Treatment Modalities (treatment + modality)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Treatment Modalities

  • current treatment modality
  • different treatment modality
  • effective treatment modality
  • important treatment modality
  • new treatment modality
  • novel treatment modality
  • other treatment modality
  • primary treatment modality
  • safe treatment modality
  • standard treatment modality
  • surgical treatment modality
  • various treatment modality

  • Terms modified by Treatment Modalities

  • treatment modality used

  • Selected Abstracts

    A Refined Surgical Treatment Modality for Bromhidrosis: Double W Incision Approach with Tumescent Technique

    BACKGROUND Axillary bromhidrosis has a strong negative effect on one's social life. A high success rate and few complications are criteria for an ideal treatment method. OBJECTIVE To evaluate a new surgical treatment modality for bromhidrosis: Double W incision with full-exposure excision under tumescent anesthesia. MATERIALS & METHODS Twenty patients with bromhidrosis were treated. Patients were placed in a supine position with their treated arms abducted to 110°. After injection of 60 mL of tumescent solution into each axilla, two small W incisions were made at the superior and inferior axillary poles of the hair-bearing area. The whole hair-bearing skin was undermined at the level of the superficial fat to obtain adequate skin eversion. The flaps were everted to offer full exposure of the apocrine glands, and meticulous excision of each gland was performed. Finally, the incisions were re-approximated, and bulky compressive dressings were applied to the area for 72 hours. RESULTS Of the 40 axillae (20 patients), 32 (80.0%) showed excellent results, and eight (20.0%) had good results. Malodor was significantly decreased. There were no serious complications. CONCLUSION This technique can produce excellent results with a lower complication rate than most other surgical modalities and can be performed without costly equipment. [source]

    HER2 Is Frequently Over-expressed in Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma: Possible Novel Treatment Modality Using Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody against HER2, Trastuzumab

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 11 2002
    Masaki Fujimura
    Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) is generally chemo-resistant. Recently the poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents of HER2/neu over-expressing tumors have become clear. Thus, we investigated the expression level of HER2 in surgically resected CCA and ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and mucinous adenocarcinoma specimens, as well as CCA cell lines, by an immunohistochemical method. HER2 was over-expressed in 42.9% of CCA (P=0.026, vs. ovarian serous adenocarcinoma), 20.8% of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, 23.1% of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and 30.0% of mucinous adenocarcinoma specimens. Three CCA cell lines, RMG-1, HAC-II and KK were also positively stained for HER2. A flow-cytometric study of HER2 revealed 7.2-, 6.4- and 4.5-fold greater expression of HER2 than that of normal mammary gland, respectively. Trastuzumab, a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody against HER2 significantly and dose-dependently reduced the growth of CCA cell lines in vitro. The extent of the inhibitory effect of trastuzumab was dependent on the expression level of HER2. Trastuzumab also dose-dependently inhibited the growth of xenografted RMG-1 tumor. The survival period of trastuzumab-treated mice was longer than that of the control group. From these findings, trastuzumab appears to be a candidate as a treatment modality for HER2 over-expressing ovarian CCA. [source]

    Radiation therapy for esthesioneuroblastoma: Rationale for elective neck irradiation,

    Alan T. Monroe MD
    Abstract Purpose. Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon malignancy of neural crest origin arising in the upper nasal cavity. We describe the University of Florida experience using radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of this neoplasm, particularly the use of elective nodal irradiation. Materials and Methods. Between May 1972 and August 1998, 22 patients received RT for esthesioneuroblastoma. Two additional patients were treated with palliative intent and were excluded from analysis. Equal numbers of male and female patients were treated, with a median age of 54 years (range, 3,82). The modified Kadish stage was A in 1 patient, B in 4 patients, C in 15 patients, and D in 2 patients. Treatment modalities included primary RT in 6 patients, preoperative RT in 1 patient, postoperative RT after craniofacial resection in 12 patients, and salvage RT in 3 patients treated for recurrence after surgery. Elective neck RT was performed in 11 of 20 patients; 2 patients had cervical metastases at presentation for RT. Results. Rates of local control, cause-specific survival, and absolute survival at 5 years were 59%, 54%, and 48%, respectively. The cause-specific survival rate at 5 years was lower after primary RT (17%) than after craniofacial resection and postoperative RT (56%). Cervical metastases occurred in 6 of 22 patients (27%). No neck recurrences occurred in 11 patients treated with elective neck RT compared with 4 neck recurrences in 9 patients (44%) not receiving elective neck RT (p = .02). Conclusions. Combined modality therapy is preferred over RT alone in advanced-stage esthesioneuroblastoma. Our data and review of the current literature suggest a higher cervical failure rate than previously recognized. Elective neck RT seems to correlate with improved nodal control and should be considered in the treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 529,534, 2003 [source]

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma: A retrospective clinical review

    Atif J. Khan M.D.
    Abstract Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are uncommon tumors, representing about 10% to 15% of head and neck tumors. We compare the survival and control rates at our institution with those reported in the literature, and examine putative predictors of outcome. All patients registered with the tumor registry as having had ACC were identified. Demographic and survival variables were retrieved from the database. Additionally, a chart review of all patients was done to obtain specific information. Minor gland tumors were staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer's criteria for squamous cell carcinomas in identical sites. Histopathologic variables retrieved included grade of the tumor, margins, and perineural invasion. Treatment modalities, field sizes, and radiation doses were recorded in applicable cases. An effort to retrieve archival tumor specimens for immunohistochemical analysis was undertaken. A total of 69 patients were treated for ACC from 1955 to 1999. One patient, who presented with fatal brain metastasis, was excluded from further analysis. Of the remaining 68 patients, 30 were men and 38 were women. The average age at diagnosis was 52 years, and mean follow-up was 13.2 years. Mean survival was 7.7 years. Overall survival (OS) rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 72%, 44%, and 34%, and cause-specific survival was 83%, 71%, and 55%, respectively. Recurrence-free survival rates were 65%, 52%, and 30% at 5, 10, and 15 years, with a total of 29 of 68 (43%) eventually suffering a recurrence. Overall survival was adversely affected by advancing T and AJCC stage. Higher tumor grades were also associated with decreased OS, although the numbers compared were small. Primaries of the nasosinal region fared poorly when compared with other locations. Total recurrence-free survival, local and distant recurrence rates were distinctly better in primaries of the oral cavity/oropharynx when compared with those in other locations. Reduced distant recurrence-free survival was significantly associated with increasing stage. No other variables were predictive for recurrence. Additionally, we found that nasosinal tumors were more likely to display higher stage at presentation, and were more often associated with perineural invasion. Also of interest was the association of perineural invasion with margin status, with 15 of 20 patients with positive margins displaying perineural invasion, while only 5 of 17 with negative margins showed nerve invasion (P = 0.02). On immunohistochemistry, 2 cases of the 29 (7%) tumor specimens found displayed HER-2/neu positivity. No correlation between clinical behavior and positive staining could be demonstrated. Our data concur with previous reports on ACC in terms of survival and recurrence statistics. Stage and site of primary were important determinants of outcome. Grade may still serve a role in decision making. We could not demonstrate any differences attributable to primary modality of therapy, perhaps due to the nonrandomization of patients into the various treatment tracks and the inclusion of palliative cases. Similarly, perineural invasion, radiation dose and field size, and HER-2/neu positivity did not prove to be important factors in our experience. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Canine and feline pyothorax: a retrospective study of 50 cases in the UK and Ireland

    J. L. Demetriou
    Fifty cases (36 dogs and 14 cats) with a confirmed diagnosis of pyothorax were evaluated from five referral institutions in the UK and Ireland. Aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of all cases were examined. The underlying cause of pyothorax was determined in 18 per cent of cases. Positive bacteriological cultures of the pleural fluid were obtained in 68·7 per cent of the animals. Treatment modalities included surgery and medical management, involving thoracostomy tube placement, thoracic aspiration, thoracic lavage and antimicrobial therapy. A successful outcome was achieved in 86 per cent of patients. [source]

    Current neoadjuvant strategies in rectal cancer

    Lucas A. Julien MD
    Abstract Treatment modalities in rectal cancer have undergone a slow, evolutionary transition over the past 30 years. More recently, contemporary descriptions of advanced preoperative chemotherapy and radiation schema have led to a rapid revolution in the management of this disease. In this review we focus on current evidence-based neoadjuvant strategies used in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer and metastatic rectal disease. Finally, we provide a foundation for discussion of still unresolved issues. J. Surg. Oncol. 2010; 101:321,326. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    An alternate-day corticosteroid regimen for pemphigus vulgaris.

    A 13-year prospective study
    Abstract Background, Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) at the early, usually oral and relatively stable stage, represents the majority of PV patients. Treatment modalities usually do not differ compared to those for the fully established disease. Objectives, To prospectively assess a standardized and effective therapeutic approach that aims at less morbidity due to adverse reactions. Methods, The following regimen, also known as Lever's mini treatment (LMT), was used. Forty mg of oral prednisone on alternate days plus 100 mg azathioprine every day were administered until the complete healing of all lesions. A gradual monthly and later bimonthly decrease of prednisone was followed by the tapering of a second immunosuppressive agent, in a one-year period. Results, Seventy-four patients suffering from early-stage-PV, and representing 70% of all PV patients seen through the years 1991,2003, were eligible in the study. Total follow-up period was 76 ± 37 (26,180) months. During the 53 ± 26 months of LMT, 6 (8%) patients dropped out of therapy, 9 (12%) required a change to another treatment, two (3%) died and 57 (77%) achieved a lesion-free condition. Forty-five (61%) patients were in complete remission for 27 ± 29 months. Significant morbidity was estimated 4/74 (5.2%). Disease ,breakthroughs' necessitating treatment adjustments occurred in 30 patients, usually throughout the last phase of therapy and post-treatment follow-up. Conclusion, LMT may be a standardized therapeutic approach for the early and relatively stable stage of PV, resulting in high efficacy, safety and quality of life profile. [source]

    Trichotillomania ± trichobezoar: revisited

    VN Sehgal
    Abstract Trichotillomania is an intriguing psychosomatic entity in which there is an irresistible desire to pull out the hair from the scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows and other parts of the body. The process results in an instant release of tension, a sense of relief and security. However, non-scaring alopecia is its clinical presentation. The development of trichobezoar following ingestion of the pulled hair is its salient complication in a few cases. Subsequently, it may cause symptoms pertaining to the gastrointestinal tract culminating in intestinal obstruction, perforation, pancreatitis and obstructive jaundice. The Rapunzel syndrome (trichobezoar) may occur when gastrointestinal obstruction is produced by a rare manifestation of a trichobezoar with a long tail that extends to or beyond the ileocecal valve. In most cases in children, trichotillomania ± trichobezoar is a habit disorder and thus has a better prognosis. However, in adults the psychopathology is usually deeper and thus entails a poor prognosis. The diagnosis is made after taking a thorough history, noting the clinical features and evaluating a hair-root examination, where telogen hair is (almost) completely lacking, which distinguish trichotillomania from other hair disorders. Treatment modalities vary in childhood and adult varieties. Apart from psychotherapy, the drug treatment involves several agents including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and domipramine. Trichobezoar/Rapunzel syndrome requires surgical intervention. [source]

    Outcome of patients after treatment for a squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 3 2009
    Christof Röösli MD
    Abstract Objectives: This study evaluates the oncologic outcome with regard to survival and locoregional tumor control in a cohort of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) treated according to a uniform algorithm. Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: A total of 427 consecutive patients with OPSCC were treated from 1990 to 2006. Treatment modalities were surgery alone (n = 102), surgery with adjuvant radio(chemo)therapy (n = 159), and primary radio(chemo)therapy (n = 166). Study endpoints were the five-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) stratified for primary tumor subsite, stage, T and N category, and age. Results: The five-year OS and DSS for the entire cohort were 57.9% and 68.6%, respectively. OS and DSS for surgery alone were 70.3% and 76.5%, for surgery with radiation 66.6% and 78.9%, and for primary radiation 40.8% and 52.6%, respectively. Survival was significantly better for low stages (stage I/II vs. III/IV), small tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4), limited nodal involvement (N0/1 vs. N2/3), and younger age at diagnosis. Conclusions: Together with our previous study on quality of life, we were able to show that our selection process gives excellent oncologic outcome in combination with high levels of function and quality of life. Surgery alone for early OPSCC and surgery followed by radiation for advanced OPSCC remain valuable treatment options. Primary radiochemotherapy is a strong alternative for patients who are not candidates for function-preserving surgery. Laryngoscope, 119:534,540, 2009 [source]

    Clinical and socio-demographic profile of an Australian multi-institutional prostate cancer cohort

    Kerri BECKMANN
    Abstract Aims: To describe the clinical and socio-demographic data from a South Australian prostate cancer cohort (PCCOD). Methods: Clinical data for 2329 prostate cancer patients treated at three South Australian teaching hospitals between 1998 and 2007 were analyzed by place of residence, time of diagnosis and socioeconomic status (SES). ,2 tests were used to investigate differences in stage, grade and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis, among subgroups and over time. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors of treatment modalities. Five-year survival was assessed using Kaplan,Meier methods. Results: The distributions of age, SES and place of residence of PCCOD patients closely reflected those of the state-based prostate cancer population, with rural patients slightly underrepresented. Lower SES or rural residence was not associated with higher stage, grade, PSA level or disease-specific survival. Treatment modalities varied with SES (for radical prostatectomy), rural residence (radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy and androgen ablation), age and clinical characteristics. There was a trend over time towards a younger age at diagnosis and more favorable clinical profiles, consistent with earlier diagnosis. However, the current risk profile for this cohort is similar to that reported approximately a decade earlier in a US series. Conclusion: PCCOD patients have a broadly similar socio-demographic profile to prostate cancer patients statewide. Socioeconomic status is not associated with clinical characteristics at diagnosis, but does predict treatment type. The clinical characteristics of the cohort are consistent with a much later stage presentation than reported in current US case series. [source]

    Evaluation of imiquimod for the therapy of external genital and anal warts in comparison with destructive therapies

    H. Schöfer
    Summary External genital and anal warts (acuminate condyloma) were the first medical indication the topical immune response modifier imiquimod was approved for in 1997. Since then, many placebo controlled randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of this synthetic imidazoquinoline derivate for the treatment of different human papillomavirus infections and tumours. Treatment modalities for genital warts (5% cream, three times weekly, minimum duration 4 weeks, control of side-effects) have been optimized and assured by further clinical trials and meta-analyses. For a few years clinical studies focussed on the long-term efficacy of the immunomodulatory therapy (sustained clearance from warts) and most recent studies compared the efficacy of ablative, destructive and imiquimod monotherapy as well as combination therapies. [source]

    Catheter-directed therapy for DVT after pancreas transplantation

    Harish D Mahanty
    Abstract:, Introduction:, Iliac vein deep venous thrombosis (DVT) ipsilateral to the pancreas transplant can lead to severe leg edema and compromise graft function. Treatment modalities for iliac vein DVT in the pancreas transplant recipient are limited. Methods:, Medical records of patients receiving pancreas transplants at a single center from November 1989 to July 2003 were reviewed retrospectively, identifying patients with iliac vein DVT. There were 287 pancreas transplants performed during this time. Pancreas transplantation in all recipients was performed in the right iliac fossa with the arterial supply consisting of a donor iliac artery Y interposition graft. Systemic venous drainage was to the iliac vein. Exocrine drainage was enteric or to the bladder. Results:, Four (1.4%) cases of iliac DVT were identified. All patients manifested lower extremity edema ipsilateral to the pancreas transplant. DVT was detected by ultrasound on days 4, 5, 13, and 60 post-transplant. In all cases, the iliac vein caudad to the pancreatic venous anastomosis was noted to be stenotic. Management involved balloon dilatation and endovascular stent placement in one patient, thrombolysis with tissue plasma antigen (t-PA) followed by stent placement in one patient, and percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy in two patients. All patients had improvement in leg edema and two patients continue to have good pancreatic allograft function. Conclusions:, Iliac DVT is a rare complication of pancreas transplantation that usually develops in an area of stenosis caudad to the pancreatic venous anastomosis. Catheter-based treatment modalities with use of endovascular stents for treatment of underlying stenoses can serve as an adjunct in treating these complications. [source]

    The management of mandibular body fractures in young children

    Dror Aizenbud
    Treatment principles of this fracture type differ from that of adults due to concerns regarding mandibular growth processes and dentition development. The goal of this fracture treatment is to restore the underlying bony architecture to its preinjury position in a stable fashion as non-invasively as possible and with minimal residual esthetic and functional impairment. The management of mandibular body fractures in children depends on the fracture type and the stage of skeletal and dental development; treatment modalities range from conservative non-invasive, through closed reduction and immobilization methods to open reduction with internal fixation. Disruption of the periosteal envelope of the mandibular body may have an unpredictable effect on growth. Thus, if intervention is required closed reduction is favored. [source]

    Effect of root surface treatment with propolis and fluoride in delayed tooth replantation in rats

    Jéssica Lemos Gulinelli
    Nevertheless, an extended extraoral period damages the periodontal ligament and results in external root resorption. The purpose of this study was to assess by histologic and histometric analysis, the influence of propolis 15% (natural resinous substance collected by Apis mellifera bees from various plants) and the fluoride solution used as root surface treatment on the healing process after delayed tooth replantation. Thirty Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus) rats were submitted to extraction of their upper right incisor. The teeth were maintained in a dry environment for 60 min. After this, the pulp was extirpated and the papilla, enamel organ and periodontal ligament were removed with scalpel. The teeth were divided into three experimental groups: Group I , teeth immersed in 20 ml of physiologic saline; Group II , teeth immersed in 20 ml of 2% acidulated phosphate sodium fluoride; Group III , teeth immersed in 20 ml of 15% propolis. After 10 min of immersion in the solutions, the root canals were dried and filled with calcium hydroxide paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were euthanized 60 days after replantation. The results showed that similar external root resorption was seen in the propolis and fluoride groups. Teeth treated with physiologic saline tended to have more inflammatory root resorption compared with those treated with fluoride or propolis. However, the comparative analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between the treatment modalities when used for delayed tooth replantation. [source]

    Long-term effect of different treatment modalities for traumatized primary incisors presenting dark coronal discoloration with no other signs of injury

    Gideon Holan
    Abstract,,, The aim was to compare the long-term outcomes of root canal treatment with that of follow-up-only in traumatized primary incisors in which dark discoloration is the only sign of injury. Root canal treatment was performed in 48 dark discolored asymptomatic primary incisors following trauma. Twenty-five of them [root canal treatment (RCT) group] were followed till eruption of their permanent successors. Ninety-seven dark discolored asymptomatic primary incisors were left untreated and invited for periodic clinical and radiographic examination. Of these, 28 [follow-up (FU) group] were followed till eruption of their permanent successors. The parameters examined included early extraction of the traumatized primary incisor, early or delayed eruption of the permanent successors, ectopic eruption of the permanent successor and signs of enamel hypopcalcification or hypoplasia in the permanent successor. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Seven of 25 (28%) of the RCT group and 32% (nine of 28) of the FU group required early extraction. Five of 25 (20%) of the RCT group and 21% (six of 28) of the FU group showed early or delayed eruption of the permanent successors. Sixteen of 25 (64%) of the RCT group and 79% (22 of 28) of the FU group showed ectopic eruption of the permanent successors. Enamel hypopcalcification or hypoplasia in the permanent successors was equally found (36%) in both groups (nine of 25 in the RCT group and 10 of 28 in the FU group). None of differences was statistically significant. Root canal treatment of primary incisors that had change their color into a dark-gray hue following trauma with no other clinical or radiographic symptom is not necessary as it does not result in better outcomes in the primary teeth and their permanent successors. [source]

    Striae Distensae (Stretch Marks) and Different Modalities of Therapy: An Update

    BACKGROUND Striae distensea (SD; stretch marks) are a well-recognized, common skin condition that rarely causes any significant medical problems but are often a significant source of distress to those affected. The origins of SD are poorly understood, and a number of treatment modalities are available for their treatment, yet none of them is consistently effective, and no single therapy is considered to be pivotal for this problem. With a high incidence and unsatisfactory treatments, stretch marks remain an important target of research for an optimum consensus of treatment. OBJECTIVE To identify the current treatment modalities and their effectiveness in the treatment of stretch marks. MATERIALS AND METHODS Review of the recent literature regarding clinical treatment of stretch marks with emphasis on the safety and efficacy of the newer optical devices and laser applications. RESULTS No current therapeutic option offers complete treatment, although there are a number of emerging new modalities that are encouraging. CONCLUSION The therapeutic strategies are numerous, and no single modality has been far more consistent than the rest. The long-term future of treatment strategies is encouraging with the advance in laser technologies. [source]

    Catheter-Assisted Vein Sclerotherapy: A New Approach for Sclerotherapy of the Greater Saphenous Vein with a Double-Lumen Balloon Catheter

    OBJECTIVE We sought to optimize sclerotherapy of the greater saphenous vein (GSV) by targeted application of foamed sclerosant by using a catheter. METHODS We designed a new double-lumen catheter that is inserted into the GSV. Via one lumen, a balloon at the tip of the catheter can be inflated to stop the blood flow. Via the second lumen, the sclerosing agent can be injected and aspirated. This method enabled us to perform a targeted application of the sclerosing agent [catheter-assisted vein sclerotherapy (KAVS)]. In an open study, outpatients suffering from varicosis of the GSV received a foam sclerotherapy under ultrasound guidance, using the newly developed KAVS catheter. RESULTS Thirty patients with an insufficiency (reflux) of the GSV were treated with the newly developed KAVS method using foamed polidocanol. The intervention was well tolerated in all patients without the occurrence of serious side effects. In 27 of the 30 treated patients (90%), we found a closure of the GSV at control visits 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment. CONCLUSIONS The KAVS method represents a feasible approach for sclerotherapy of the GSV. The efficiency and treatment modalities need to be explored in further studies. [source]

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review of the English Literature

    BACKGROUND Although most cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is curable by a variety of treatment modalities, a small subset of tumors recur, metastasize, and result in death. Although risk factors for metastasis have been described, there are little data available on appropriate workup and staging of patients with high-risk SCC. OBJECTIVE We reviewed reported cases and case series of SCC in which sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was performed to determine whether further research is warranted in developing SLNB as a staging tool for patients with high-risk SCC. METHODS The English medical literature was reviewed for reports of SLNB in patients with cutaneous SCC. Data from anogenital and nonanogenital cases were collected and analyzed separately. The percentage of cases with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) was calculated. False negative and nondetection rates were tabulated. Rates of local recurrence, nodal and distant metastasis, and disease-specific death were reported. RESULTS A total of 607 patients with anogenital SCC and 85 patients with nonanogenital SCC were included in the analysis. A SLN could not be identified in 3% of anogenital and 4% of nonanogenital cases. SLNB was positive in 24% of anogenital and 21% of nonanogenital patients. False-negative rates as determined by completion lymphadenectomy were 4% (8/213) and 5% (1/20), respectively. Most false-negative results were reported in studies from 2000 or earlier in which the combination of radioisotope and blue dye was not used in the SLN localization process. Complications were reported rarely and were limited to hematoma, seroma, cutaneous lymphatic fistula, wound infection, and dehiscence. CONCLUSIONS Owing to the lack of controlled studies, it is premature to draw conclusions regarding the utility of SLNB in SCC. The available data, however, suggest that SLNB accurately diagnoses subclinical lymph node metastasis with few false-negative results and low morbidity. Controlled studies are needed to demonstrate whether early detection of subclinical nodal metastasis will lead to improved disease-free or overall survival for patients with high-risk SCC. [source]

    Histometric and Histochemical Analysis of the Effect of Trichloroacetic Acid Concentration in the Chemical Reconstruction of Skin Scars Method

    BACKGROUND Atrophic scars can be induced by various causes, including severely inflamed acne, chicken pox, and trauma. Many treatment modalities are used for reconstructing and improving the appearance of scars with various treatment results. OBJECTIVE A recent report shows the clinical efficacy of the chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS) method, which consists of the focal application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in a higher concentration. Histometric analysis of the CROSS method, however, has not yet been established. METHODS In this study, five hairless mice were used to evaluate the effect of the CROSS method and to analyze the difference between the CROSS method and simple TCA application. RESULTS Similar histologic changes were observed in the two methods, including epidermal and dermal rejuvenation with new collagen deposition. These changes, however, were more prominent in the CROSS method,treated areas, particularly when 100% TCA was used. CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that treatment of atrophic scars using the CROSS method is more effective than simple application of TCA in activating fibroblasts in the dermis and increasing the amount of collagen. [source]

    Cryosurgery in the Treatment of Earlobe Keloids: Report of Seven Cases

    Tomas Fikrle MD
    Background. Keloids are benign cutaneous lesions that result from excessive collagen synthesis and deposition. Earlobe keloids in particular are seen as a complication of plastic surgery or piercing. Many different treatment modalities have been used, often with unsatisfactory results. Methods. We have made a retrospective analysis of seven young patients (ages 9 to 22 years) with earlobe keloids. Scarring followed plastic surgery in six cases and piercing in one case. All patients were treated with cryosurgery as the monotherapy. The freeze time and the number of sessions varied depending on the clinical findings, the effect of the treatment, and the patients' tolerance. Cryotherapy was started 6 to 24 months after keloid development. Results. Scar volume was reduced in all cases. Complete flattening in five patients and a pronounced reduction to a maximum of 25% of the previous thickness in one other patient were achieved. One patient discontinued the therapy because of soreness after only partial improvement. The procedure was painful for all patients; no further side effects were noticed. No recurrence was observed within 1 to 4.5 years of follow-up. Conclusion. We present an excellent effect of cryosurgery as the monotherapy for the treatment of earlobe keloid scars of young patients. TOMAS FIKRLE, MD, AND KAREL PIZINGER, MD, PHD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

    The Safety and Effectiveness of Single-Pass Erbium:YAG Laser in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Photodamage

    David K. Avram MD
    Background. There are several treatment modalities for mild to moderate photodamage. The demand for effective treatments with minimal side effects has increased. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of short-pulsed erbium:YAG laser in treating mild to moderate photodamage. Methods. Twenty patients were treated with the short-pulse erbium:YAG laser on the face and neck. One pass was given over the entire face with two to three passes over the perioral and periorbital regions. Patients were evaluated for improvement of pigmentary irregularities, skin texture, and fine wrinkles. All side effects were recorded at follow-up visits. Two lasers were used, Sciton and Cynosure CO3, under local anesthesia. Results. There was a 58% reduction in pigment irregularities and a 54% improvement in skin texture. There was minimal improvement in fine wrinkles with one pass. Two and three passes resulted in a 50% reduction in wrinkles. The procedure was minimally painful. Side effects included 3 to 5 days of erythema and edema. Patients returned to work within 3 days on average. There were no infections. Patient satisfaction with the procedure was rated as very good. There was no difference in efficacy or adverse effects with either laser. Conclusions. One-pass short-pulse erbium:YAG laser in treating photodamage of the face and neck is safe and effective. There are minimal side effects and patients heal within 3 to 5 days. [source]

    Combined Excimer Laser and Topical Tacrolimus for the Treatment of Vitiligo: A Pilot Study

    Adam Z. Kawalek BA
    Background. Vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder that is characterized by well-defined, often symmetric white patches. Although current therapeutic modalities are directed toward increasing melanocyte melanin production, few treatment modalities address the immunologic nature of the disease. Objective. To determine whether excimer laser, a known therapeutic modality, in combination with tacrolimus, a topical immunomodulator, accelerate response time and/or improve the degree of response in patients with this disorder. Methods. Eight subjects diagnosed with vitiligo were recruited to participate in this institutional review board,approved double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-four symmetric vitiliginous patches (elbows, knees) from eight subjects received excimer laser treatment three times per week for 24 treatments or 10 weeks. Additionally, topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment (Protopic) and placebo (Aquaphor) were applied to randomized patches (left or right) twice daily throughout the length of the trial. Vitiliginous patches were monitored with photographs at baseline, every 2 weeks, and 6 months after treatment. Biopsies were performed on subjects with significant results. Results. Twenty vitiliginous patches from six subjects qualified for evaluation. Fifty percent of patches treated with combination excimer laser and tacrolimus achieved a successful response (75% repigmentation) compared with 20% for the placebo group. Subjects who responded successfully repigmented faster (19%) with combination therapy compared with excimer laser alone. Additionally, three subjects experienced transient hyperpigmentation in lesions treated with combination therapy. Conclusion. Combining topical immunomodulators with known phototherapeutic modalities may represent a key advancement in the treatment of disease. [source]

    Comparison of Electrodessication with CO2 Laser for the Treatment of Actinic Cheilitis

    Richard A. Laws MD
    Background. Actinic cheilitis is a common premalignant condition that is most often treated with destructive therapy. The most effective technique is usually considered to be CO2 laser resurfacing. Little has been written on the use of electrodessication for this condition. Objective. We designed a study to compare these two treatment modalities for the treatment of biopsy-confirmed actinic cheilitis. Methods. A random half of the lower lip was treated with electrodessication. The contralateral half was then treated with CO2 laser. Healing time, subjective pain during healing, and clinical outcome at 3 months was compared. Results. The side treated with electrodessication took significantly longer to heal than the side treated with the CO2 laser (23 versus 14 days, P < .001). There was no difference in subjective pain or clinical appearance at 3 months. Conclusion. Although the healing time is longer with electrodessication, this modality represents an inexpensive practical ablative treatment method for actinic cheilitis. [source]

    An overview of human papillomavirus infection for the dermatologist: disease, diagnosis, management, and prevention

    Michelle Forcier
    ABSTRACT Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common, usually transient, dermatologic infection transmitted by genital contact that can cause a variety of anogenital diseases, including warts (condyloma), dysplasia (cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal), and squamous cell carcinoma. A number of treatment modalities are available to treat anogenital warts, both patient- and provider-applied. Treatment is efficacious, but lesions can recur. Bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines are approved to prevent HPV infection. Both are indicated to prevent cervical cancer, while the quadrivalent vaccine is also approved to prevent vaginal/vulvar cancers as well as genital warts in males and females. Providers should clearly explain the natural history and potential sequelae of HPV disease, counsel patients on prevention strategies, and recommend vaccination as an effective method of prevention to their patients. [source]

    Esthetic treatment modalities in men: psychologic aspects of male cosmetic patients

    Richard G Fried
    ABSTRACT:, Male cosmetic patients represent a growing population of individuals who can substantially benefit from well-chosen esthetic interventions. Understanding some of the unique aspects of the male psyche can result in more effective recruitment of male cosmetic patients and aid the clinician in helping these patients to choose appropriate interventions. Specific recommendations for the physician, staff, and office environment are provided. Illustrations of emotional and functional benefits are provided that can be shared with patients to enhance expectations and satisfaction with outcomes. [source]

    Pediatric psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis

    Debra Lewkowicz
    ABSTRACT:, Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are not uncommon among the pediatric population. Recognizing and treating these chronic disorders in children present unique challenges for the dermatologist. Paucity of clinical trials and a dearth of available treatment modalities, many of which carry significant risk or adverse effects, can make treating pediatric psoriasis and PsA a daunting task. This review attempts to define and consolidate the current state of knowledge with regards to this disease spectrum. The need for further clinical trials to investigate treatment options in the pediatric population is also discussed. [source]

    Diagnosis and management of nail psoriasis

    David de Berker
    Nail disease is a common chronic problem for psoriatics, with only limited scope for major improvement. Both the disease and its treatment can be categorized according to its features and treatment modalities or the significance of the therapy for the clinician and patient. Certain treatments are matched with certain features and some treatments are of potential value in all patients with nail psoriasis. [source]

    Preliminary results of a fine-grain analysis of mood swings and treatment modalities of bipolar I and II patients using the daily prospective life-chart-methodology

    C. Born
    Objective:, The study aimed to increase the knowledge about the detailed course differences between different forms of bipolar disorder. Method:, Using the prospective life-chart-clinician version, we compared the fine-grain analysis of mood swings and treatment modalities of 18 bipolar II with 31 bipolar I patients. Results:, During an observational period of a mean of 26 months we observed an increase of euthymic days, and a decrease of (sub)depressive and (hypo)manic days. Days in a (sub)depressed state were more frequent than days of (hypo)mania as well as days of subdepression or hypomania in comparison to days of full-blown depression or mania. Bipolar II patients showed an increase in hypomanic days receiving more frequently antidepressants. Bipolar I patients, with a decrease of manic days, were significantly taking more often mood stabilizers. Conclusion:, Treatment in a specialized bipolar clinic improves the overall outcome, but bipolar II disorder seems to be still treated sub-optimally with a possible iatrogenic increase of hypomanic days. [source]

    GLP-1: physiological effects and potential therapeutic applications

    Kasper Aaboe
    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a gut-derived incretin hormone with the potential to change diabetes. The physiological effects of GLP-1 are multiple, and many seem to ameliorate the different conditions defining the diverse physiopathology seen in type 2 diabetes. In animal studies, GLP-1 stimulates ,-cell proliferation and neogenesis and inhibits ,-cell apoptosis. In humans, GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon and gastrointestinal secretions and motility. It enhances satiety and reduces food intake and has beneficial effects on cardiovascular function and endothelial dysfunction. Enhancing incretin action for therapeutic use includes GLP-1 receptor agonists resistant to degradation (incretin mimetics) and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors. In clinical trials with type 2 diabetic patients on various oral antidiabetic regimes, both treatment modalities efficaciously improve glycaemic control and ,-cell function. Whereas the incretin mimetics induce weight loss, the DPP-4 inhibitors are considered weight neutral. In type 1 diabetes, treatment with GLP-1 shows promising effects. However, several areas need clinical confirmation: the durability of the weight loss, the ability to preserve functional ,-cell mass and the applicability in other than type 2 diabetes. As such, long-term studies and studies with cardiovascular end-points are needed to confirm the true benefits of these new classes of antidiabetic drugs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. [source]

    Effects of insulin resistance on endothelial function: possible mechanisms and clinical implications

    D Tousoulis
    Insulin resistance (IR) is defined as a reduced responsiveness of peripheral tissues to the effects of the hormone, referring to abated ability of insulin in stimulating glucose uptake in peripheral tissues and in inhibiting hepatic glucose output. Insulin has both a vasodilatory effect, which is largely endothelium dependent through the release of nitric oxide, and a vasoconstrictory effect through the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the release of endothelin-1. IR and endothelial dysfunction (ED) are not only linked by common pathogenetic mechanisms, involving deranged insulin signalling pathways, but also by other, indirect to the hormone's actions, mechanisms. Different treatment modalities have been proposed to affect positively both the metabolic effects of insulin and ED. Weight loss has been shown to improve sensitivity to insulin as a result of either altered diet or exercise. Exercise has favourable effects on endothelial function in normal states and in states of disease, in men and women, and throughout the age spectrum and, hence, in IR states. Metformin improves sensitivity to insulin and most likely affects positively ED. Studies have shown that inhibitors of the renin,angiotensin system alter IR favourably, while Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Angiotensin receptor type II (ATII) inhibitors improve ED. Ongoing studies are expected to shed more light on the issue of whether treatment with the thiazolidinediones results in improvement of endothelial function, along with the accepted function of improving insulin sensitivity. Finally, improved endothelial function by such treatments is not in itself proof of reduced risk for atherosclerosis; this remains to be directly tested in clinical trials. [source]