: (1) to disprove the theory that the geographical origins of reef organisms could be determined by locating concentrations of endemic species, and (2) to emphasize that the high diversity of the Coral Triangle was due to an accumulation of species from outside that area. With regard to the first point, no such theory had previously been proposed to my knowledge. Second, the accumulation theory was promoted without consideration of the facts supporting the centre of origin hypothesis, except to dismiss it by saying that it had its origin in pre-continental drift ideas. This short response outlines the properties and evidence for the operation of centres of origin in this region. [source]

    Demography of lions in relation to prey and habitat in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya

    J. O. Ogutu
    Abstract We studied lion demography in the Maasai Mara National Reserve between September 1990 and April 1992, with a special emphasis on the spatial and seasonal variation in demographic characteristics. Lion density (0.2,0.4 lions km,2) and pride size (range 8,48) were high because of a high resident prey biomass (10 335 kg km,2) augmented by migrant prey to 26 092 kg km,2 in the dry season. Overall, their sex ratio was almost at parity and varied neither spatially nor seasonally. Sex ratio was even among subadults but skewed toward males and females among cubs and adults, respectively. This implies an increasing differential mortality of males with age through subadulthood. The age ratio varied seasonally because of a birth peak in March,June and an influx of subadults into the reserve during July,August, coincident with increases in migrant prey. The birth peak was apparently preceded by another peak in mating activity falling between November and May. Further research should investigate the precise causes of the biased cub sex ratio, low lion density in the Mara Triangle and the higher ratio of subadults in Musiara than in the Mara Triangle or Sekenani. Résumé Nous avons étudié la démographie des lions dans la Réserve Nationale de Masai Mara entre septembre 1990 et avril 1992, en insistant particulièrement sur les variations spatiales et saisonnières des caractéristiques démographiques. La densité des lions (0.2,;0.4 lions/km2) et la taille des troupes (de 8 à 48) étaient élevées en raison de la forte biomasse des proies résidentes (10 335 kg/km2), portée à 26 092 kg/km2 en saison sèche par les proies migratrices. En général, le sex-ratio était à peu près égal et ne variait ni selon les saisons, ni selon les endroits. Les sex-ratio était égal parmi les sub-adultes, mais il déviait en faveur des mâles et des femelles chez les petits et les adultes, respectivement. Ceci implique une mortalité de plus en plus différentielle des mâles à l'âge sub-adulte. L'âge-ratio variait avec les saisons en raison d'un pic de natalité de mars à juin et d'une arrivée de sub-adultes dans la réserve en juillet-août, coïncidant avec l'augmentation des proies migratrices. Le pic des naissances était apparemment précédé par un autre pic des activités d'accouplement, entre novembre et mai. De nouvelles recherches devraient étudier les raisons précises du sex-ratio biaisé chez les lionceaux, de la faible densité des lions dans le Mara Triangle et du taux de sub-adultes plus élevéà Musiara que dans le Mara Triangle ou à Sekenani. [source]

    A patient follow-up survey programme for alosetron: assessing compliance to and effectiveness of the risk management programme

    Summary Background In November 2002, alosetron HCl (Lotronex, GlaxoSmithKline Research Triangle Park, NC, USA) was re-introduced to the US marketplace for women with severe diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. In support of the re-introduction, a risk management programme was implemented, which included a patient follow-up study in which all users of alosetron could participate. Aim We report on the methods used and the effectiveness of key elements of the risk management programme. Methods Patients voluntarily enroled in the study and completed questionnaires at baseline, after 5 and 10 weeks, and quarterly thereafter. Questions focussed on patient eligibility, knowledge of risks and benefits, and adherence to the recommended programme elements for education, prescribing and dispensing. Results Between December 2002 and 2004, 4803 patients enrolled in the study, and <3% were lost to follow-up. The average follow-up time was approximately 6 months, and the response rate for each assessment was >95%. A total of 90% of patients at baseline met the full clinical criteria recommended for the treatment. Patient adherence to the risk management programme was >87%. Conclusions Using the Lotronex risk management programme, patients met clinical criteria, were knowledgeable about treatment risks and benefits, and were adherent to the process elements of the programme. These patients seemed to engage in active dialogue with their physicians about symptoms and use of alosetron. [source]

    Atrial Activation Sequence During Junctional Tachycardia Induced by Thermal Stimulation of Koch's Triangle in Canine Blood-Perfused Atrioventricular Node Preparation

    IWASA, A., et al.: Atrial Activation Sequence During Junctional Tachycardia Induced by Thermal Stimulation of Koch's Triangle in Canine Blood-Perfused Atrioventricular Node Preparation. Junctional tachycardia is observed during radiofrequency ablation of the slow pathway. The authors investigated the atrial activation sequence during junctional tachycardia induced with thermal stimulation in canine blood-perfused atrioventricular node (AVN) preparation. The canine heart was isolated (n = 7) and cross-circulated with heparinized arterial blood of the support dog. The activation sequence in the region of Koch's triangle (15 × 21 mm) was determined by recording 48 unipolar electrograms. Atrial sites anterior to the coronary sinus ostium (site AN), close to the His-potential recording site (site N) and superior to site N (site F), were subjected to a continuous temperature rise from 38°C to 50°C with a heating probe. The temperature of the tissue adjacent to the heating site was monitored simultaneously. Junctional tachycardia at a rate of 92 ± 12 beats/min with the His potential preceding the atrial one in the His-bundle electrogram was induced during thermal stimulation at site AN (temperature 42.1°C ± 0.9°C) in all seven preparations, whereas junctional tachycardia was induced during stimulation at site N in one and at site F in none. In each case, the temperature rose only at the site of stimulation. The earliest activation site during junctional tachycardia induced by site AN stimulation was at the His-potential recording site in five preparations and the middle of Koch's triangle in the other two. After creating an obstacle between sites AN and N, atrial tachycardia at a rate of 85 ± 11 beats/min was induced during site AN stimulation. The earliest activation site during this tachycardia was site AN. Thus, junctional tachycardia induced by thermal stimulation was suggested to originate from the AN thermal stimulation site. The impulse from the stimulation site appeared to conduct via the posterior input to the compact AVN and junctional tachycardia was generated. When the posterior input was interrupted, atrial tachycardia was generated. [source]

    Chimpanzees prey on army ants with specialized tool set

    Crickette M. Sanz
    Abstract Several populations of chimpanzees have been reported to prey upon Dorylus army ants. The most common tool-using technique to gather these ants is with "dipping" probes, which vary in length with regard to aggressiveness and lifestyle of the prey species. We report the use of a tool set in army ant predation by chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo. We recovered 1,060 tools used in this context and collected 25 video recordings of chimpanzee tool-using behavior at ant nests. Two different types of tools were distinguished based on their form and function. The chimpanzees use a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, and then a herb stem as a dipping tool to harvest the ants. All of the species of ants preyed upon in Goualougo are present and consumed by chimpanzees at other sites, but there are no other reports of such a regular or widespread use of more than one type of tool to prey upon Dorylus ants. Furthermore, this tool set differs from other types of tool combinations used by chimpanzees at this site for preying upon termites or gathering honey. Therefore, we conclude that these chimpanzees have developed a specialized method for preying upon army ants, which involves the use of an additional tool for opening nests. Further research is needed to determine which specific ecological and social factors may have shaped the emergence and maintenance of this technology. Am. J. Primatol. 72:17,24, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    New Polynesian Triangle: Rethinking Polynesian migration and development in the Pacific

    Manuhuia Barcham
    Abstract For many Polynesians migration is still framed within a particular spatial context, although on an enlarged scale , one that we have termed the New Polynesian Triangle. With its apexes in the North American continent to the east, Australia in the west and New Zealand in the south, this New Polynesian Triangle encompasses a particular field through which ongoing Polynesian migration and movement continues to occur. Movement within this New Polynesian Triangle is both multidimensional and multidirectional. While it is the movement of economic resources, particularly remittances, that has captured the interest of many agencies operating in the region, we argue that such economic flows are integrally linked with other flows , of goods, ideas, skills and culture , to form a single dynamic system of movement. Importantly, such flows are not uni-directional (from ,rich' to ,poor' countries) as was assumed in times past. In developing ideas on the New Polynesian Triangle, we wish to move away from the dominant Western discourse of the Pacific Ocean as a barrier to development and movement and towards the reclamation of the ocean as a conduit and source of connection and movement for Pacific peoples. [source]

    The Rationale, Prospects, and Challenges of China's Western Economic Triangle in Light of Global Economic Crisis

    Hong Yu
    The proposals to develop the Western Economic Triangle (WET) region into the fourth growth pole in China are ambitious; realization will be problematic. Although the local governments are overwhelmingly optimistic regarding future development, it is very unlikely that this region can become as powerful and vibrant as the eastern growth engines in the near future. Implementation of the proposals faces at least two serious challenges. First, the WET region has historically suffered from poor accessibility due to backward interregional transportation facilities. Second, the WET region is governed by three different administrative municipalities. The inherent lack of regional integration and coordination will restrict industrial cooperation within this region. [source]

    An Asian Triangle: India's Relationship With China and Japan

    Terence Roehrig
    Many studies of Asia's future have focused on the shifting power relationships in the region, particularly between China, Japan, and India. A prominent part of this debate is India's rise and potential role as a balancer in the evolving strategic relationships in the region. This article examines India's relations with these two Asian powers and argues that India is unlikely to play the role of balancer unless relations between China and Japan deteriorate significantly. Instead, India may be well situated to act as a stabilizer, not only between China and Japan but also between the United States and China, should tension escalate in the region. [source]

    Adaptive Implicit Surface Polygonization Using Marching Triangles

    Samir Akkouche
    This paper presents several improvements to the marching triangles algorithm for general implicit surfaces. The original method generates equilateral triangles of constant size almost everywhere on the surface. We present several modifications to adapt the size of the triangles to the curvature of the surface. As cracks may arise in the resulting polygonization, we propose a specific crack-closing method invoked at the end of the mesh growing step. Eventually, we show that the marching triangles can be used as an incremental meshing technique in an interactive modeling environment. In contrast to existing incremental techniques based on spatial subdvision, no extra data-structure is needed to incrementally edit skeletal implicit surfaces, which saves both memory and computation time. [source]

    Homosocial Desire on the Final Frontier: Kinship, the American Romance, and Deep Space Nine's "Erotic Triangles"

    Lincoln Geraghty
    The Star Trek mission, to go where no one has gone before, has returned us to our own inner spaces. One could see the latest question raised by explorations in terms of how to respond when confronted by an awareness of irreducible difference concerning that which bounds and blinds individuals however they are conceived of and wherever they are. (Blair 1997, 88) [source]

    Coupling Dy3 Triangles Enhances Their Slow Magnetic Relaxation,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 36 2010

    Zwei mal drei: Die Kupplung zweier Dy3 -Dreiecke zu einem Dy6 -Komplex (siehe Bild; Dy,blau, Cl,grün, O,rot) erhöht die Barriere für die Magnetisierungsumkehr erheblich. Dieser Effekt wurde auf der Grundlage von Einkristallmagnetometrie-Messungen und Ab-initio-Rechnungen erklärt. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: La3Cu2VO9: A Surprising Variation on the YAlO3 Structure-Type with 2D Copper Clusters of Embedded Triangles.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 43 2001
    Douglas A. Vander Griend
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Coherence aware GPU-based ray casting for virtual colonoscopy

    Taek Hee Lee
    Abstract In this paper, we propose a GPU-based volume ray casting for virtual colonoscopy to generate high-quality rendering images with a large screen size. Using the temporal coherence for ray casting, the empty space leaping can be efficiently done by reprojecting first-hit points of the previous frame; however, these approaches could produce artifacts such as holes or illegal starting positions due to the insufficient resolution of first-hit points. To eliminate these artifacts, we use a triangle mesh of first-hit points and check the intersection of each triangle with the corresponding real surface. Illegal starting positions can be avoided by replacing a false triangle cutting the real surface with five newly generated triangles. The proposed algorithm is best fit to the recent GPU architecture with Shader Model 4.0 which supports not only fast rasterization of a triangle mesh but also many flexible vertex operations. Experimental results on ATI 2900 with DirectX10 show perspective volume renderings of over 24fps on 1024,×,1024 screen size without any loss of image quality. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A fast triangle to triangle intersection test for collision detection

    Oren Tropp
    Abstract The triangle-to-triangle intersection test is a basic component of all collision detection data structures and algorithms. This paper presents a fast method for testing whether two triangles embedded in three dimensions intersect. Our technique solves the basic sets of linear equations associated with the problem and exploits the strong relations between these sets to speed up their solution. Moreover, unlike previous techniques, with very little additional cost, the exact intersection coordinates can be determined. Finally, our technique uses general principles that can be applied to similar problems such as rectangle-to-rectangle intersection tests, and generally to problems where several equation sets are strongly related. We show that our algorithm saves about 20% of the mathematical operations used by the best previous triangle-to-triangle intersection algorithm. Our experiments also show that it runs 18.9% faster than the fastest previous algorithm on average for typical scenarios of collision detection (on Pentium 4). Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Advanced techniques for interactive visualization of multi-resolution meshes,

    Markus Grabner
    Abstract This paper addresses the problem of interactive visualization of multi-resolution triangle meshes. Visible switching between different levels of detail is avoided by smoothly interpolating mesh geometry between different levels. The interpolation parameter is derived from the screen-space geometric error of the affected mesh region instead of assigning a fixed time to the transition. The shortcomings of straightforward frame rate control mechanisms (i.e., overshooting and oscillation) are avoided by a semi-predictive algorithm. The average rendering time per triangle is measured and used to determine the desired number of faces. A set of experiments demonstrates the advantages of both methods. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Local/Global Approach to Mesh Parameterization

    Ligang Liu
    Abstract We present a novel approach to parameterize a mesh with disk topology to the plane in a shape-preserving manner. Our key contribution is a local/global algorithm, which combines a local mapping of each 3D triangle to the plane, using transformations taken from a restricted set, with a global "stitch" operation of all triangles, involving a sparse linear system. The local transformations can be taken from a variety of families, e.g. similarities or rotations, generating different types of parameterizations. In the first case, the parameterization tries to force each 2D triangle to be an as-similar-as-possible version of its 3D counterpart. This is shown to yield results identical to those of the LSCM algorithm. In the second case, the parameterization tries to force each 2D triangle to be an as-rigid-as-possible version of its 3D counterpart. This approach preserves shape as much as possible. It is simple, effective, and fast, due to pre-factoring of the linear system involved in the global phase. Experimental results show that our approach provides almost isometric parameterizations and obtains more shape-preserving results than other state-of-the-art approaches. We present also a more general "hybrid" parameterization model which provides a continuous spectrum of possibilities, controlled by a single parameter. The two cases described above lie at the two ends of the spectrum. We generalize our local/global algorithm to compute these parameterizations. The local phase may also be accelerated by parallelizing the independent computations per triangle. [source]

    Are Points the Better Graphics Primitives?

    Markus Gross
    Since the early days of graphics the computer based representation of three-dimensional geometry has been one of the core research fields. Today, various sophisticated geometric modelling techniques including NURBS or implicit surfaces allow the creation of 3D graphics models with increasingly complex shape. In spite of these methods the triangle has survived over decades as the king of graphics primitives meeting the right balance between descriptive power and computational burden. As a consequence, today's consumer graphics hardware is heavily tailored for high performance triangle processing. In addition, a new generation of geometry processing methods including hierarchical representations, geometric filtering, or feature detection fosters the concept of triangle meshes for graphics modelling. Unlike triangles, points have amazingly been neglected as a graphics primitive. Although being included in APIs since many years, it is only recently that point samples experience a renaissance in computer graphics. Conceptually, points provide a mere discretization of geometry without explicit storage of topology. Thus, point samples reduce the representation to the essentials needed for rendering and enable us to generate highly optimized object representations. Although the loss of topology poses great challenges for graphics processing, the latest generation of algorithms features high performance rendering, point/pixel shading, anisotropic texture mapping, and advanced signal processing of point sampled geometry. This talk will give an overview of how recent research results in the processing of triangles and points are changing our traditional way of thinking of surface representations in computer graphics - and will discuss the question: Are Points the Better Graphics Primitives? [source]

    Modified Burow's Wedge Flap for Upper Lateral Lip Defects

    Minh Dang MD
    Background. There are fundamental concepts we use in managing surgical defects. Whether planning a primary closure or a local flap, we frequently modify the basic design to maximize aesthetic outcomes, taking into consideration a number of factors including the location of the defect and tissue availability. Objective. We describe a modified Burow's wedge flap for upper lateral lip defects. Method. Report of an illustrated case. Result. A patient with an upper lip defect was successfully reconstructed using the modified Burow's wedge flap, where the Burrow's wedge is placed on the mucocutaneous lip. Conclusion. Certain modifications of commonly used reconstructive techniques can be utilized in specific situations to enhance cosmesis. For the Burow's wedge flap, the dermatologic surgeon has several options in placing the Burow's triangle. This is an example of how alternatives in a closure can be used depending on the laxity of the skin and the size of the defect. Advantages and disadvantages of this alternative placement of the Burow's triangle are discussed. [source]

    Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    P. Bech
    Objective:, To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. Method:, The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic, and antipsychotic), of clinically unwanted effects of these drugs, and the patients' own subjective perception of the balance between wanted and unwanted effects are analysed using rating scales assessed by modern psychometric tests (item response theory models) Results:, Symptom rating scales fulfilling the item response theory models have been shown to be psychometrically valid outcome scales as their total scores are sufficient statistics for demonstrating dose,response relationship within the various classes of antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic or antipsychotic drugs. The total scores of side-effect rating scales are, however, not sufficient statistics, implying that each symptom has to be analysed individually. Self-rating scales with very few items appear to be sufficient statistics when measuring the patients' own perception of quality of life. Conclusion:, Applied psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life. [source]

    A Nomogram for Measurement of Mitral Valve Area by Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area Method

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2007
    Mehmet Uzun M.D.
    Introduction: Although its accuracy has been documented in many studies, the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method is not used widely for mitral valve area (MVA) measurement. In this study, we prepared a new nomogram and tested its use in MVA assessment. Material and Methods: The study included 23 patients (age: 27 ± 5 years) with mitral stenosis, of whom 7 were in atrial fibrillation. The MVA was measured by four methods: planimetry (PL) (reference method), pressure-half time (PHT), conventional PISA (CP), and nomogram (Nomo) methods. The nomogram included two unknowns: (1) r; the radius of the first PISA section; (2) a; the length of the border opposite to the PISA angle in the triangle with both adjacent borders of 1 cm. The nomogram was also tested for its popularity potential by eight echocardiographers, none of whom were included in the author list. Results: Mean MVAPL was 1.85 ± 0.53 cm2 (range: 0.72,2.99), mean MVAPHT was 1.72 ± 0.56 cm2 (range: 0.91,3.30), mean MVACP was 1.69 ± 0.45 cm2 (range: 0.97,2.54), and MVANomo was 1.70 ± 0.44 cm2 (0.96,2.49). The nomogram correlated with planimetry (r = 0.87; P < 0.001), pressure half-time (r = 0.71; P < 0.001) and conventional PISA (r = 0.99; P = 0.000) methods. The nomogram method also correlated with planimetry in patients with atrial fibrillation (r = 0.81; P = 0.026). The echocardiographers found that the nomogram is superior to the planimetry and conventional PISA methods but inferior to the pressure half-time method in terms of simplicity. Conclusion: The new nomogram is potentially helpful in measurement of MVA. It may be used as an additional method in assessing severity of mitral stenosis. [source]

    Testing Students with Special Needs: A Model for Understanding the Interaction Between Assessment and Student Characteristics in a Universally Designed Environment

    Leanne R. Ketterlin-Geller
    This article presents a model of assessment development integrating student characteristics with the conceptualization, design, and implementation of standardized achievement tests. The model extends the assessment triangle proposed by the National Research Council (Pellegrino, Chudowsky, & Glaser, 2001) to consider the needs of students with disabilities and English learners on two dimensions: cognitive interaction and observation interaction. Specific steps in the test development cycle for including students with special needs are proposed following the guidelines provided byDowning (2006). Because this model of test development considers the range of student needs before test development commences, student characteristics are supported by applying the principles of universal design and appropriately aligning accommodations to address student needs. Specific guidelines for test development are presented. [source]

    Normative data of bone mineral density in an unselected adult Austrian population

    S. Kudlacek
    Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMD) measurements by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) requires a population-specific reference range. We therefore collected data on age-related BMD in a random sample of the normal adult Austrian population to establish an appropriate normative database. Methods We measured BMD by DEXA at five different skeletal sites in 1089 subjects, i.e. 654 females and 435 males, aged between 21,76 years, who had been recruited by 17 centres across Austria. Results Age-related bone loss was observed until age 65 years with significant changes at the lumbar spine (r = ,0·23), total hip (r = ,0·07), trochanter (r = ,0·10), femoral neck (r = ,0·30) and Ward's triangle (r = ,0·40) in the women but only at the femoral neck (r = ,0·23) and at Ward's triangle (r = ,0·40) in the men. When we calculated T scores from the BMD data of the young normal adult study population and used the T score set points according to the WHO classification of osteopenia and osteoporosis, we found that, depending on the skeletal site measured, 7·6,27·4% of the women and 16,41% of the men in our study group had low bone mass, whereas 0·6,2·7% of the female and 0·2,1·0% of the male study population were osteoporotic. However, osteoporosis was indicated in 4,9-fold more females and 5,15-fold more males when we based our estimates on the normative data provided by the manufacturers of the DEXA systems. Conclusion Our data underscore the importance of using a population-specific reference range for DEXA measurements to avoid overdiagnosis of osteoporosis. [source]

    Tuning for shape dimensions in macaque inferior temporal cortex

    Greet Kayaert
    Abstract It is widely assumed that distributed bell-shaped tuning (e.g. Radial Basis functions) characterizes the shape selectivity of macaque inferior temporal (IT) neurons, analogous to the orientation or spatial frequency tuning found in early visual cortex. Demonstrating such tuning properties requires testing the responses of neurons for different values along dimensions of shape. We recorded the responses of single macaque IT neurons to variations of a rectangle and a triangle along simple shape dimensions, such as taper and axis curvature. The neurons showed systematic response modulation along these dimensions, with the greatest response, on average, to the highest values on the dimensions, e.g. to the most curved shapes. Within the range of values tested, the response functions were monotonic rather than bell-shaped. Multi-dimensional scaling of the neural responses showed that these simple shape dimensions were coded orthogonally by IT neurons: the degree and direction of responses modulation (i.e. the increase or decrease of responses along a dimension) was independent for the different dimensions. Furthermore, for combinations of curvature-related and other simple shape dimensions, the joint tuning was separable, that is well predicted by the product of the tuning for each of the dimensions. The independence of dimensional tuning may provide the neural basis for the independence of psychophysical judgements of multidimensional stimuli. [source]

    Pediatric submandibular triangle masses: a fifteen-year experience,

    Neil G. Hockstein MD
    Abstract Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical results of pediatric submandibular triangle masses, with specific attention to neoplastic processes. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 105 patients aged 6 months to 21 years who underwent surgery in the submandibular triangle at a major pediatric tertiary care hospital from 1987 to 2001. Results. One hundred five patients who underwent surgery in the submandibular triangle were included in the study. Twenty patients had neoplastic processes, six of which were of primary salivary origin (two mucoepidermoid carcinomas and four pleomorphic adenomas). Twenty-four patients underwent excision of inflamed or infected lymph nodes, and 23 patients underwent excision of inflamed or infected submandibular glands. Thirty-eight patients were included who underwent surgery for sialorrhea or to gain access for another surgical procedure. Complications included tumor recurrence, transient and permanent marginal mandibular nerve weakness, ranula, postoperative fluid collection, and cellulitis. Duration of follow-up ranged from no follow-up to 11 years. Conclusion. Surgical excision of submandibular triangle masses is uncommon. We present our experience with these lesions, with a discussion of diagnosis, surgical indications, and surgical complications. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 675,680, 2004 [source]