Treatment Methods (treatment + methods)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Treatment Methods

  • different treatment methods

  • Selected Abstracts

    Results of Treatment Methods in Cardiac Arrest Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Mehmet R. Guney M.D.
    We evaluated the short- and long-term consequences of these two methods and discussed the indications for re-revascularization. Methods: Between 1998 and 2004, a total of 148 CABG patients, who were complicated with cardiac arrest, were treated with emergency re-revascularization (n = 36, group R) and ICU procedures (n = 112, group ICU). Re-revascularizations are mostly blind operations depending on clinical/hemodynamic criteria. These are: no response to resuscitation, recurrent tachycardia/fibrillation, and severe hemodynamic instability after resuscitation. Re-angiography could only be performed in 3.3% of the patients. Event-free survival of the groups was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Events are: death, recurrent angina, myocardial infarction, functional capacity, and reintervention. Results: Seventy percent of patients, who were complicated with cardiac arrest, had perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI). This rate was significantly higher in group R (p = 0.013). The major finding in group R was graft occlusion (91.6%). During in-hospital period, no difference was observed in mortality rates between the two groups. However, hemodynamic stabilization time (p = 0.012), duration of hospitalization (p = 0.00006), and mechanical support use (p = 0.003) significantly decreased by re-revascularization. During the mean 37.1 ± 25.1 months of follow-up period, long-term mortality (p = 0.03) and event-free survival (p = 0.029) rates were significantly in favor of group R. Conclusion: Better short- and long-term results were observed in the re-revascularization group. [source]

    Effects of Six Surface Treatment Methods on the Surface Roughness of a Low-Fusing and an Ultra Low-Fusing Feldspathic Ceramic Material

    Mehmet Dalkiz DDS
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effects of six surface treatment methods on the surface roughness of two feldspathic ceramic materials. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty metal discs were cast (Remanium CS). A low-fusing feldspathic ceramic (Vita Omega 900) was fired onto 60 metal discs, and an ultra low-fusing feldspathic ceramic (Finesse) was fired onto the other 60 metal discs. Six surface treatment methods were selected: (1) autoglazing (AUG), (2) overglazing (OVG), (3) polishing (POL), (4) fine diamond disc grinding + polishing + autoglazing (FDPA), (5) coarse diamond disc grinding + polishing + autoglazing (CDPA), (6) polishing + autoglazing (PA). Omega specimens were assigned to six experimental groups representing six surface treatment methods (Om-AUG, Om-OVG, Om-POL, Om-FDPA, Om-CDPA, Om-PA) (n = 10). Finesse specimens were also assigned to six experimental groups (Fn-AUG, Fn-OVG, Fn-POL, Fn-FDPA, Fn-CDPA, Fn-PA) (n = 10). Treated ceramic surfaces were examined by means of profilometry and transmission electron microscopy. Results: In Omega groups mean roughness values ranged as follows: group Om-AUG = Om-POL > Om-OVG > Om-CDPA = Om-FDPA > Om-PA (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between groups Om-AUG/Om-POL and Om-CDPA/Om-FDPA (p > 0.05). In Finesse groups mean roughness values ranged as follows: Fn-CDPA > Fn-FDPA = Fn-AUG = Fn-POL = Fn-OVG > Fn-PA (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between Fn-FDPA, Fn-AUG, Fn- POL and Fn-OVG (p > 0.05). Conclusions: For both ceramic types, the smoothest surfaces were obtained with polishing prior to autoglazing. Diamond disc grinding prior to polishing and autoglazing (Fn-FDPA, Fn-CDPA) displayed the roughest surfaces in ultra low-fusing ceramic (Finesse). Autoglazing alone and polishing displayed the roughest surfaces in low-fusing ceramic material (Om-AUG, Om-POL). [source]

    Treatment methods for the determination of ,2H and ,18O of hair keratin by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry

    Gabriel J. Bowen
    The structural proteins that comprise ,90% of animal hair have the potential to record environmentally and physiologically determined variation in ,2H and ,18O values of body water. Broad, systematic, geospatial variation in stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of environmental water and the capacity for rapid, precise measurement via methods such as high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (TC/EA-IRMS) make these isotope systems particularly well suited for applications requiring the geolocation of hair samples. In order for such applications to be successful, however, methods must exist for the accurate determination of hair ,2H and ,18O values reflecting the primary products of biosynthesis. Here, we present the results of experiments designed to examine two potential inaccuracies affecting ,2H and ,18O measurements of hair: the contribution of non-biologic hydrogen and oxygen to samples in the form of sorbed molecular water, and the exchange of hydroxyl-bound hydrogen between hair keratin and ambient water vapor. We show that rapid sorption of molecular water from the atmosphere can have a substantial effect on measured ,2H and ,18O values of hair (comprising ,7.7% of the measured isotopic signal for H and up to ,10.6% for O), but that this contribution can be effectively removed through vacuum-drying of samples for 6 days. Hydrogen exchange between hair keratin and ambient vapor is also rapid (reaching equilibrium within 3,4 days), with 9,16% of the total hydrogen available for exchange at room temperature. Based on the results of these experiments, we outline a recommended sample treatment procedure for routine measurement of ,2H and ,18O in mammal hair. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after different treatment methods

    K. Yanpiset
    Abstract , The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of topical treatment with doxycycline and/or the application of unfilled resin to the anatomical crown on the occurrence of revascularization in reimplanted dog teeth. Ninety-six teeth in 4 young mongrel dogs were used. Eighty one teeth were atraumatically extracted and divided into four groups. Group 1, 17 teeth were kept dry for 5 min and then replanted. Group 2, 21 teeth were soaked with a freshly prepared solution of doxycycline (1 mg/20 mL saline) for 5 min before replantation. Group 3, 23 teeth were soaked with the doxycycline solution for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were coated with 2 layers of light cured unfilled resin. Group 4, 20 teeth were kept dry for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were treated as with the teeth in Group 3. Three months after surgery, radiographic evaluation revealed that 27 teeth had continued root development and 32 teeth showed arrested root development with periradicular pathosis. The remaining 17 teeth, which had arrested root development but no signs of periradicular pathosis, were all histologically evaluated for final assessment. The occurrence of revascularization according to treatment group was 29.4%, 60%, 60%, 36.8% in Group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A multiple logistic regression analysis in SAS indicated there was no significant association between vitality and dog (P=0.7564). Soaking for 5 min in doxycycline significantly increased the revascularization rate (P=0.024) while the addition of resin to the crown did not result in an increased incidence of pulp revascularization (P=0.823). [source]

    Longitudinal Diminution of Tumor Size for Basal Cell Carcinoma Suggests Shifting Referral Patterns for Mohs Surgery

    BACKGROUND The Mohs technique for removal of cutaneous malignancies offers tissue-sparing benefits compared with other treatment methods. With wider acceptance and availability of Mohs surgery, referral patterns may be shifting toward the treatment of smaller, lower-risk tumors. OBJECTIVE The objective was to examine whether referral patterns for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) at an academic Mohs surgery practice have shifted over recent years toward referral for smaller, lower risk tumors. METHODS A retrospective longitudinal comparison of tumor characteristics was performed for BCCs treated at our institution from a recent year (2004) and a past year (1996). Statistical analyses were used to identify differences in tumor size, distribution by anatomic site, and primary versus recurrent status. RESULTS Complete data were available for 603 BCCs treated in 1996 and 1,514 BCCs treated in 2004. A 24% decrease in preoperative tumor surface area was observed from 1996 (1.25 cm2) to 2004 (0.95 cm2). Tumors were twice as likely to be recurrent in 1996 (15.1%) than in 2004 (7.4%). There were no significant differences in the anatomic distribution of lesions in the years compared. CONCLUSIONS Findings at our institution suggest that in recent years, referral patterns have shifted toward a preference for Mohs surgery for the treatment of smaller, primary BCCs. This may be a result of increased awareness by the dermatologic and medical community of the numerous advantages of Mohs surgery and a greater appreciation of its tissue-sparing properties, which may result in less complex and more successful aesthetic reconstructions. [source]

    The Kerf-Cut Dressing: Application of a Woodworking Technique for Efficient Postsurgical Wound Care

    John Starling III BA
    Background. Simple surgical excision is one of the most common treatment methods in the dermatologist's armamentarium. We describe a precise postsurgical dressing technique that can be used for wound care of those patients whose treatment involves removal of lesions via cutaneous surgery. Objective. To devise a novel, precise, and effective dressing technique for postsurgical wound care. Materials and Methods. We describe the technique using common in-office instruments. Results and Conclusion. Wound dressings for lesions located on curved areas such as the ears, nose, cheeks, and chin often exhibit less than adequate adherence and stability. The kerf-cut dressing technique optimizes pliability of dressing tape, and this maximizes efficient and stable application of postsurgical wound dressings to curved areas of the body. JOHN STARLING III, BA, PURVISHA J. PATEL, MD, AND RON D. RASBERRY, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

    Multipass Treatment of Photodamage Using the Pulse Dye Laser

    Emil A. Tanghetti MD
    Background. Pulse dye lasers (PDLs) alter structural proteins in scars and photodamaged skin, in addition to their effects on dermal vasculature. The PDL has become an option in the treatment of photodamage. Although improvements to skin texture are generally modest when compared with ablative resurfacing, PDL offers a treatment with few side effects. A number of methods have been proposed in an effort to improve treatment outcomes. These range from single, low-fluence treatment with no purpura to multiple passes and treatment sessions as well as purpuric doses. Objective. To evaluate several of the PDL treatment methods to improve photorejuvenation outcomes while limiting the risk of side effects. Methods. Twenty patients with photodamage were separated into two groups. Each group received a series of four single-pass treatments or four double-pass treatments at 2-week intervals. Treatments were done using a 595-nm PDL (PhotoGenica V-Star) and a 585-nm PDL (PhotoGenica V) at a pulse duration of 0.5 ms and a 10-mm handpiece. Treatment fluences were maintained below the individual's purpuric threshold, ranging from 3 to 4 J/cm2. Photos were taken before treatment and during follow-up. Efficacy of treatment was based on subjective grading of photos and by patient self-reporting. Results. Multiple treatments resulted in improvements to skin tone and texture, including a reduction in the appearance of rhytids and, in particular, improved pigmentary evenness. There was no significant difference between laser or treatment methods. No side effects were noted. Conclusion. PDL treatments provide effective photorejuvenation with minimal risk of side effects. [source]

    Association between oestradiol and puerperal psychosis

    A. Riecher-Rössler
    Objective: Postpartum psychiatric disorders with long-lasting adverse sequelae are common during the childbearing years. These disorders can be severe and resistant to conventional psychiatric treatment methods. We present two consecutive cases with puerperal psychosis who were refractory to conventional treatment methods but responded successfully to oestrogen therapy. Method: Serum oestradiol concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay and the documented oestradiol deficiency replaced with physiological oestradiol sublingually. The treatment effect was evaluated by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Results: In both cases the baseline oestradiol concentration was low (28 and 69 pmol/L). During the treatment with oestradiol, there was a concomitant elevation of the concentration of serum oestradiol, which coincided with the decline in psychotic symptoms. Conclusion: The observation of low serum oestradiol together with psychotic symptoms and successful treatment with oestradiol suggests that oestradiol may have a causal relevance to puerperal psychosis and significance in the treatment of this condition. [source]

    The sublethal effects of tebufenozide on the precopulatory and copulatory activities of Choristoneura fumiferana and C. rosaceana

    Renée Dallaire
    Abstract The sublethal effects of tebufenozide, an ecdysone agonist, on the reproductive biology of Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem) and of Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), treated during the larval stage, were evaluated using two treatment methods: the force-feeding method and the diet method. The percentage of mortality and the developmental time of survivors increased linearly with the concentration of tebufenozide used. This ecdysone analogue proved to be more toxic to C. fumiferana than to C. rosaceana. In C. rosaceana, the weight of males and females decreased proportionally with the dose ingested, but females were affected to a greater extent. This difference might be due to a greater consumption of the treated diet, or to a differential vulnerability to tebufenozide. Tebufenozide did not modify the pre-copulatory activities associated with chemical communication in the females. However, the consumption of tebufenozide delayed ovarian maturation, causing a reduction in the fecundity of females. Treated males had smaller spermatophores and fewer eupyrene sperms in their bursa copulatrix and spermatheca, along with lower mating success. In C. fumiferana, tebufenozide delayed the females' onset time of calling the first night after emergence, but did not affect the mean time spent calling or the production of the main component of the sex pheromone. The males showed significantly greater difficulty in executing oriented flight in a wind tunnel, although their mating success was not affected. We concluded that tebufenozide interferes with various aspects of the reproductive biology of males and females of C. fumiferana and C. rosaceana, including some pre-copulatory behaviors associated with sex pheromone communication. [source]

    Helping smokers to decide on the use of efficacious smoking cessation methods: a randomized controlled trial of a decision aid

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2006
    Marc C. Willemsen
    ABSTRACT Aims Most smokers attempt to stop smoking without using help. We evaluated the efficacy of a decision aid to motivate quitters to use efficacious treatment. Setting and participants A total of 1014 were recruited from a convenience sample of 3391 smokers who intended to quit smoking within 6 months. Design and intervention Smokers were assigned randomly to either receive the decision aid or no intervention. The decision aid was expected to motivate quitters to use efficacious cessation methods and contained neutral information on treatment methods, distinguishing between efficacious and non-efficacious treatments. Measurements Baseline questionnaire and follow-ups were used 2 weeks and 6 months after the start of the intervention., Findings The decision aid increased knowledge of cessation methods and induced a more positive attitude towards these methods. Furthermore, 45% reported increased confidence about being able to quit and 43% said it helped them to choose between treatments. However, no clear effect on usage of treatment aids was found, but the intervention group had more quit attempts (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.14,2.02) and higher point prevalence abstinence at 6-month follow-up (20.2% versus 13.6%; OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.07,2.11). Conclusions An aid to help smokers decide to use efficacious treatment when attempting to quit smoking had a positive effect on smoking cessation, while failing to increase the usage of efficacious treatment. This finding lends support to the notion that the mere promotion of efficacious treatments for tobacco addiction might increase the number of quit attempts, irrespective of the actual usage of treatment. [source]

    Human immunodeficiency virus-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy: epidemiology and predictive factors for prolonged survival

    A. K. Drake
    We performed a retrospective review of cases of human immunodeficiency virus-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in four hospitals (three in Australia and one in Hong Kong) between 1987 and 2003 in order to describe the local experience with this disease and to evaluate parameters impacting upon survival. Eighty-seven cases were identified and demographic details, baseline parameters and treatment methods and response were described. Survival was substantially increased in the post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era with a median survival increase from 14 to 64 weeks. On multivariate analysis, variables associated with prolonged survival included a CD4 count of >100 cells/,l at diagnosis and the use of HAART post-diagnosis, with no significant additional advantage from the use of neuroactive antiretrovirals. [source]

    Management of mandibular osteoradionecrosis corresponding to the severity of osteoradionecrosis and the method of radiotherapy

    Ken-ichi Notani DDSc
    Abstract Purpose. To demonstrate appropriate treatment methods for mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN) by evaluating previous results. Methods. The relationship between the time interval after radiation therapy (RT) and the severity of ORN was examined. Eighty-seven patients were classified according to the extent of the lesion (grades), and the cure rates were calculated according to the RT modality, the grade, and the treatment method for ORN. Results. The later ORN developed and the higher the dose of irradiation, particularly among the patients who received external RT, the more it progressed. The initial cure rates for conservative management, marginal, and segmental mandibulectomy were 39.7%, 50%, and 86.7%, respectively. Conclusions. Conservative management should be limited to early-onset ORN after brachytherapy with or without a low dose of external irradiation. Marginal mandibulectomy is appropriate for the late-onset ORN after brachytherapy with or without low-dose external irradiation. Segmental mandibulectomy is required for late-onset ORN after a high dose of external irradiation. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 181,186, 2003 [source]

    Current status of ectopic varices in Japan: Results of a survey by the Japan Society for Portal Hypertension

    Norihito Watanabe
    Aim:, The Clinical Research Committee of the Japan Society for Portal Hypertension has conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey to clarify the current status of ectopic varices in Japan. Methods:, A total of 173 cases of ectopic varices were collected. Results:, Duodenal varices were found in 57 cases, and most of them were located in the descending to transverse parts. There were 11 cases of small intestinal varices and 6 cases of colonic varices, whereas 77 patients had rectal varices, accounting for the greatest proportion (44.5%). Other sites of varices were the biliary tract, anastomotic sites, the stoma, and the diaphragm. Liver cirrhosis was the most frequent diseases (80.3%) underlying ectopic varices. It was noted that patients with rectal varices frequently had a history of esophageal varices (94.8%) and received endoscopic treatment (87.0%). The treatments for ectopic varices were as an emergency in 46.5%, elective in 35.4% and prophylactic in 18.2%. In emergency cases, endoscopic therapy was most frequent (67.4%), followed by interventional radiology (IVR; 15.2%), and endoscopy-IVR combination (6.5%). Elective treatment was performed by endoscopy in 34.3%, IVR in 28.6%, combined endoscopy-IVR in 5.7%, and surgical operation in 25.7%. The prophylactic treatment was endoscopic in 50.0%, IVR in 33.3%, combined treatments in 11.1%, and prophylactic surgery in none. The change of ectopic varices after treatment was disappearance in 54.9%, remnant in 35.4% and recurrence in 9.7%. The rate of disappearance was significantly lower in rectal varices (40.8%) than in duodenal varices (73.4%). The patient outcome did not differ among the various sites of the lesion. Conslusions:, Current status of ectopic varices in Japan has been clarified by a nationwide questionnaire survey. The authors expect that the pathophysiology of ectopic varices will be further elucidated, and that improved diagnostic modalities and treatment methods are established in the future. [source]

    Randomized clinical trial of root-end resection followed by root-end filling with mineral trioxide aggregate or smoothing of the orthograde gutta-percha root filling , 1-year follow-up

    R. Christiansen
    Abstract Aim, To compare healing after root-end resection with a root-end filling of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or smoothing of the orthograde gutta-percha (GP) root filling. Methodology, Forty-four patients (consisting of 52 teeth with periapical infection), average age of 54.6 years (range 30,77) participated in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing the MTA and GP treatment methods. Radiographs produced 1-week and 12 months post-operatively were compared after blinding for treatment method, and healing was assessed as complete, incomplete, uncertain, or unsatisfactory. Results, Six teeth were not available for the 12-month follow-up: three teeth (GP) had been re-operated because of pain and two teeth (one GP, one MTA) had been extracted because of root fracture (these five teeth were classified as failures). One patient (GP) was not available for recall. In the GP group, seven teeth (28%) showed complete healing, six teeth (24%) incomplete healing, six teeth (24%) uncertain healing and two teeth (8%) unsatisfactory healing after 1 year. In the MTA group, 22 teeth (85%) showed complete healing, three teeth (12%) incomplete healing, and none were scored as uncertain or unsatisfactory healing after 1 year. The difference in healing between the GP and the MTA groups was significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions, The results from this RCT emphasize the importance of placing a root-end filling after root-end resection. Teeth treated with MTA had significantly better healing (96%) than teeth treated by smoothing of the orthograde GP root filling only (52%). [source]

    Corn and rice waste: a comparative and critical presentation of methods and current and potential uses of treated waste

    Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis
    Summary Although corn and rice waste can be hardly classified among the most hazardous waste, their treatment is very important in view of the great volume of waste materials involved. In this review article, an update is provided for most of the waste treatment techniques (composting, pyrolysis, gasification, combustion) used to alter the physical, chemical or biological character of the waste, to reduce its volume and/or toxicity and to make the waste safer for disposal. Furthermore, all current and potential uses of treated corn and rice waste such as fertilisers, biomass and biogas/biofuel are summarised. Four comprehensive tables and six figures provide a thorough presentation of both waste treatment methods (characteristics, advantages and disadvantages) and uses of treated corn and rice waste. [source]

    Wine waste treatment methodology

    Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis
    Summary As more than 20% of wine production is waste, the latter constitutes a serious environmental problem that has to be solved urgently. Several methodologies such as composting, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion, electrodialysis, pyrolysis, ozonation and wet oxidation among others were launched in an effort to solve effectively the wine waste management. This review aims at presenting comparatively and critically the characteristics of the currently employed waste treatment methods (properties, advantages and disadvantages, effectiveness) in order to emerge (with the aid of numerous tables and figures) the most promising and effective method. [source]

    A Clinical Review of Infected Wound Treatment with Vacuum Assisted Closure® (V.A.C.®) Therapy: Experience and Case Series

    Allen Gabriel
    ABSTRACT Over the last decade Vacuum Assisted Closure® (KCI Licensing, Inc., San Antonio, TX) has been established as an effective wound care modality for managing complex acute and chronic wounds. The therapy has been widely adopted by many institutions to treat a variety of wound types. Increasingly, the therapy is being used to manage infected and critically colonized, difficult-to-treat wounds. This growing interest coupled with practitioner uncertainty in using the therapy in the presence of infection prompted the convening of an interprofessional expert advisory panel to determine appropriate use of the different modalities of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) as delivered by V.A.C.® Therapy and V.A.C. Instill® with either GranuFoamÔ or GranuFoam SilverÔ Dressings. The panel reviewed infected wound treatment methods within the context of evidence-based medicine coupled with experiential insight using V.A.C.® Therapy Systems to manage a variety of infected wounds. The primary objectives of the panel were 1) to exchange state-of-practice evidence, 2) to review and evaluate the strength of existing data, and 3) to develop practice recommendations based on published evidence and clinical experience regarding use of the V.A.C.® Therapy Systems in infected wounds. These recommendations are meant to identify which infected wounds will benefit from the most appropriate V.A.C.® Therapy System modality and provide an infected wound treatment algorithm that may lead to a better understanding of optimal treatment strategies. [source]

    Does low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulate maturation of tissue-engineered cartilage?

    Georg N. Duda
    Abstract Traumatic events are a primary cause of local lesions of articular cartilage. Tissue engineered, cartilage-like structures represent an alternative to current treatment methods. The time necessary for tissue maturation and the mechanical quality of the regenerate at implantation are both critical factors for clinical success. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound has proven to accelerate chondrogenesis in vitro. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether low-intensity pulsed ultrasound is capable of accelerating the process of cartilage maturation and increasing regenerate stability. Hyaline-like cartilage specimens were generated in vitro and subcutaneously implanted in the backs of nude mice. Twenty-eight animals received 20 min of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment daily, and 28 animals received a sham treatment. Specimens were explanted after 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks, mechanically tested with the use of an indentation test, histologically examined, and processed for RT-PCR. The Young's moduli significantly increased from 3 to 12 weeks, and at 6 weeks were comparable to those of native articular cartilage. In histological examination, specimens showed neocartilage formation. There was no significant difference between ultrasound-treated and sham-treated groups. The mechanical stability of the neocartilage specimens increased with treatment time and reached values of native cartilage after 6 weeks in vivo. Low-intensity pulsed-ultrasound stimulation showed no stimulatory effect on tissue maturation. In contrast, ultrasound-treated specimens showed a reduced Col 2 expression at 1 week and were significantly less stiff compared to native cartilage at 6 and 12 weeks. An acceleration of the maturation of tissue-engineered neocartilage in a clinical setting by means of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therefore appears rather unrealistic. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 68B: 21,28, 2004 [source]

    Rapid saliva processing techniques for near real-time analysis of salivary steroids and protein

    Kelly R. Atkinson
    Abstract Introduction: Point-of-care (POC) measurements using saliva samples have immense potential to assess systemic health and wellbeing, but sample viscosity and contaminants can affect analyses. We sought a portable clean-up method for whole saliva appropriate for use with POC measurement techniques such as biosensors. Methods: Whole saliva from each of 13 male subjects was split into 5 fractions. Each fraction was treated with a different clean-up process: a freeze,thaw,centrifuge (FTC) step; centrifugation alone; or passage through a Mini-UniPrep polyethersulfone filter, cotton Salivette®, or foam Oracol device. Following clean-up, each subject's treated saliva fractions were assayed for cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and proteinconcentrations. The effects of clean-upmethods on nonspecific binding (NSB) in a biosensor were also assessed. Results: Compared with FTC, no analytes were affected by centrifugation alone. Cotton Salivettes significantly altered all analytes, with increases in cortisol (+64%), testosterone (+126%), and DHEA (off-scale) levels, and decreased protein (,21%) and biosensor NSB (,75%). Oracol foam devices decreased DHEA levels by 28%. Mini-UniPrep filtration decreased testosterone (,45%) and DHEA (,66%) concentrations while increasing cortisol (+40%). Conclusion: No method was optimal for all analytes, highlighting the need for validation of saliva treatment methods before their adoption in rapid POC analyses. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 22:395,402, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis,

    Nancy L. Sin
    Abstract Do positive psychology interventions,that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions,enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.29) and decrease depressive symptoms (mean r=.31). In addition, several factors were found to impact the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions, including the depression status, self-selection, and age of participants, as well as the format and duration of the interventions. Accordingly, clinicians should be encouraged to incorporate positive psychology techniques into their clinical work, particularly for treating clients who are depressed, relatively older, or highly motivated to improve. Our findings also suggest that clinicians would do well to deliver positive psychology interventions as individual (versus group) therapy and for relatively longer periods of time. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 65: 1,21, 2009. [source]

    Religion and spirituality in psychotherapy: a practice-friendly review of research

    Brian C. Post
    Abstract The role of religion and spirituality in psychotherapy has received growing attention in the last two decades, with a focus on understanding the ways that religion and spirituality relate to therapists, clients, and treatment methods. The authors reviewed recent empirical research on religion and spirituality in psychotherapy to inform practitioners about effective ways to incorporate the sacred into their clinical work. Three main areas are covered: religion/spirituality and therapists, religion/spirituality and clients, and religious/spiritual interventions. Research indicates that therapists are open to religious/spiritual issues, that clients want to discuss these matters in therapy, and that the use of religious/spiritual interventions for some clients can be an effective adjunct to traditional therapy interventions. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 65:131,146, 2009. [source]

    Immunomodulation of atherosclerosis: myth and reality

    A. Nicoletti
    Abstract. Nicoletti A, Caligiuri G & Hansson GK (Hôpital Broussais, Paris, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm). Immunomodulation of atherosclerosis: myth and reality (Minisymposium). J Intern Med 2000; 247: 397,405. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease which displays features of immune activation both locally and systemically. In the present review, we discuss the evidence for immune activation in human disease and experimental models, and survey candidate antigens associated with atherosclerosis. Studies of atherosclerosis in genetic models of immunodeficiency are analysed, as well as immunomodulating therapies and immunization protocols. Based on recent research, it is concluded that immunomodulation represents an interesting approach to the development of new prevention and treatment methods for atherosclerosis. [source]

    Factors associated with childhood constipation

    Mustafa Inan
    Aim: To evaluate factors associated with constipation, determine its risk factors and identify common methods of managing constipation among schoolchildren from ages 7,12 in Edirne, Turkey. Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study and 1900 children were stratified by the school population, age and gender. The questionnaire collected information from parents about the prevalence of constipation and associated factors as well. It asked about bowel movements, socio-demographic data, personal and family stressors, parental concern about constipation, and treatment methods. Results: The overall prevalence of constipation was 7.2%. It was 7.3% in boys and 7.2% in girls (P > 0.05). The parameters of siblings with health problems, constipation history in family members, abnormal oral habits, and little regular sporting activity were more common in constipated children than in non-constipated ones (P < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, never having used school toilets (OR: 5.9) and having problem to control their bowel after 2 years of age (OR: 3.1) were found to be major risk factors for constipation in schoolchildren ages 7,12 years. Constipated children had a lower consumption rate of fruits and vegetables and a higher consumption rate of milk-group foods, biscuits and macaroni than non-constipated children. Parental concern was at 90% and the rate of medical consultation was 23.2% for constipated children. Conclusions: The risk factors for childhood constipation may be genetic, psychological or organic. Bowel functions may be affected by dietary habits. Parents, health and education professionals should give special attention to childhood constipation. [source]

    The changes in T lymphocyte subsets following periodontal treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis

    Kamile Erciyas
    Objective:, The aim of this study was to determine whether there was any change in T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with chronic periodontitis after applying different periodontal treatment methods. Patients and methods:, Twenty-four patients with chronic periodontitis were included in the study. In every phase of the treatment (pretreatment, initial treatment, curettage and flap operations) the biopsy samples were taken from the gingival tissues at sites of chronic periodontitis. Then CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte and CD4+/CD8+ ratio values were determined using flow cytometry in the biopsy samples. At the same time, gingival pocket depth, Löe,Silness gingival index, and Silness,Löe plaque index scores were recorded to assess the periodontal status in patients. To determine the correlation between the clinical measurements and the laboratory results obtained before the treatment, after initial treatment, after curettage and after flap operations, we conducted an analysis using a paired t -test. Results:, Flow cytometry findings in the patients with chronic periodontitis showed that CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte values before treatment were under the normal value and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was within the normal distribution interval. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased postcurettage and postflap operation. This decrease was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte values were increased postcurettage and postflap operation. This increase was also statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions:, These findings suggest that local immune response was poor in the patients with chronic periodontitis. CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes could play a significant role in chronic periodontitis pathobiology. [source]

    Effects of Six Surface Treatment Methods on the Surface Roughness of a Low-Fusing and an Ultra Low-Fusing Feldspathic Ceramic Material

    Mehmet Dalkiz DDS
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effects of six surface treatment methods on the surface roughness of two feldspathic ceramic materials. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty metal discs were cast (Remanium CS). A low-fusing feldspathic ceramic (Vita Omega 900) was fired onto 60 metal discs, and an ultra low-fusing feldspathic ceramic (Finesse) was fired onto the other 60 metal discs. Six surface treatment methods were selected: (1) autoglazing (AUG), (2) overglazing (OVG), (3) polishing (POL), (4) fine diamond disc grinding + polishing + autoglazing (FDPA), (5) coarse diamond disc grinding + polishing + autoglazing (CDPA), (6) polishing + autoglazing (PA). Omega specimens were assigned to six experimental groups representing six surface treatment methods (Om-AUG, Om-OVG, Om-POL, Om-FDPA, Om-CDPA, Om-PA) (n = 10). Finesse specimens were also assigned to six experimental groups (Fn-AUG, Fn-OVG, Fn-POL, Fn-FDPA, Fn-CDPA, Fn-PA) (n = 10). Treated ceramic surfaces were examined by means of profilometry and transmission electron microscopy. Results: In Omega groups mean roughness values ranged as follows: group Om-AUG = Om-POL > Om-OVG > Om-CDPA = Om-FDPA > Om-PA (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between groups Om-AUG/Om-POL and Om-CDPA/Om-FDPA (p > 0.05). In Finesse groups mean roughness values ranged as follows: Fn-CDPA > Fn-FDPA = Fn-AUG = Fn-POL = Fn-OVG > Fn-PA (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between Fn-FDPA, Fn-AUG, Fn- POL and Fn-OVG (p > 0.05). Conclusions: For both ceramic types, the smoothest surfaces were obtained with polishing prior to autoglazing. Diamond disc grinding prior to polishing and autoglazing (Fn-FDPA, Fn-CDPA) displayed the roughest surfaces in ultra low-fusing ceramic (Finesse). Autoglazing alone and polishing displayed the roughest surfaces in low-fusing ceramic material (Om-AUG, Om-POL). [source]

    Chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain in men: aetiology, diagnosis and management,

    GA Luzzi
    ABSTRACT Patients with chronic prostatitis/pelvic pain syndrome typically report genital or pelvic pain (in or around the penis, perineum, scrotum) lasting >3 months. Whereas true chronic bacterial prostatitis is an uncommon condition characterised by recurrent prostatic and urinary infection, chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a common condition in which no infection is found. Recent surveys suggest a prevalence of 2.5,3% for CPPS. The four-glass test, traditionally used to distinguish inflammatory and inflammatory forms of CPPS, has not been adequately validated; whether the distinction is clinically meaningful is increasingly questioned. The aetiology of CPPS is not known; urodynamic studies imply a neuromuscular origin. More recent work supports a role for proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis. In the management of chronic bacterial prostatitis, trials support the use of quinolone antibiotics as first-line treatment. In contrast, the management of CPPS is generally unsatisfactory, as no reliable treatment has been identified. Treatments commonly tried include antibiotics (notably tetracyclines, quinolones and macrolides), anti-inflammatory agents, and alpha blockers. Newer approaches include trials of finasteride, quercetin and rofecoxib. A recent systematic review demonstrated that none of the current diagnostic and treatment methods for CPPS is supported by a robust evidence base. [source]

    Biosurgery in wound healing , the renaissance of maggot therapy

    Uwe Wollina
    Abstract Chronic wounds are a challenge for modern health care. A basic principle of treatment is the removal of sloughy, necrotic, devitalized tissue to prevent wound infection and delayed healing. Biosurgery (syn. maggot or larval therapy) is a promising adjunct to the whole spectrum of topical treatment methods, in particular for debridement. The term ,biosurgery' describes the use of living maggots on wounds to remove devitalized tissue, decrease the risk of infection and improve wound healing. The present paper gives a brief review of history, entomology, biochemistry and medical indications of biosurgery and the practical handling of maggots. We also provide some clinical data from the literature and our own experience in a wound care unit. Biosurgery is an effective and safe treatment option for debridement and disinfection. [source]

    Divergences in American psychiatry during the Depression: Somatic psychiatry, community mental hygiene, and social reconstruction,

    Hans Pols Ph.D. postdoctoral fellow
    The differences between somatic psychiatrists and mental hygienists, already apparent earlier, became much more pronounced during the Depression years, partly as a consequence of their different perspectives on this social crisis. Somatic psychiatrists, emboldened by the apparent success of new medical treatment methods, reasserted the central position of the mental hospital within psychiatry, attempted to improve the discipline's position within medicine, and promoted basic research. Mental hygienists, following the ideal of prevention, proposed far-reaching programs of community mental hygiene to alleviate widespread mental distress. A small group of mental hygienists embraced socialism and advocated measures of radical social reconstruction. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Effects of mechanical loading on collagen propeptides processing in cartilage repair

    Rosmarie Hardmeier
    Abstract Injured articular cartilage has poor reparative capabilities and if left untreated may develop into osteoarthritis. Unsatisfactory results with conventional treatment methods have brought as an alternative treatment the development of matrix autologous chondrocyte transplants (MACTs). Recent evidence proposes that the maintenance of the original phenotype by isolated chondrocytes grown in a scaffold transplant is linked to mechanical compression, because macromolecules, particularly collagen, of the extracellular matrix have the ability to ,self-assemble'. In load-bearing tissues, collagen is abundantly present and mechanical properties depend on the collagen fibre architecture. Study of the active changes in collagen architecture is the focus of diverse fields of research, including developmental biology, biomechanics and tissue engineering. In this review, the structural model of collagen assembly is presented in order to understand how scaffold geometry plays a critical role in collagen propeptide processing and chondrocyte development. When physical forces are applied to different cell-based scaffolds, the resulting specific twist of the scaffolds might be accompanied by changes in the fibril pattern synthesis of the new collagen. The alteration in the scaffolds due to mechanical stress is associated with cellular signalling communication and the preservation of N-terminus procollagen moieties, which would regulate both the collagen synthesis and the diameter of the fibre. The structural difference would also affect actin stabilization, cytoskeleton remodelling and proteoglycan assembly. These effects seemed to be dependent on the magnitude and duration of the physical stress. This review will contribute to the understanding of mechanisms for collagen assembly in both a natural and an artificial environment. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A comparison of Canadian and Australian paediatric occupational therapists

    AccOT Senior Lecturer, BScOT(Hons), Dr. G. Ted Brown PhD, OT(C)
    Abstract Paediatric occupational therapists were surveyed regarding their practices in Canada and Australia. Two hundred and eighty-nine Canadian occupational therapists and 330 Australian occupational therapists participated representing response rates of 28.9% and 55% respectively. The majority of respondents were female (98%), between 30 and 49 years of age (69%), had a bachelor's degree, worked on average 10.5 years in paediatrics and spent well over 50% of their work time in direct client care. The largest client diagnostic groups in both countries were those with developmental delays, learning disabilities and neurological disorders. Diagnostic groups were used as an organizing framework to portray theory, assessment and intervention use. Overall, the theoretical models cited most frequently in both countries were: Sensory Integration, Sensory Processing/Sensory Diet, Client-Centred Practice, and Occupational Performance Model. Australian therapists employed the Occupational Performance Model (Australia) for all groups, while it was rarely utilized in Canada. Common assessment tools in both Australia and Canada were the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Intervention methods focused on: parental/care-giver education; activities of daily living/self-care skills training; client education; environmental modification; assistive devices; sensory integration techniques; sensory stimulation and sensory diet treatment methods; and neurodevelopmental techniques. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]