Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Trial

  • Placebo-Controll trial
  • Randomise trial
  • blind trial
  • cancer prevention trial
  • cancer screening trial
  • challenge trial
  • clinical trial
  • cluster-randomized controlled trial
  • cluster-randomized trial
  • comparative clinical trial
  • comparative trial
  • comparison trial
  • complications trial
  • control trial
  • controlled clinical trial
  • controlled trial
  • criminal trial
  • cross-over trial
  • crossover clinical trial
  • crossover trial
  • day feeding trial
  • day trial
  • digestibility trial
  • double blind trial
  • double-blind clinical trial
  • double-blind trial
  • double-blinded trial
  • drug trial
  • effectiveness trial
  • efficacy trial
  • empirical trial
  • experimental trial
  • feeding trial
  • field trial
  • first trial
  • group trial
  • growth trial
  • human clinical trial
  • human trial
  • i clinical trial
  • i trial
  • ii clinical trial
  • ii trial
  • iii clinical trial
  • iii trial
  • initial trial
  • international trial
  • intervention trial
  • interventional trial
  • label trial
  • large clinical trial
  • large trial
  • larger trial
  • longitudinal trial
  • month trial
  • multicenter clinical trial
  • multicenter trial
  • multicentre clinical trial
  • multicentre trial
  • murder trial
  • new trial
  • non-inferiority trial
  • noninferiority trial
  • one trial
  • open clinical trial
  • open label trial
  • open trial
  • open-label clinical trial
  • open-label trial
  • parallel group trial
  • parallel-group trial
  • phase i clinical trial
  • phase i trial
  • phase ii clinical trial
  • phase ii trial
  • phase iii clinical trial
  • phase iii trial
  • pilot clinical trial
  • pilot trial
  • pivotal trial
  • placebo-controlled clinical trial
  • placebo-controlled trial
  • pot trial
  • present trial
  • prevention trial
  • previous trial
  • prospective clinical trial
  • prospective controlled trial
  • prospective randomized clinical trial
  • prospective randomized trial
  • prospective trial
  • randomised clinical trial
  • randomised control trial
  • randomised controlled trial
  • randomised trial
  • randomized clinical trial
  • randomized control trial
  • randomized controlled clinical trial
  • randomized controlled trial
  • randomized crossover trial
  • randomized phase iii trial
  • randomized placebo-controlled trial
  • randomized trial
  • randomized-controlled clinical trial
  • randomized-controlled trial
  • recent clinical trial
  • recent trial
  • screening trial
  • second trial
  • sequential trial
  • single trial
  • single-blind trial
  • successful trial
  • test trial
  • therapeutic trial
  • third trial
  • treatment trial
  • vaccine trial
  • vivo trial
  • week clinical trial
  • week feeding trial
  • week trial

  • Terms modified by Trial

  • trial arm
  • trial calculation
  • trial comparing
  • trial comparing laparoscopic
  • trial data
  • trial database
  • trial design
  • trial entry
  • trial evaluating
  • trial evidence
  • trial function
  • trial group
  • trial ii
  • trial involving
  • trial judge
  • trial medication
  • trial outcome
  • trial participant
  • trial patient
  • trial period
  • trial process
  • trial protocol
  • trial quality
  • trial registration
  • trial registry
  • trial result
  • trial setting
  • trial shows
  • trial site
  • trial structure
  • trial studies
  • trial study
  • trial testing

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Dealing with physical and social disorder to prevent serious crime has become a central strategy for policing. This study evaluates the effects of policing disorder, within a problem-oriented policing framework, at crime and disorder hot spots in Lowell, Massachusetts. Thirty-four hot spots were matched into 17 pairs, and one member of each pair was allocated to treatment conditions in a randomized block field experiment. The officers engaged "shallow" problem solving and implemented a strategy that more closely resembled a general policing disorder strategy rather than carefully designed problem-oriented policing responses. Nevertheless, the impact evaluation revealed significant reductions in crime and disorder calls for service, and systematic observations of social and physical disorder at the treatment places relative to the control places uncovered no evidence of significant crime displacement. A mediation analysis of the isolated and exhaustive causal mechanisms that comprised the strategy revealed that the strongest crime-prevention gains were generated by situational prevention strategies rather than by misdemeanor arrests or social service strategies. [source]


    Research Summary: Study randomly assigned 235 offenders to drug treatment court (DTC) or "treatment as usual." Analyses of official records collected over a two-year follow-up period show that DTC is reducing crime in a population of drug-addicted offenders. DTC subjects who participated in treatment were significantly less likely to recidivate than were both untreated drug court subjects and control subjects. Policy Implications: Continued enthusiasm for DTCs is warranted. Both sanctions and treatment are important elements of the DTC model. However, DTCs will not necessarily result in cost reductions because DTC and control cases are incarcerated for approximately equal numbers of days. Implementation fidelity is important, and DTCs can be strengthened if they engage a higher percentage of their clients in drug treatment. [source]


    Sudeep S. Gill MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BJ Marshall
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2008
    ST Walters
    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a brief intervention that has been shown to reduce heavy drinking among college students. To date, all college studies of MI (and most adult studies) have used an intervention format that includes a feedback profile delivered in an MI style. This presentation will discuss the results of a dismantling trial of motivational interviewing, and feedback among heavy drinking college students. After an initial screen, 350 heavy drinking students were randomized to: (1) MI with feedback, (2) MI without feedback, (3) Web feedback only, (4) Assessment only, or (5) Delayed assessment only. At 6 months, only MI with feedback showed an effect over control in reducing drinks per week, peak BAC, and drinking related consequences. Neither MI nor feedback alone had an effect over assessment. Drinking severity moderated the effect of the interventions. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 10 2008
    Chris M. Pring
    Laparoscopic and open techniques are both recognized treatment options for ventral hernias. We conducted a prospective randomized trial of both methods, to assess hernia recurrence, postoperative recovery and complications. Fifty-eight patients with ventral hernias were enrolled into the trial between August 2003 and December 2005. Of these, 31 underwent laparoscopic repair and 27 underwent open repair. Clinical parameters were documented on all patients during a median follow-up period of 27.5 months. The demographics of the two groups were similar. There was one recurrence in each of the laparoscopic and open groups. There was an equivalent rate of operative time, length of stay, postoperative pain scores, return to normal activities, wound infection and seroma formation between the two groups. Laparoscopic and open ventral hernia repair are comparable and offer low recurrence rates. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 1 2006
    This essay explores the representation of India to a British metropolitan audience in the last decades of the eighteenth century, a time of burgeoning orientalist scholarship. Texts and images produced during the period reveal many of the ambiguities and ambivalences in the evolving relationship between Parliament, the East India Company and native Indian rulers. Between 1788 and 1795 these were highlighted dramatically in the impeachment proceedings against Warren Hastings, the Governor-General of the East India Company's possessions. The proceedings coincided with the exhibition and publication in London of a corpus of Indian landscape paintings executed by William Hodges, who had enjoyed Hastings's patronage during and after his travels in India. The article focuses on a number of satirical political prints relating to the impeachment, arguing that they draw upon the sudden influx of graphic information on India as a vehicle for satire while invoking a contemporary penchant for optical devices of various sorts. In doing so, they highlight a contemporary tension between the aesthetic and documentary value of the image, which is often framed in terms of a dialectical opposition between artistic translation and transcription. It is suggested that these images reflect a hermeneutic common to other modes of orientalist production, which effected a domestic inscription of the Orient by finding correspondences between the foreign and the familiar. [source]


    M. Weatherall
    Summary Graphical sensitivity analyses have recently been recommended for clinical trials with non-ignorable missing outcome. We demonstrate an adaptation of this methodology for a continuous outcome of a trial of three cognitive-behavioural therapies for mild depression in primary care, in which one arm had unexpectedly high levels of missing data. Fixed-value and multiple imputations from a normal distribution (assuming either varying mean and fixed standard deviation, or fixed mean and varying standard deviation) were used to obtain contour plots of the contrast estimates with their,P -values superimposed, their confidence intervals, and the root mean square errors. Imputation was based either on the outcome value alone, or on change from baseline. The plots showed fixed-value imputation to be more sensitive than imputing from a normal distribution, but the normally distributed imputations were subject to sampling noise. The contours of the sensitivity plots were close to linear in appearance, with the slope approximately equal to the ratio of the proportions of subjects with missing data in each trial arm. [source]


    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 12 2009
    Gianluca Giannarini
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 6 2007
    Simon Brewster
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Prognosis and Mechanism of Death in Treated Heart Failure: Data From the Placebo Arm of Val-HeFT

    Jay N. Cohn MD
    The magnitude of benefit on mortality of combined angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and ,-blocker (BB) therapy for heart failure cannot be reliably assessed from prospective randomized trials of individual drugs with intent-to-treat analysis. The placebo arm of the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT) included patients who remained on background therapy with ACEIs, BBs, neither, or both. The outcomes in these four subgroups should provide a better guide to mortality benefit. Overall mortality (mean follow-up, 23 months) was 31.6% in those receiving neither neurohormonal blocker, 29% and 39% lower in those on ACEIs or BBs, respectively, and 62% lower (11.9% mortality) in those receiving both drugs. In the neither neurohormonal inhibitor group, 48% of the heart failure-related deaths were adjudicated as sudden, whereas in the group receiving ACEIs and BBs, 79% of the deaths were sudden, and pump failure mortality was only 1% per year. The combination of ACEIs and BBs exerts a greater mortality reduction than suggested from clinical trials and reduces pump failure mortality to 1% per year. [source]

    More than "Cheap Sentimentality": Victim Testimony at Nuremberg, the Eichmann Trial, and Truth Commissions1

    Sonali Chakravarti
    First page of article [source]

    Does limb angular motion raise limb arterial pressure?

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    D. D. Sheriff
    Abstract Aim:, Mechanical factors such as the muscle pump have been proposed to augment flow by several mechanisms. The potential for limb angular motion to augment local perfusion pressure (pressure = ½,r2,2, where , is the fluid density, r the radius and , the angular velocity) has been overlooked. We sought to test the hypothesis that limb angular motion augments limb arterial pressure. Methods:, Nine human subjects performed horizontal shoulder flexion (,±90° at 0.75 Hz for 30 s). We measured finger arterial pressure (photoplethysmography) in the moving (Trial 1) and non-moving arm (Trial 2) in separate trials along with the pressure (strain gauge) generated at the fingers within a length of water-filled tubing mounted on the moving arm in both trials. Results:, Arm swinging raised (P < 0.05) the mean pressure measured in the tubing by 11 ± 2 and 14 ± 2 mmHg (Trials 1 and 2 respectively). In response to exercise, the rise in mean finger arterial pressure in the swinging limb (18 ± 3 mmHg, Trial 1) exceeded (P < 0.05) the rise in the resting limb (8 ± 2 mmHg, Trial 2) by an amount similar to the 11 mmHg rise in pressure generated in the tubing in Trial 1. Conclusions:, We conclude that the swinging of a limb creates centrifugal force (a biomechanical centrifuge) which imparts additional pressure to the arteries, but not the veins owing to the venous valves, which further widens the arterial,venous pressure difference. [source]

    Commentary: From Serendipity to Pilot Study and Then Pivotal Trial: Bimatoprost Topical for Eyelash Growth

    2Article first published online: 2 APR 2010, JOEL L. COHEN MD
    Dr. Cohen has been a consultant and clinical trial investigator for Allergan (including related to Latisse). [source]

    Treatment of Surgical Scars with Nonablative Fractional Laser Versus Pulsed Dye Laser: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OBJECTIVE Comparison of the efficacy of nonablative fractional laser (NAFL) and the V-beam pulsed dye laser (PDL) for improvement of surgical scars. METHODS A randomized blinded split-scar study. Fifteen scars in 12 patients were treated a minimum of 2 months after Mohs surgery. Patients were treated on half of the scar with a 1,550-nm NAFL and on the contralateral half with the 595 nm PDL. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) A nontreating physician investigator evaluated the outcome of the scar in terms of scar dyspigmentation, thickness, texture, and overall cosmetic appearance (5-point grading scale). RESULTS After a series of four treatments at 2-week intervals, greater improvements were noted in the portion of surgical scars treated with NAFL (overall mean improvement 75.6%, range 60,100%, vs. PDL, 53.9%, range 20,80%; p<.001). CONCLUSION These data support the use of NAFL as a highly effective treatment modality for surgical scars, with greater improvement in scar appearance than with PDL. It is likely that the greater depth of penetration and focal microthermal zones of injury with NAFL, inducing neocollagenesis and collagenolysis, account for its greater improvement in scar remodeling. These encouraging results lead us to recommend that NAFL be added to the current treatment armamentarium for surgical scars. [source]

    Clinical Trial of Dual Treatment with an Ablative Fractional Laser and a Nonablative Laser for the Treatment of Acne Scars in Asian Patients

    BACKGROUND Many methods have been proposed for the treatment of acne scars, with variable cosmetic results. Nonablative skin resurfacing is one method that has been proposed. Because of a need for more noticeable clinical improvements, the ablative fractional laser was recently introduced. OBJECTIVE To reduce complications and improve the results of ablative fractional laser resurfacing by combining this treatment of acne scars with nonablative lasers. METHODS A series of 20 patients (skin phototypes IV,V) with atrophic facial acne scars were randomly divided into two groups that received three successive monthly treatments with an ablative fractional laser using high (group A) and low (group B) energy on one facial half and an ablative fractional laser with low energy plus a nonablative resurfacing laser on the other facial half. Patients were evaluated using digital photography at each treatment visit and at 3 months postoperatively. Clinical assessment scores were determined at each treatment session and follow-up visit. RESULTS Although the use of the ablative fractional laser with high energy resulted in an improvement in patients' acne scars, the combination of ablative fractional laser resurfacing and nonablative laser resurfacing yielded the best results, as assessed in photographs as well as by the overall appearance of the acne scars. With the combination method, fewer complications were observed. [source]

    A Randomized Trial to Determine the Influence of Laser Therapy, Monopolar Radiofrequency Treatment, and Intense Pulsed Light Therapy Administered Immediately after Hyaluronic Acid Gel Implantation

    BACKGROUND Hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers, such as hyaluronic acid gel (Restylane, Q-Medical AB, Uppsala, Sweden), are widely used for tissue augmentation of the nasolabial folds. Additional dermatologic treatments using infrared light, radiofrequency (RF), and intense pulsed light (IPL) are also important tools for facial rejuvenation. This study was designed to evaluate whether these therapies could be safely administered immediately after hyaluronic acid gel treatment without compromising the effect of the dermal filler. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to confirm or refute any possible subtractive effects of augmentation of the nasolabial folds when followed by 1,320-nm Nd:YAG laser, 1,450-nm diode laser, monopolar RF, and/or IPL treatments. METHODS Thirty-six patients with prominent nasolabial folds were treated with hyaluronic acid gel implantation on one side of the face and hyaluronic acid gel followed by one of the nonablative laser/RF/IPL therapies on the contralateral side of the face. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences between wrinkle severity or global aesthetic scores for hyaluronic acid gel implantation alone and hyaluronic acid gel with laser/RF/IPL treatment at any time point. In a small sample, histologic changes were not apparent after laser/RF/IPL treatment. CONCLUSIONS Based on this small pilot study, laser, RF, and IPL treatments can safely be administered immediately after hyaluronic acid gel implantation without reduction in overall clinical effect. [source]

    Autologous Cultured Fibroblast Injection for Facial Contour Deformities: A Prospective, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Clinical Trial

    BACKGROUND Previous data indicate that injections of autologous fibroblasts increase collagen formation, accompanied by a concomitant increase in thickness and density of dermal collagen. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine efficacy and side effects of autologous living fibroblast injections versus placebo in a randomized Phase III trial for the treatment of various facial contour defects. METHODS This was a double-blind, randomized comparison of injectable living autologous fibroblast cells and placebo for the treatment of facial contour defects (N=215). Live fibroblasts (20 million/mL) or placebo (the transport medium without living cells) were given as three doses administered at 1- to 2-week intervals. Efficacy evaluations were performed 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after the first injection. RESULTS Living fibroblasts produced statistically significantly greater improvements in dermal deformities and acne scars than did placebo. The difference between live fibroblast injections and placebo achieved statistical significance at 6 months (p<.0001). At 9- and 12-month follow-up, live fibroblast,treated patients continued to demonstrate benefit from treatment with response rates of 75.0 and 81.6%, respectively. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that autologous fibroblast injections can safely and effectively produce improvements in rhytids, acne scars, and other dermal defects continuing for at least 12 months after injection. [source]

    Imiquimod Treatment of Superficial and Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma: 12-Week Open-Label Trial

    Ketty Peris MD
    Background Imiquimod is an immune response modifier shown to be effective in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Objective To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and response durability of imiquimod 5% cream in selected patients with superficial and/or nodular BCCs. Methods Seventy-five superficial and 19 nodular BCCs in 49 patients were treated with imiquimod once daily three times a week for up to 12 weeks. Results Of the 49 enrolled patients, 1 discontinued the study and 1 was lost to follow-up. After 12 weeks of treatment, a complete response occurred in 70 of 75 (93.3%) superficial BCCs and a partial response in 4 of 75 (5.3%) superficial BCCs. Ten of 19 (52.6%) nodular BCCs cleared after 12 weeks, whereas 7 (36.8%) showed partial remission. Adverse side effects were limited to local skin reactions. Recurrence was observed in 2 of 70 (2.9%) successfully treated superficial BCCs 6 and 8 months after treatment discontinuation. No recurrence was detected in 68 of 70 (97.1%) superficial BCCs and in 10 successfully treated nodular BCCs after 12 to 34 months of follow-up (mean 23 months). Conclusions In our patient population, treatment of superficial BCCs with topical imiquimod for 12 weeks produced an excellent clinical response overall, with complete remission maintained after a mean of 23 months. KETTY PERIS, MD, ELENA CAMPIONE, MD, TAMARA MICANTONIO, MD, GEORGIANA CLARE MARULLI, MD, MARIA CONCETTA FARGNOLI, MD, AND SERGIO CHIMENTI, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

    Highly Purified 1000-cSt Silicone Oil for Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Facial Lipoatrophy: An Open Pilot Trial

    Derek H. Jones MD
    Background. Among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, facial lipoatrophy has become epidemic. Those affected are stigmatized, leading to psychological distress, social and career impediments, and impaired compliance to human immunodeficiency virus medications. Temporary treatment options are limited by excessive cost, necessity of frequent treatments, and lack of a natural look or feel beneath the skin. Affected patients require more persistent, affordable, safe, and effective treatment options. Objective. The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of highly purified 1000-cSt silicone oil injected by microdroplet serial puncture technique for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipoatrophy. Methods. Data on 77 patients with a complete correction were analyzed to determine the number of treatments, amount of silicone, and time required to reach complete correction, relative to initial severity. Results. The volume of silicone, number of treatments, and time required to reach a complete correction were directly related to initial severity of lipoatrophy (p < 0.0001). Supple, even facial contours were routinely restored, with all patients tolerating treatments well. No adverse events were noted. Conclusion. In this pilot trial, we have demonstrated that highly purified 1000-cSt silicone oil is a safe and effective treatment option for human immunodeficiency virus facial lipoatrophy. Longer-term safety and efficacy in human immunodeficiency virus patients remain to be proven. [source]

    Digital versus Local Anesthesia for Finger Lacerations: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Stuart Chale MD
    Abstract Objectives To compare the pain of needle insertion, anesthesia, and suturing in finger lacerations after local anesthesia with prior topical anesthesia with that experienced after digital anesthesia. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial in a university-based emergency department (ED), with an annual census of 75,000 patient visits. ED patients aged ,8 years with finger lacerations were enrolled. After standard wound preparation and 15-minute topical application of lidocaine-epinephrine-tetracaine (LET) in all wounds, lacerations were randomized to anesthesia with either local or digital infiltration of 1% lidocaine. Pain of needle insertion, anesthetic infiltration, and suturing were recorded on a validated 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (none) to 100 (worst); also recorded were percentage of wounds requiring rescue anesthesia; time until anesthesia; percentage of wounds with infection or numbness at day 7. Outcomes were compared by using Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. A sample of 52 patients had 80% power to detect a 15-mm difference in pain scores. Results Fifty-five patients were randomized to digital (n= 28) or local (n= 27) anesthesia. Mean age (±SD) was 38.1 (±16.8) years, 29% were female. Mean (±SD) laceration length and width were 1.7 (±0.7) cm and 2.0 (±1.0) mm, respectively. Groups were similar in baseline patient and wound characteristics. There were no between-group differences in pain of needle insertion (mean difference, 1.3 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI] =,17.0 to 14.3 mm); anesthetic infiltration (mean difference, 2.3 mm; 95% CI =,19.7 to 4.4 mm), or suturing (mean difference, 7.6 mm; 95% CI =,3.3 to 21.1 mm). Only one patient in the digital anesthesia group required rescue anesthesia. There were no wound infections or persistent numbness in either group. Conclusions Digital and local anesthesia of finger lacerations with prior application of LET to all wounds results in similar pain of needle insertion, anesthetic infiltration, and pain of suturing. [source]

    Errors in patient perception of caloric deficit required for weight loss,observations from the Diet Plate Trial,

    G. A. Kline
    Persons with obesity may be poor estimators of caloric content of food. Health care professionals encourage patients to consult nutritional labels as one strategy to assess and restrict caloric intake. Among subjects enrolled in a weight loss clinical trial, the objective is to determine the accuracy of subjects' estimates of caloric deficit needed to achieve the desired weight loss. A 6-month controlled trial demonstrated efficacy of a portion control tool to induce weight loss in 130 obese people with type 2 diabetes. All subjects had previously received dietary teaching from a dietician and a nurse. At baseline, patients were asked how much weight they would like to lose and to quantitatively estimate the caloric deficit required to achieve this weight loss. The stated amount of weight loss desired ranged from 4.5 to 73 kg, with an average of 26.6 kg (n = 127 respondents). Only 30% of participants were willing to estimate the required caloric deficit to lose their target weight. Subjects' per kilograms estimate of caloric deficit required ranged from 0.7 to 2 000 000 calories/kg with a median of 86 calories/kg. Nearly half of subjects (47.4%) underestimated the total required caloric deficit to achieve their target weight loss by greater than 100 000 calories. Despite attendance at a diabetes education centre, this population of obese individuals had a poor understanding of the quantitative relationship between caloric deficit and weight loss. Educational initiatives focused upon quantitative caloric intake and its impact on weight change may be needed to assist obese patients in setting appropriate weight loss goals and achieving the appropriate daily caloric restriction required for success. [source]

    Insulin therapy and quality of life.

    A review
    Abstract Three central goals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus are (1) the avoidance of hyperglycaemia to prevent the development or progression of diabetes complications over time, (2) the avoidance of hypoglycaemia and (3) the maintenance or achievement of good quality of life. Insulin is the most powerful agent that can be used to control blood glucose levels. This article reviews the studies that have investigated the effects of different types of insulin and insulin delivery techniques on quality of life of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. First, the concept of ,quality of life' (QoL) is defined and different ways of measuring QoL are explained. Secondly, the effects of different aspects of insulin therapy on QoL are reviewed: (1) the phenomenon of ,psychological insulin resistance'; (2) the effects of different types of insulin: regular insulin versus short-acting insulin analogues, long-acting insulin analogues or biphasic mixtures; (3) multiple daily injections versus pump therapy. Having multiple complications of diabetes is clearly associated with decreased QoL. Results from large studies such as the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) suggest that intensive treatment itself does not impair QoL. Recent findings further suggest that pump therapy, compared to multiple daily injections, has beneficial effects on QoL. The fact that multiple tools are used to assess QoL makes it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the effects of different types of insulin on QoL. More work on the standardization of the assessment of QoL in diabetes is urgently needed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Insulin therapy in Europe

    Werner A. Scherbaum
    Abstract The prevalence of type 1 diabetes is rising in all European countries, particularly in Scandinavia and the UK. Insulin therapy in Europe is strongly influenced by the results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), both of which showed the importance of tight metabolic control in patients with diabetes. The importance of tight glycemic control is also emphasized in the Saint Vincent Declaration, which established 5-year goals for antidiabetic therapy in Europe. Insulin therapy in Europe has been significantly improved over the past 10,years, owing to a number of developments. These include increased use of intensive insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes; the development of new insulin analogs, including insulin glargine for injection therapy and short-acting agents that are particularly suitable for use in pumpsand the establishment of comprehensive and standardized treatment goals and guidelines. Nevertheless, important obstacles must still be overcome to optimize therapy for patients with diabetes and reduce the long-term complications of this disease. These obstacles include low public awareness of diabetes and its symptoms, training of physicians as well as patients that is often insufficient to ensure adherence to professional guidelines for diabetes care, and limitations in communication among professional care providers. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The DPT-1 trial: a negative result with lessons for future type 1 diabetes prevention

    Professor Paolo Pozzilli
    Abstract The author comments on the DPT-1 Trial and why the observed negative outcome in preventing diabetes in first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetic patients by parenteral insulin administration may have occurred and what can be gathered from this large study. There were three main lessons to be learned from the DPT-1 Trial as follows. (1) Large preventive trials of type 1 diabetes are feasible in first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetic patients and other preventive approaches may be now envisaged. (2) The natural history of type 1 diabetes, at least in its final years before clinical onset, has been elucidated and reiterates the relevance of our present predictive tools (autoantibodies) for identifying individuals at risk for the disease. (3) Strict follow-up of enrolled subjects in trials permits an earlier diagnosis of the disease with less frequency of ketoacidosis and implementation of insulin therapy when higher C-peptide levels are present. DPT-1 has paved the way on how to proceed and new trials will be planned benefiting from such experience. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Stratified analyses for selecting appropriate target patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy for long-term treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor, epalrestat

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2008
    N Hotta
    Abstract Aims The long-term efficacy of epalrestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, in improving subjective symptoms and nerve function was comprehensively assessed to identify patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy who responded to epalrestat treatment. Methods Stratified analyses were conducted on data from patients in the Aldose Reductase Inhibitor,Diabetes Complications Trial (ADCT). The ADCT included patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, median motor nerve conduction velocity , 40 m/s and with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) , 9.0%. Longitudinal data on HbA1c and subjective symptoms of the patients for 3 years were analysed (epalrestat n = 231, control subjects n = 273). Stratified analyses based on background variables (glycaemic control, grades of retinopathy or proteinuria) were performed to examine the relationship between subjective symptoms and nerve function. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Stratified subgroup analyses revealed significantly better efficacy of epalrestat in patients with good glycaemic control and less severe diabetic complications. In the control group, no improvement in nerve function was seen regardless of whether symptomatic benefit was obtained. In the epalrestat group, nerve function deteriorated less or improved in patients whose symptoms improved. The odds ratio of the efficacy of epalrestat vs. control subjects was approximately 2 : 1 (4 : 1 in patients with HbA1c , 7.0%). Conclusion Our results suggest that epalrestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, will provide a clinically significant means of preventing and treating diabetic neuropathy if used in appropriate patients. [source]

    HbA1c as a screening tool for detection of Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2007
    C. M. Bennett
    Abstract Aim To assess the validity of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a screening tool for early detection of Type 2 diabetes. Methods Systematic review of primary cross-sectional studies of the accuracy of HbA1c for the detection of Type 2 diabetes using the oral glucose tolerance test as the reference standard and fasting plasma glucose as a comparison. Results Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. At certain cut-off points, HbA1c has slightly lower sensitivity than fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in detecting diabetes, but slightly higher specificity. For HbA1c at a Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and UK Prospective Diabetes Study comparable cut-off point of , 6.1%, the sensitivity ranged from 78 to 81% and specificity 79 to 84%. For FPG at a cut-off point of , 6.1 mmol/l, the sensitivity ranged from 48 to 64% and specificity from 94 to 98%. Both HbA1c and FPG have low sensitivity for the detection of impaired glucose tolerance (around 50%). Conclusions HbA1c and FPG are equally effective screening tools for the detection of Type 2 diabetes. The HbA1c cut-off point of > 6.1% was the recommended optimum cut-off point for HbA1c in most reviewed studies; however, there is an argument for population-specific cut-off points as optimum cut-offs vary by ethnic group, age, gender and population prevalence of diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated that HbA1c has less intra-individual variation and better predicts both micro- and macrovascular complications. Although the current cost of HbA1c is higher than FPG, the additional benefits in predicting costly preventable clinical complications may make this a cost-effective choice. [source]

    Prevalence of and risk factors for extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis in Korean Type 2 diabetic patients

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 12 2006
    J. H. Park
    Abstract Aims The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis in Type 2 diabetic patients. Methods This study included 406 patients aged 40,79 years with Type 2 diabetes (male 55.4%, female 44.6%). Both carotid arteries of each patient were examined by carotid duplex scanning. The duplex ultrasound criteria based on the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) measurement method were used for the identification of carotid stenosis. Results Extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis , 40% by velocity criteria was detected in 5.2% of the patients. The prevalence of carotid stenosis increased with advancing age: 1.0% at 40,49 years of age, 5.0% at 50,59 years, 7.3% at 60,69 years and 9.5% at 70,79 years. The degree of stenosis was > 70% in 42.9% of patients with stenosis, Bilateral stenosis was detected in 14% of patients. Of the patients with , 40% carotid stenosis, 33% had a decreased ankle-brachial index, 38% had a previous history of stroke, and only one patient (5%) had a documented history of coronary artery disease. Multivariate analysis, including variables determined to be significantly different by univariate analysis between patients with or without , 40% stenosis, indicated that age, systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (inverse correlation) were independent risk factors associated with carotid stenosis. Conclusions Carotid duplex scanning is a useful strategy in identifying carotid stenosis in older Type 2 diabetic patients with high systolic blood pressure, or low levels of HDL cholesterol. The early identification and subsequent appropriate management of carotid stenosis, particularly in this group of patients, may facilitate efforts to reduce the incidence of macrovascular complications. [source]

    "The Devil's Apostle": Jonas King's Trial against the Greek Hierarchy in 1852 and the Pressure to Extend U.S. Protection for American Missionaries Overseas

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 5 2009
    Angelo Repousis
    First page of article [source]

    Heat or Cold Packs for Neck and Back Strain: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Efficacy

    Gregory Garra DO
    Abstract Objectives:, Acute back and neck strains are very common. In addition to administering analgesics, these strains are often treated with either heat or cold packs. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of heat and cold in relieving pain from back and neck strains. The authors hypothesized that pain relief would not differ between hot and cold packs. Methods:, This was a randomized, controlled trial conducted at a university-based emergency department (ED) with an annual census of 90,000 visits. ED patients >18 years old with acute back or neck strains were eligible for inclusion. All patients received 400 mg of ibuprofen orally and then were randomized to 30 minutes of heating pad or cold pack applied to the strained area. Outcomes of interest were pain severity before and after pack application on a validated 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (no pain) to 100 (worst pain), percentage of patients requiring rescue analgesia, subjective report of pain relief on a verbal rating scale (VRS), and future desire for similar packs. Outcomes were compared with t-tests and chi-square tests. A sample of 60 patients had 80% power to detect a 15-mm difference in pain scores. Results:, Sixty patients were randomized to heat (n = 31) or cold (n = 29) therapy. Mean (±standard deviation [SD]) age was 37.8 (±14.7) years, 51.6% were female, and 66.7% were white. Groups were similar in baseline patient and pain characteristics. There were no differences between the heat and cold groups in the severity of pain before (75 mm [95% CI = 66 to 83] vs. 72 mm [95% CI = 65 to 78]; p = 0.56) or after (66 mm [95% CI = 57 to 75] vs. 64 mm [95% CI = 56 to 73]; p = 0.75) therapy. Pain was rated better or much better in 16/31 (51.6%) and 18/29 (62.1%) patients in the heat and cold groups, respectively (p = 0.27). There were no between-group differences in the desire for and administration of additional analgesia. Twenty-five of 31 (80.6%) patients in the heat group and 22 of 29 (75.9%) patients in the cold group would use the same therapy if injured in the future (p = 0.65). Conclusions:, The addition of a 30-minute topical application of a heating pad or cold pack to ibuprofen therapy for the treatment of acute neck or back strain results in a mild yet similar improvement in the pain severity. However, it is possible that pain relief is mainly the result of ibuprofen therapy. Choice of heat or cold therapy should be based on patient and practitioner preferences and availability. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:484,489 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]