Treatment Interactions (treatment + interaction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Changing Views of Serpent Handling: A Quasi-Experimental Study

Ralph W. Hood
Knowledge about serpent handling sects (SHS) even among social scientists and legislators has been largely influenced by biased media reports. Our own field research suggests that factual knowledge about SHS is effective in changing stereotypes about serpent handling and in altering views as to the rights of believers to handle serpents in church. In a quasi-experimental study, participants were pretested with respect to both prejudicial and reasoned evaluative views about SHS. Participants saw either a video of contemporary SHS in which handlers demonstrated and explained their faith, or a control tape in which contemporary SHS were shown but serpent handling was neither demonstrated nor defended. As predicted, viewing the serpent handling video was effective in reducing stereotyping of SHS and in changing attitudes regarding the sincerity of the believers and the right of SHS to practice their faith without legal constraints. Appropriate controls indicated that changes were not simply a function of a pretest by treatment interaction. The relevance of these data for altering laws against the practice of serpent handling is discussed. [source]

Yield, Boll Distribution and Fibre Quality of Hybrid Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) as influenced by Organic and Modern Methods of Cultivation

D. Blaise
Abstract India is the largest cotton-growing country (8.9 million hectares) in the world and most of the area is rain-dependent. Large amount of pesticides are used for the control of sucking pests and lepidopterans. Increasing demand for clean organic fibre has led to an interest in organic cotton. However, information on the effects of organic cultivation on fibre quality is limited. Seed cotton yield and fibre quality (length, strength, micronaire and uniformity) were determined for an organic and modern method of cultivation during 3 years (2002,2003 to 2004,2005) of a 11-year (1994,1995 to 2004,2005) study. Vertical and horizontal distribution of bolls on a cotton plant was also determined in 2003,2004 and 2004,2005. At the end of year 11, soil samples were collected and analysed for soil organic carbon content, water-stable aggregates (%), and mean weight diameter. Averaged over 3 years, an additional 94 kg seed cotton ha,1 was produced in the organic over the modern method of cultivation and the difference was significant. The year × treatment interaction was significant. Seed cotton yield in the organic plots was significantly greater than the modern method of cultivation plots in 2003,2004 because of a well-distributed normal rainfall and low pest incidence. The main stem nodes 13,22 accounted for the largest numbers of bolls present on the plant. Plants of the organic plots had significantly (37,71 %) more bolls on nodes 13,27 than those for the plants of the modern method of cultivation. Lateral distribution of bolls on a sympodial (fruiting) branch, was noticed up to fruiting point 11. However, treatment differences were not significant. With regard to fibre quality (length, strength, fineness and uniformity), differences between years were significant. Inferior quality fibre was produced in 2004,2005 because of delayed planting and early cessation of rain. On average, cotton grown under organic conditions compared with the modern method of cultivation had significantly better fibre length (25.1 vs. 24.0 mm) and strength (18.8 vs. 17.9 g tex,1). Soil samples of the organic plots had significantly greater C content, water-stable aggregates and mean weight diameter than the modern method of cultivation plots. Differences were restricted to the top layers (0,0.1 and 0.1,0.2 m). Yield benefits of growing cotton in an organic system over the modern method of cultivation are expected to be greater in years receiving normal rainfall and having low pest incidence. [source]

Why are all colour combinations not equally represented as flower-colour polymorphisms?

John Warren
Summary ,,Flower-colour polymorphism within the British flora appears more common in species whose flowers typically contain pink, purple or blue anthocyanin pigments rather than other coloured pigments. In this study we test the hypothesis that this variation in anthocyanin pigmentation may be maintained by selection related to environmental heterogeneity and stress tolerance. ,,Observations were made of stem pigmentation, shoot dry mass and seed production in five polymorphic species under different droughted and well watered conditions. ,,The results show that over both treatments the morphs did not differ in their fitness. However, a significant morph times treatment interaction revealed that the pigmented plants performed relatively better in the droughted conditions, while the unpigmented plants performed relatively better in the well watered treatment. ,,The results support the idea that anthocyanin based flower-colour polymorphisms may be better considered as polymorphism for the presence or absence of anthocyanin pigmentation throughout the entire plant. This variation may be maintained by selection related to environmental heterogeneity and stress tolerance. [source]

Allocating treatment options to patient profiles: clinical art or science?

ADDICTION, Issue 5 2006
Gerhard Bühringer
ABSTRACT Background For many researchers, the disappointing results of Project MATCH were the death blow for any further activities in the field of patient,treatment interactions. On the other hand, we have an increased knowledge of patient heterogeneity and a greater variety of treatment options than before, and allocation guidelines for an ongoing process of patient-placement decisions are of high practical relevance. Aims To analyse deficits in the current research and to provide suggestions for future action. Findings It is argued that (1) certain major design aspects of Project MATCH and other research studies,such as stringent patient exclusion criteria and low treatment ,dosage',minimize the chances of detecting possible patient,treatment interactions and (2) Project MATCH obscures our view of previous treatment-allocation research findings., Conclusions Several research strategies and specific research topics are suggested for (1) improving the theoretical and methodological basis for detecting possible patient,treatment interactions and (2) stimulating research on major treatment decision needs, such as site, setting, time in treatment (extensiveness and intensity), service components and specific treatment modules. More international research cooperation is needed to clarify the inconsistent findings. [source]

Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for tinnitus

Gerhard Andersson
Tinnitus is a common otological problem that is often resistant to surgical or medical interventions. In common with chronic pain, cognitive-behavioral treatment has been found to alleviate the distress and improve the functioning of tinnitus patients. Recently, a self-help treatment has been developed for use via the Internet. In this article, we describe the self-help program and apply it to a middle-aged woman with tinnitus. We report the case formulation, which was done in a structured interview, and the treatment interactions, which were conducted via e-mail. The self-help program was presented on Web pages, and weekly diaries were submitted to follow progress and give feedback. The treatment was successful with reductions of tinnitus-related annoyance and anxious and depressive mood. Implications for Internet administration of self-help treatment are discussed. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol/In Session. [source]

Prenatal testosterone treatment potentiates the aggression-inhibiting effect of the neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone in female mice

Fabrice Perché
Abstract The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a powerful inhibitor of aggression in murine models when given for 15 days and potentially may be useful in the management of inappropriate human aggression. Although the biosynthesis and metabolism of DHEA have been described, little is known about the potential effect of the steroidal environment during sexual differentiation on the subsequent response to DHEA. Whether prenatal androgen exposure influences the subsequent response to DHEA was assessed by comparing the effect of DHEA (80 ,g/d) on aggression in female offspring where dams were treated with 1, 10, or 100 ,g of testosterone (T) on days 15 to 18 of gestation (Experiment I) or that developed in different uterine positions (Experiment II). The results showed that DHEA decreased attack behavior in general and that the 100-,g prenatal T treatments enhanced the antiaggressive effect of this neurosteroid. Neither the lower doses of exogenously administered T nor the uterine position led to an enhanced response to DHEA. In addition, whether DHEA produced changes in social and nonsocial activities was examined. In the 100-,g T females, DHEA increased the duration of the former and decreased the frequency and duration of the latter, indicating that it was not a general decrement in behavioral expression that mediated the enhanced response to the antiaggressive effect of DHEA. In the second experiment, DHEA treatment led to increased frequencies of social nonaggressive and nonsocial activities. However, the uterine positions × treatment interactions were not significant, demonstrating that contiguity to male fetuses did not differentially affect the response to DHEA. Aggr. Behav. 27:130,138, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The Search for Mechanisms of Behavior Change in Evidence-Based Behavioral Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorders: Overview

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2007
Robert B. Huebner
Background:, Over the past three decades, the main question of interest to alcohol treatment researchers has concerned the main effects of a particular behavioral intervention or what works. Increasingly, alcohol treatment researchers are turning their attention to the underlying psychological, social, and even neurophysiologic processes or "active ingredients" that are driving therapeutic change. Method:, The articles contained in this supplement to Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research grew out of invited presentations given at a one-day satellite session immediately preceding the 28th Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA). The conference was a collaborative effort of the Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addiction at the University of New Mexico, the Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, Brown University, and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health. Results:, The conference featured a mix of full-length presentations on conceptual and methodological issues, reports of original research findings, and lively discussion among speakers and conference participants. Understanding mechanisms of behavior change will benefit the field by identifying the key aspects of therapy that must be present for maximum effect, irrespective of the specific technique being applied; provide a new way to approach patient,treatment interactions; and lay the groundwork for understanding how change is affected by social and other extratreatment factors. Conclusions:, Although not a new topic to the field, understanding mechanisms of behavior change has begun to capture the interest of an increasing number of alcohol treatment researchers. Understanding behavior change is an exceedingly complex enterprise and innovative thinking and creative research designs will be required to advance the field. [source]


Error management training explicitly allows participants to make errors. We examined the effects of error management instructions ("rules of thumb" designed to reduce the negative emotional effects of errors), goal orientation (learning goal, prove goal, and avoidance goal orientations) and attribute x treatment interactions on performance. A randomized experiment with 87 participants consisting of 3 training procedures for learning to work with a computer program was conducted: (a) error training with error management instructions, (b) error training without error management instructions; and (c) a group that was prevented from making errors. Results showed that short-and medium-term performance (near and far transfer) was superior for participants of the error training that included error management instructions, compared with the two other training conditions. Thus, error management instructions were crucial for the high performance effects of error training. Prove and avoidance goal orientation interacted with training conditions. [source]