Treatment Leading (treatment + leading)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Use of Contrast Echocardiography in the Diagnosis of an Unusual Cause of Congestive Heart Failure: Achalasia

George Stoupakis M.D.
Extrinsic compression of the left atrium is a potentially life-threatening but unusual cause of congestive heart failure. Achalasia is a motility disorder characterized by impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter and dilation of the distal two-thirds of the esophagus. We report only the third known case in the world literature of massive left atrial compression by a dilated esophagus in a patient with achalasia. The use of contrast echocardiography with perflutren protein-type A microspheres allowed for differentiation between a compressive vascular structure and the esophagus. This resulted in prompt treatment leading to hemodynamic stability after nasogastric decompression and Botulinum toxin injection at the gastroesophageal junction. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 21, February 2004) [source]

Combined Effect of Nitrogen- and Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups of Microporous Activated Carbon on its Electrochemical Performance in Supercapacitors

Denisa Hulicova-Jurcakova
Abstract Microporous activated carbon originating from coconut shell, as received or oxidized with nitric acid, is treated with melamine and urea and heated to 950,C in an inert atmosphere to modify the carbon surface with nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups for a systematic investigation of their combined effect on electrochemical performance in 1,M H2SO4 supercapacitors. The chemistry of the samples is characterized using elemental analysis, Boehm titration, potentiometric titration, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Sorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide is used to determine the textural properties. The results show that the surface chemistry is affected by the type of nitrogen precursor and the specific groups present on the surface before the treatment leading to the incorporation of nitrogen. Analysis of the electrochemical behavior of urea- and melamine-treated samples reveal pseudocapacitance from both the oxygen and the nitrogen containing functional groups located in the pores larger than 10,. On the other hand, pores between 5, and 6, are most effective in a double-layer formation, which correlates well with the size of hydrated ions. Although the quaternary and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen groups have enhancing effects on capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads, the most important functional groups affecting energy storage performance are pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen along with quinone oxygen. [source]

A simple two steps ytterbium triflate-catalysed preparation of 2,2-dimethyl-2h -chromenes from salicylaldehydes and 2-methylpropene

Soizic Prado
The preparation of various 2,2-dimethyl-2H -chromenes was achieved in two steps via an ytterbium triflate-catalysed reaction between salicylaldehydes, trimethylorthoformate and 2-methylpropene. From salicylaldehyde, two reaction products were characterised: 4-methoxy-2,2-dimethylchroman and 2-(1,3-dimethoxy-3-methylbutyl)phenol. The former compound probably results from a Lewis acid-catalysed [2+4] cycloaddition between the intermediate quinonemethide and 2-methylpropene whereas the latter may occur via a reaction related to a carbonyl-ene reaction between the quinonemethide and 2-methylpropene. Both compounds were subjected to a catalytic acidic treatment leading to 2,2-dimethyl-2H -chromene. Starting from various salicylaldehydes, the scope of this method was investigated. [source]

Reduction of asthma burden is possible through National Asthma Plans

ALLERGY, Issue 4 2010
M. Kupczyk
To cite this article: Kupczyk M, Haahtela T, Cruz AA, Kuna P. Reduction of asthma burden is possible through National Asthma. Allergy 2010; 65: 415,419. Abstract Despite increase in understanding of asthma patomechanisms the practical actions to lessen asthma burden in the communities are far behind of scientific knowledge. There are still reports of uderdiagnosis and poor treatment leading to repeated severe exacerbations, often demanding emergency care and hospitalisation, which cause most of the economic burden both for families and society. From the public health perspective, the key issue is to implement the best standards of care in every-day practice. The problems are different in high income compared to low- and middle-income countries, and the solutions have to be tailored to each country needs and resources. We present here examples from Finland, Poland and Brazil, to show that asthma burden can be reduced using varied strategies in quite different societal, economical and health care environments. The experience from those interventions confirms that regardless of the health care system and its coverage, a major change for the better can be achieved by local efforts, systematic planning and networking to implement the best asthma practice. [source]

Formation of endothermic carbides on iron and nickel

A. Wiltner
Abstract The formation of endothermic carbides on Fe and Ni is studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) by deposition of carbon films from the vapor phase and subsequent annealing steps. The reaction between carbon and metal substrates is measured by shifts in the C 1s photoelectron peaks. By comparison with two elementary carbon photoelectron energies determined from carbon films on unreactive Au substrates, a carbide peak in the C 1s spectra on reactive Fe and Ni substrates is identified. The carbides formed after deposition of carbon films at room temperature are located at the interface between carbon film and metal substrate. We report on the behavior of elementary carbon films with respect to film thickness and thermal treatment leading to carbide formation and carbon diffusion into the bulk. ( 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]