Treatment Length (treatment + length)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The current status of antibiotic use in equine reproduction

M. M. LeBlanc
Summary Antibiotics are infused into the uterine lumen, added to semen extenders and given systemically for infections of the reproductive tract of the mare and stallion. Evidence-based guidelines for determining treatment length and route of administration are limited and use is frequently based on convenience or tradition. Current recommended antibiotic use for the treatment of bacterial and fungal endometritis, placentitis and metritis in the mare and genital infections of the stallion are presented. Antibiotic classes used for reproductive problems are also reviewed. [source]

Care provision for patients with eating disorders in Europe: what patients get what treatment where?

Matthias Richard
Abstract In this paper, we report on the similarities and differences between patients with eating disorders and the services provided to them across 80 centres participating in a European collaboration (COST Action B6). Differences in patient characteristics as well as differences in treatment regimen, especially length of treatment, are described. The relationship between patient characteristics, treatment setting and length of treatment is investigated by multilevel analysis. The findings show a rich diversity in service conditions and traditions across European countries. Patients with anorexia nervosa are mostly treated in inpatient settings, patients with bulimia nervosa are treated mostly as outpatients,with the exception of German-speaking countries. Day-patient settings were generally rare. Clinical characteristics of the patients,e.g. severity of symptoms or illness duration,contributed only little to the differences in treatment length (within as well as between centres), whereas organizational factors explained the largest proportion of between centre variability. The findings are discussed from a service research perspective. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Patients at risk of onychomycosis , risk factor identification and active prevention

A Tosti
ABSTRACT Objectives, The aims of this workshop were to identify risk factors for onychomycosis and to reach consensus on the management of high-risk groups to allow the development of guidelines to help doctors recognize risk factors that complicate treatment. Results and Conclusions, Previous Trichophyton rubrum infection, older age, abnormal nail morphology, immunodeficiency and genetic factors were identified as risk factors for initial infections. Risk factors for recurrence (relapse and re-infection) are largely the same. The experts agreed that the prevention of onychomycosis and its recurrence should be based on the correct treatment of tinea pedis, screening family members and adequate patient education. In addition, generic management recommendations for each high-risk group were discussed: ,,Immunosuppressed patients ,,Usual dose and treatment length not appropriate ,,Follow-up required ,,Beware of drug interactions ,,Diabetics ,,Prophylactic foot care combined with nail treatment ,,Good opportunity for patient education, footwear, foot care, etc. ,,Beware of drug interactions ,,Psoriatics and patients with abnormal nails ,,Dermatophyte eradication does not restore normal nails ,,Children ,,High failure rate possibly due to compliance problems. [source]

How to use virological tools for optimal management of chronic hepatitis C

Stéphane Chevaliez
Abstract Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem that may cause cirrhosis and progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently available antiviral treatments are moderately effective. Several virological assays are available to help diagnose and manage patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). These include the anti-HCV antibody assays, measurement of HCV RNA viral load and HCV genotyping. HCV RNA can be assayed by two types of molecular biology-based techniques: target amplification as in polymerase chain reaction methods and signal amplification such as the branched DNA assay. Monitoring of viral kinetics during the early phases of antiviral treatment is crucial in making treatment decisions such as early stopping rules and also in optimizing the length of treatment. The HCV genotype can be determined by several methods. Whatever the method, pretreatment determination allows treatment length and ribavirin dose to be optimized and also offers prognostic information on treatment outcomes as certain genotypes respond more favourably to treatment. Thus, virological assays are indispensable in the diagnosis and management of individuals infected with the HCV. [source]

Adolescent attitudes toward psychiatric medication: the utility of the Drug Attitude Inventory

Lisa Townsend
Background:, Despite the effectiveness of psychotropic treatment for alleviating symptoms of psychiatric disorders, youth adherence to psychotropic medication regimens is low. Adolescent adherence rates range from 10,80% (Swanson, 2003; Cromer & Tarnowski, 1989; Lloyd et al., 1998; Brown, Borden, and Clingerman, 1985; Sleator, 1985) depending on the population and medication studied. Youth with serious mental illness face increased potential for substance abuse, legal problems, suicide attempts, and completed suicide (Birmaher & Axelson, 2006). Nonadherence may increase the potential for negative outcomes. The Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) was created to measure attitudes toward neuroleptics and to predict adherence in adults (Hogan, Awad, & Eastwood, 1983). No studies have been identified that have used this instrument in adolescent psychiatric populations. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of the DAI for measuring medication attitudes and predicting adherence in adolescents diagnosed with mental health disorders. Method:, Structural equation modeling was used to compare the factor structure of the DAI in adults with its factor structure in adolescents. The relationship between adolescent DAI scores and adherence was examined also. Results:, The adult factor structure demonstrated only "fair" fit to the adolescent data (RMSEA = .061). Results indicated a low, but significant positive correlation (r = .205, p < .05) between DAI scores and adherence. Conclusions:, Lack of optimal model fit suggests that DAI items may require alteration to reflect adolescent experiences with psychiatric medication more accurately. Differences between adolescents and adults in developmental stage, symptom chronicity, diagnosis, and medication class may explain why the adult model demonstrated only "fair fit" to the adolescent data and why the correlation between DAI scores and adherence was low. The DAI may be improved for use with adolescents by creating items reflecting autonomy concerns, diagnostic characteristics, treatment length, and side effect profiles relevant to adolescent experiences. [source]

Basic principles of radiotherapy in ophtalmic oncology

Ophtalmologic Radiation Oncology concerns intra ocular tumors, orbital tumors and eyelid tumors. In these locations, tumors are often close to normal critical tissues, increasing the risk of radiation toxicities. Basic principles of ophthalmic radiotherapy are not really different from radiotherapy of others organs. They are based on a precise description of the tumor volume, knowledge of potential tumor local or regional extension, knowledge of tissue biological radiosensitivity for tumors and the surrounding normal tissues. Based on these features, treatment modalities (radiation treatment length and fractionation) are determined to fulfill the aims of medical curative intents: good local control with acceptable toxicities or the aims of medical palliative intents: to relief with minimal toxicities. Many types of radiation therapy can be used for ophthalmic tumors: brachytherapy, orthovoltage radiotherapy, conformal therapy with photons and electrons including intensity modulated radiation therapy, protontherapy, and the use of specific devices such as CyberKnife and Tomotherapy. All of these techniques have their advantages and their disadvantages, leading the radiation oncologist to make a choice depending on the tumor site and characteristics. [source]