Treatment Guidelines (treatment + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Treatment Guidelines

  • current treatment guideline

  • Selected Abstracts


    Roy A. Bean
    To serve African-American families effectively, marriage and family therapists need to develop a level of cultural competence. This content analysis of the relevant treatment literature was conducted to examine the most common expert recommendations for family therapy with African Americans. Fifteen specific guidelines were generated, including orient the family to therapy, do not assume familiarity, address issue of racism, intervene multi-systemically, do home visits, use problem-solving focus, involve religious leader, incorporate the father, and acknowledge strengths. conceptual and empirical support for each guideline is discussed, and conclusions are made regarding culturally conpetent therapy with African-American families. [source]

    The ALLHAT Study Revisited: Do Newer Data From This Trial and Others Indicate Changes in Treatment Guidelines?

    Marvin Moser MD
    Following a hypertension symposium in Washington, DC, in November 2006, a panel was convened to discuss new data from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) and to revisit the significance of this trial in the management of hypertension. Based on these data and information from other trials, the expert panel also addressed the questions, "Is it time for a new Joint National Committee report?" and "Should the 2003 hypertension treatment recommendations be updated or are they still valid?" The panel was moderated by Marvin Moser, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. On the panel were Suzanne Oparil, MD, Professor of Medicine at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, and President of the American Society of Hypertension (ASH); William Cushman, MD, Professor of Preventive Medicine and Medicine at the University of Tennessee in Memphis and attending physician at the Washington, DC, VA Medical Center; and Vasilios Papademetriou, MD, Professor of Medicine at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, and attending physician at the Washington, DC, VA Medical Center. This expert panel discussion was supported by Pfizer Inc and each author received an honorarium from Pfizer Inc for time and effort spent participating in the discussion and reviewing the transcript for important intellectual content prior to publication. The authors maintained full control of the discussion and the resulting content of this article; Pfizer had no input in the choice of topic, speakers, or content. (Please note that Dr Oparil's comments herein do not represent the official opinion of ASH.) [source]

    Hypertension Treatment Guidelines: Is It Time for an Update?

    Marvin Moser MD Editor in Chief
    First page of article [source]

    Treatment Strategies in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Evidence-Based Review of Clinical Trial Results and Treatment Guidelines: Report on a Roundtable Discussion

    With the availability of new data and the recent release of new European and US guidelines, contemporary care paradigms for the treatment of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS), including those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, are likely to undergo substantial changes. In recognition of this shifting landscape as well as the impact of new guidelines on care models for the treatment of patients with NSTE ACS, a roundtable was convened on October 25, 2007, to discuss the implications of these changes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the presentations and subsequent discussions from the roundtable, which examined the guidelines and evidence from a variety of perspectives, and to explore the best ways to incorporate new treatment paradigms into everyday clinical care. The multiple viewpoints expressed by the roundtable attendees illustrate the recognition that at this point, consensus has not been reached on the optimum algorithm for treatment of these patients. This article focuses on issues discussed during the roundtable from the perspective of the practicing cardiologist. [source]

    Efficacy of imatinib dose escalation in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase,,§

    CANCER, Issue 3 2009
    Hagop M. Kantarjian MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Imatinib mesylate given orally at a daily dose of 400 mg is the standard of care as initial therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CML-CP). Treatment guidelines propose dose escalation based on clinical assessments of disease response. METHODS: Response and survival were analyzed in a cohort of patients (n = 106) with newly diagnosed CML-CP who were enrolled on the International Randomized Study of Interferon and STI571 (IRIS) trial, who began treatment with imatinib at a dose of 400 mg daily, and who subsequently underwent dose escalation to either 600 mg or 800 mg daily. Reasons for dose escalation were evaluated retrospectively based on 2 sets of criteria: the IRIS protocol-defined criteria (n = 39 patients) and the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations (n = 48 patients). RESULTS: Among all 106 patients who underwent dose escalation, the rates of freedom from progression to accelerated phase or blast phase and overall survival were 89% and 84% at 3 years after dose increase, respectively. A cytogenetic response was obtained in 42% of patients who had their dose escalated based on protocol criteria and in 38% of patients who had their dose escalated according to the ELN recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this retrospective analysis supported imatinib dose escalation as an appropriate initial option for patients with CML-CP who were experiencing suboptimal cytogenetic response or resistance. Cancer 2009. © 2008 American Cancer Society. [source]


    Hiroyuki Maguchi
    ABSTRACT Endoscopic treatment is applied to a relatively large number of biliary and pancreatic duct strictures, and is a practical matter. It is essential to select the most appropriate treatment for each lesion. For instance, when treating malignant biliary stricture, accurate diagnosis of whether surgical treatment is required or not is vital; and in choosing a stent for an inoperable case, location of the stricture, with or without anticancer treatment, prognosis, and management of possible post-stenting re-stricture must be taken into consideration. For benign strictures, not only short-term results in mobility and motality, but also decades of long-term results must be cautiously questioned. Bearing these in mind, we need to accumulate the worldwide data of the treatments and establish a proper treatment guideline. [source]

    Antiepileptic drugs in children in developing countries: Research and treatment guideline needs

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 11 2009
    Mina Farkhondeh
    Summary Epilepsy is the most common neurologic disorder in childhood. Effective interventions are available for treatment; however, the treatment gap in children is more than 80% in many developing countries. An important reason for this huge treatment gap is limited access to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This article discusses the reasons for such a treatment gap, and possible ways forward in improving care of children with epilepsy worldwide. [source]

    Hippocampal volume and antidepressant response in geriatric depression

    Ming-Hong Hsieh
    Abstract Background Biological markers of treatment response may include structural brain changes seen on neuroimaging. While most imaging studies have focused on cerebrovascular disease, evidence is growing that the hippocampus may play a role in depression, particularly geriatric depression. Method We studied 60 depressed elderly patients enrolled in a longitudinal study who were treated with antidepressant medications using a treatment guideline-based approach. Baseline and 12-week Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores were obtained via interview with a geriatric psychiatrist. All subjects had a baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan. MRI scans were processed using standard protocols to determine total cerebral volume and right and left hippocampal volumes. Hippocampal volumes were standardized for total cerebral volume. MADRS scores less than 10 were used to define remission. Results When the group with the lowest quartile of standardized hippocampal volumes was compared to those above the first quartile, those with small right and total hippocampal volumes were less likely to achieve remission. In a subsequent logistic regression model controlling for age small standardized right hippocampal volumes remained significantly associated with remission. Conclusion Further studies with larger sample are needed to determine if left-right hippocampal volume differences do exist in depression, and basic neuroscience studies will need to elucidate the role of the hippocampus in geriatric depression. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Thalidomide for the treatment of multiple myeloma

    Yutaka Hattori
    ABSTRACT Although thalidomide was withdrawn in the 1960s after its teratogenic property was recognized, it was subsequently found that this drug possesses immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies have also demonstrated that thalidomide has antineoplastic activity via an antiangiogenic mechanism. Observations in the late 1990s that the microenvironment in the bone marrow plays a role in tumor progression in multiple myeloma provided an impetus to use thalidomide for the treatment of this disease. It is known that thalidomide monotherapy is effective in one-third of refractory cases, and in combination with glucocorticoids and/or antineoplastic drugs, thalidomide provides a response rate of more than 50%. Thus, thalidomide therapy is considered a standard approach for the treatment of relapsed and refractory myeloma. The exact mechanism of the antimyeloma effect of thalidomide is not yet clearly understood. Anti-angiogenic effects, direct activity in tumor cells such as the induction of apoptosis or G1 arrest of the cell cycle, the inhibition of growth factor production, the regulation of interactions between tumor and stromal cells, and the modulation of tumor immunity have been considered as possible mechanisms. In addition to its teratogenicity, the adverse effects of thalidomide have been general symptoms such as somnolence and headache, peripheral neuropathy, constipation, skin rash, and other symptoms. Although these adverse effects are generally reversible and mild, grade 3 and 4 toxicities such as peripheral neuropathy, deep venous thrombosis, neutropenia, and toxic dermal necrosis have occasionally been reported. The application of thalidomide therapy in patients with multiple myeloma is being broadened to include not only cases of refractory myeloma, but also previously untreated cases, as well as for maintenance therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and for the treatment of other hematological diseases. The safe use of this drug will depend on the establishment of diagnostic and treatment guidelines. In addition, the establishment of a nation-wide regulation system is urgently needed in Japan. [source]

    Effect of treatment delay upon pulp and periodontal healing of traumatic dental injuries , a review article

    J.O. Andreasen
    Abstract,,,Based on an analysis of the literature concerning parameters influencing the prognosis of traumatic dental injuries, few studies were found to have examined possible relationships between treatment delay and pulpal and periodontal ligament healing complications. It has been commonly accepted that all injuries should be treated on an emergency basis, for the comfort of the patient and also to reduce wound healing complications. For practical and especially economic reasons, various approaches can be selected to fulfill such a demand, such as acute treatment (i.e. within a few hours), subacute (i.e. within the first 24 h), and delayed (i.e. after the first 24 h). In this survey the consequences of treatment delay on pulpal and periodontal healing have been analyzed for the various dental trauma groups. Applying such a treatment approach to the various types of injuries, the following treatment guidelines can be recommended, based on our present rather limited knowledge of the effect of treatment delay upon wound healing. Crown and crown/root fractures: Subacute or delayed approach. Root fractures: Acute or subacute approach. Alveolar fractures: Acute approach (evidence however questionable). Concussion and subluxation: Subacute approach. Extrusion and lateral luxation: Acute or subacute approach (evidence however questionable). Intrusion: Subacute approach (evidence however questionable). Avulsion: If the tooth is not replanted at the time of injury, acute approach; otherwise subacute. Primary tooth injury: Subacute approach, unless the primary tooth is displaced into the follicle of the permanent tooth or occlusal problems are present; in the latter instances, an acute approach should be chosen. These treatment guidelines are based on very limited evidence from the literature and should be revised as soon as more evidence about the effect of treatment delay becomes available. [source]

    Incidence and diagnostic diversity in first-episode psychosis

    R. Reay
    Reay R, Mitford E, McCabe K, Paxton R, Turkington D. Incidence and diagnostic diversity in first-episode psychosis. Objective:, To investigate the incidence and range of diagnostic groups in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) in a defined geographical area. Method:, An observational database was set up on all patients aged 16 years and over presenting with FEP living in a county in Northern England between 1998 and 2005. Results:, The incidence of all FEP was 30.95/100 000. The largest diagnostic groups were psychotic depression (19%) and acute and transient psychotic disorder (19%). Fifty-four per cent of patients were aged 36 years and over. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder only accounted for 55% of cases. Conclusion:, This clinical database revealed marked diversity in age and diagnostic groups in FEP with implications for services and guidelines. These common presentations of psychoses are grossly under researched, and no treatment guidelines currently exist for them. [source]

    Interpreting clinical trials of diabetic dyslipidaemia: new insights

    A. S. Wierzbicki
    Current treatment guidelines highlight the importance of aggressive lipid-modifying therapy in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Statins are established as the cornerstone of dyslipidaemia management in diabetic patients, based on their efficacy in lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, statins fail to address the high residual cardiovascular risk in treated patients, some of which may be attributable to low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated triglycerides and to a preponderance of small, dense LDL particles, indicating the need for further intervention. Fibrates are effective against all components of atherogenic dyslipidaemia associated with type 2 diabetes. Clinical studies, most notably the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes, indicate that fibrates, most likely in combination with a statin, have a secondary role in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly in those without prior cardiovascular disease or patients with low HDL-C. Results are awaited from the ongoing Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes trial to fully evaluate the outcome benefits of this combination strategy. [source]

    Combination statin,fibrate therapy: safety aspects

    R. Franssen
    Patients with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome remain at high residual risk of cardiovascular events even after intensive statin therapy. While treatment guidelines recommend the addition of a fibrate to statin therapy in this setting, concerns about the potential for myopathy may limit the use of this combination in clinical practice. These concerns are certainly justified for gemfibrozil, which interferes with statin glucuronidation, leading to elevation in statin plasma concentrations and an increased risk of myotoxicity in combination with a range of commonly prescribed statins. However, the available evidence refutes suggestions that this is a class effect for fibrates. Fenofibrate does not adversely influence the metabolism or pharmacokinetics of any of the commonly prescribed statins. This in turn translates to a reduced potential for myotoxicity in combination with a statin. Data are awaited from the ongoing Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fenofibrate plus simvastatin combination therapy in type 2 diabetes patients. [source]

    A survey of tobacco dependence treatment guidelines in 31 countries

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    Martin Raw
    ABSTRACT Aims The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) asks countries to develop and disseminate comprehensive evidence-based guidelines and promote adequate treatment for tobacco dependence, yet to date no summary of the content of existing guidelines exists. This paper describes the national tobacco dependence treatment guidelines of 31 countries. Design, setting, participants A questionnaire on tobacco dependence treatment guidelines was sent by e-mail to a convenience sample of contacts working in tobacco control in 31 countries in 2007. Completed questionnaires were received from respondents in all 31 countries. During the course of these enquiries we also made contact with people in 14 countries that did not have treatment guidelines and sent them a short questionnaire asking about their plans to produce guidelines. Measurements The survey instrument was a 17-item questionnaire asking the following key questions: do the guidelines recommend brief interventions, intensive behavioural support, medications; which medications; do the guidelines apply to the whole health-care system and all professionals; do they refer explicitly to the Cochrane database; are they based on another country's guidelines; are they national or more local; are they endorsed formally by government; did they undergo peer review; who funded them; where were they published; do they include evidence on cost effectiveness of treatment? Findings According to respondents, all their countries' guidelines recommended brief advice, intensive behavioural support and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT); 84% recommended bupropion; 19% recommended varenicline; and 35% recommended telephone quitlines. Nearly half (48%) included cost-effectiveness evidence. Seventy-one per cent were supported formally by their government and 65% were supported financially by the government. Most (84%) used the Cochrane reviews as a source of evidence, 84% underwent a peer review process and 55% were based on the guidelines of other countries, most often the United States and England. Conclusion Overall, the guidelines reviewed followed the evidence base closely, recommending brief interventions, intensive behavioural support and NRT, and most recommended bupropion. Varenicline was not on the market in most of the countries in this survey when their guidelines were written, illustrating the need for guidelines to be updated periodically. None recommended interventions not proven to be effective, and some recommended explicitly against specific interventions (for lack of evidence). Most were peer-reviewed, many through lengthy and rigorous procedures, and most were endorsed or supported formally by their governments. Some countries that did not have guidelines expressed a need for technical support, emphasizing the need for countries to share experience, something the FCTC process is well placed to support. [source]

    Health-related quality of life assessment in randomised controlled trials in multiple myeloma: a critical review of methodology and impact on treatment recommendations

    Ann Kristin Kvam
    Abstract Objectives:, Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) often have pronounced symptoms and substantially reduced quality of life. The aims of treatment are to control disease, maximise quality of life and prolong survival. Hence, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) should be an important end-point in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in addition to traditional endpoints. We wanted to evaluate whether trials reporting HRQOL outcomes have influenced clinical decision making and whether HRQOL was assessed robustly according to predefined criteria. Methods:, A systematic review identified RCTs in MM with HRQOL assessment as a study end-point. The methodological quality of these studies was assessed according to a checklist developed for evaluating HRQOL outcomes in clinical trials. The impact of the HRQOL results on clinical decision making was assessed, using published clinical guidelines as a reference. Results:, Fifteen publications presenting RCTs with HRQOL as a study end-point were identified. In 13 trials, the author stated that HRQOL results should influence clinical decision making. We found, however, that the HRQOL data only had a limited impact on published treatment guidelines for bisphosphonates, high-dose treatment, interferon, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and novel agents. Conclusion:, The present review indicates that the there are still few RCTs in MM including HRQOL as a study end-point. Systematic incorporation of HRQOL measures into clinical trials allows for a comparison of treatment arms that includes the patients' perspective. Before the full impact on clinical decisions can be realised, the quality and methodology of collecting HRQOL data must be further improved and the results rendered more comprehensible to clinicians. [source]

    From Hemicrania Lunaris to Hemicrania Continua: An Overview of the Revised International Classification of Headache Disorders

    HEADACHE, Issue 7 2004
    Jonathan P. Gladstone MD
    The International Headache Society's (IHS) Classification of Headache Disorders, published in 1988, is largely responsible for stimulating the rapid scientific and therapeutic advances that have revolutionized the field of headache. By establishing consistent operational diagnostic criteria for primary and secondary headache disorders, the IHS Classification has facilitated epidemiological and genetic studies as well as the multinational clinical trials that provide the basis for our present treatment guidelines. Fifteen years after its original release, a revised 2nd edition has been unveiled. Modifications are small but significant. We hope to introduce clinicians to the salient changes in the 2nd edition by highlighting the newly included headache types, acknowledging the renamed headache types, and reviewing the modifications in diagnostic criteria for existing headache types. Physicians involved in the care of headache patients need to be aware of these changes and should continue to consult the IHS criteria to ensure accurate diagnosis, to continue to refine the diagnostic criteria, and to contribute to the body of knowledge necessary to make further advances in the classification as well as in the field of headache. [source]

    Treatment recommendations for chronic hepatitis B: An evaluation of current guidelines based on a natural history study in the United States,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Myron John Tong
    Current guidelines for treatment of chronic hepatitis B include hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status, levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values in the setting of either chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis. Based on findings from a prospective study of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients, we determined whether these guidelines included patients who developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and who died of non-HCC liver-related complications. The criteria for treatment from four published guidelines were matched to a cohort of 369 HBsAg-positive patients enrolled in the study. During a mean follow-up of 84 months, 30 patients developed HCC and 37 died of non-HCC liver-related deaths. Using criteria for antiviral therapy as stated by the four guidelines, only 20%-60% of the patients who developed HCC, and 27%-70% of patients who died of non-HCC liver-related deaths would have been identified for antiviral therapy according to current treatment recommendations. If baseline serum albumin levels of 3.5 mg/dL or less or platelet counts of 130,000 mm3 or less were added to criteria from the four treatment guidelines, then 89%-100% of patients who died of non-HCC liver-related complications, and 96%-100% of patients who developed HCC would have been identified for antiviral therapy. In addition, if basal core promoter T1762/A1764 mutants and precore A1896 mutants also were included, then 100% of patients who developed HCC would have been identified for treatment. Conclusion: This retrospective analysis showed that the current treatment guidelines for chronic hepatitis B excluded patients who developed serious liver-related complications. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]

    CD4 cell count and initiation of antiretroviral therapy: trends in seven UK centres, 1997,2003

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 3 2007
    W Stöhr
    Objectives We examined whether the timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in routine clinical practice reflected treatment guidelines, which have evolved towards recommending starting therapy at lower CD4 cell counts. Methods We analysed longitudinal data on 10 820 patients enrolled in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study, which includes seven large clinical centres in south-east England. CD4 cell and viral load measurements performed in the period between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2003 were classified according to whether ART was subsequently initiated or deferred, to estimate the probability of ART initiation by CD4 count and viral load over time. The effect of nonclinical factors (age, sex, ethnicity, and exposure category) was analysed by logistic regression. Kaplan,Meier analysis was used to estimate the proportion of patients who had initiated ART by a particular CD4 count among ,early' presenters (initial CD4 cell count >500 cells/,L). Results There was a tendency to initiate ART at lower CD4 cell counts over time in the years 1997,2000, especially in the range 200,500 cells/,L, with little change thereafter. An estimated 34% of HIV-infected individuals having presented early initiated ART at a CD4 count <200 cells/,L. We also found an independent influence of viral load, which was particularly pronounced for CD4 <350 cells/,L. Use of injection drugs was the only nonclinical factor associated with initiation of ART at lower CD4 cell counts. Conclusions The initiation of ART in the clinics included in this analysis reflected evolving treatment guidelines. However, an unexpectedly high proportion of patients started ART at lower CD4 counts than recommended, which is only partly explained by late presentation. [source]

    BHIVA treatment guidelines for tuberculosis (TB)/HIV infection 2005

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue S2 2005
    AL Pozniak
    First page of article [source]

    Medical management of left-sided ulcerative colitis and ulcerative proctitis: Critical evaluation of therapeutic trials

    Miguel Regueiro MD
    Abstract Background: The goal of this work was to critically evaluate the published studies on the treatment of ulcerative proctitis (UP) and left-sided ulcerative colitis (L-UC). The results of this review provided the content for the accompanying treatment guidelines, Clinical Guidelines for the Medical Management of Left-sided Ulcerative Colitis and Ulcerative Proctitis: Summary Statement. Methods: All English language articles published between 1995 and September 2005 were identified through a comprehensive literature search using OVID and PubMed. The quality of the data supporting or rejecting the use of specific therapies was categorized by a data quality grading scale. An "A+" grade was assigned to treatment supported by multiple high-quality randomized controlled trials with consistent results, whereas a "D" grade was given to therapy supported only by expert opinion. The therapeutic efficacy of a treatment was defined by its success in treating UP and L-UC compared with placebo. A medication was ranked as "excellent" if it was specifically studied for UP and L-UC and had consistently positive results compared with placebo or another agent. Quality and efficacy scores were agreed on by author consensus. Results: For the acute treatment of UP or L-UC, the rectally administered corticosteroids and mesalazine (5-ASA), either alone or in combination with oral 5-ASAs, are the most effective therapy: evidence quality, A+; efficacy, excellent. Only rectally administered 5-ASA received an A+/excellent rating for maintenance of remission. Infliximab received an A+ grade for induction and maintenance of remission but only a "good" rating because the studies were performed in all UC, not specifically UP or L-UC. Conclusions: This critical evaluation of treatment provides a "report card" on medications available for the management of patients with UP and L-UC. The guidelines should provide a useful reference and supplement for physicians treating UC patients. [source]

    Heterogeneity of violence in schizophrenia and implications for long-term treatment

    J. Volavka
    Summary Aims:, Most patients with schizophrenia are not violent. However, persistent violent behaviour in a minority of patients presents a therapeutic challenge. Published treatment guidelines and most pharmacological and epidemiological literature on violence in schizophrenia treat overt physical aggression as a homogeneous phenomenon. The aim of this review is to address the subtyping of violent behaviour in schizophrenia, and to relate the subtypes to treatment. Method:, Literature describing subtypes of violence in schizophrenia and the treatment of this problem was reviewed. ,Schizophrenia', ,violence', ,aggression', ,hostility' and ,personality disorders' were the principal search terms describing behaviours. Generic names of individual atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilisers were used in treatment searches. Results:, There are at least three aetiological subtypes of violence in schizophrenia (i) that related directly to positive psychotic symptoms, (ii) impulsive violence and (iii) violence stemming from comorbidity with personality disorders, particularly psychopathy. Current treatment of violence in schizophrenia relies on antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. The evidence of effectiveness is relatively strong for clozapine, but inconsistent for other treatments. No systematic recommendations relating the treatment to aetiological subtypes of violence were found. Discussion:, The inconsistent effectiveness of the current treatments of violent behaviour in schizophrenia is due, at least in part, to the aetiological heterogeneity of that behaviour. We should not expect that any given pharmacological treatment will be equally effective in reducing violent behaviour caused by psychosis, impaired impulse control or personality disorder. Conclusion:, Violence in schizophrenia is aetiologically heterogeneous. This heterogeneity has therapeutic implications that impact clinical practice today and should be further explored in future studies. [source]

    Prediabetes: a must to recognise disease state

    W. Shehab Eldin
    Summary Prediabetes mellitus (PDM) is defined as a state of abnormal glucose homeostasis in which deficiency or resistance to insulin is the hallmark. PDM precedes the development of overt type 2 DM. It is associated with increased mortality and morbidity and thus fits well with the criteria of a disease condition. Framing PDM as a disease and not a risk or a ,pre' stage for diabetes is needed to facilitate early management. Aim:, This review aims therefore to increase awareness of PDM as a disease state. Methods:, To do so, we shall preview guidelines for its diagnosis. Its prevalence and hazards will be then discussed. Finally, we shall elaborate on the current treatment guidelines. Result:, Enough evidence support the notion that PDM is a curable disease state. Conclusions:, The current recommendations for the treatment of PDM should be adhered. In addition, there is a room for the use of other pharmacological agents. [source]

    Diagnosis and management of erectile dysfunction in the primary care setting

    M. T. Rosenberg
    Summary Recent advances in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED) involve the use of oral phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor therapies which have transformed the perception of ED for both the patient and the healthcare provider. Recent treatment guidelines, including the American Urological Association (AUA) 2005 guidelines, promote a goal-oriented approach to therapy and emphasise that PDE-5 therapy should be offered to patients with ED as a first-line treatment option, unless contraindicated. Evidence-based studies have identified an association between ED and the presence of risk factors for cardiovascular and other vascular diseases, implicating ED as a marker for other vascular conditions. Therefore, the importance of screening and diagnosis in the primary care setting is paramount in the diagnosis and management of ED-associated comorbidities. This review provides an update on ED screening and management focusing on the use of PDE-5 inhibitor therapy in the primary care setting and also discusses clinical efficacy parameters with regard to recent results from clinical trials. [source]

    Update on treatment guidelines for acute bacterial sinusitis

    J. M. Klossek
    Summary Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) is a common complication of viral upper respiratory tract infections and represents a considerable social burden both in terms of diminished quality of life for the patient and the economic implications of decreased productivity and treatment costs. Several national health authorities have developed guidelines for the management of ABS, which aim to promote rational selection of anti-bacterial therapy to optimise clinical outcomes while minimising the potential for selection of anti-bacterial resistance as a result of inappropriate anti-bacterial usage. This article provides an overview of current guidelines, with particular focus on the clinical significance of variations in treatment recommendations and new treatment options, such as the ketolide telithromycin, which was recently added to a number of national treatment guidelines. [source]

    Barriers to the self-care of type 2 diabetes from both patients' and providers' perspectives: literature review

    Sandra PY Pun MHA
    Aim., To review systematically the literature about barriers to diabetes self-care from both patients' and healthcare providers' perspectives. Background., Diabetes mellitus is a global health concern due to rapidly increasing prevalence. The healthcare costs for diabetes care and related complications are high. Tight glycaemic control achieved by intensive therapy has been shown to lower the risk of complications. Despite the provision of comprehensive management programmes, patients are often unable to achieve the desired outcomes. It is essential to understand the barriers to diabetes self-care in order to promote successfully self-care behaviours. Methods., A search of OVID Medline (R), CINAHL, Cochrane Library and British Nursing Index was carried out during 1986,2007 using keywords: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, self care, patient compliance, patient adherence and barriers to diabetes self care. Manual searching of relevant nursing journals and sourcing of secondary research extended the search. Results., A total of 16 original research papers using various methods including survey, descriptive correlational, sequential explanatory mixed-method and qualitative exploratory design were reviewed. In total, over 8900 patients and 4550 healthcare providers were recruited from over 28 countries in these studies. Major barriers identified included psychosocial, socioeconomic, physical, environmental and cultural factors. Conclusions., Healthcare providers can enhance patient empowerment and participation with family support to achieve feasible targets. Better health care delivery systems and reforms that improve affordability, accessibility, and efficiency of care are essential for helping both providers and patients to meet desirable standards of diabetes care. Relevance to clinical practice., Understanding barriers to diabetes self-care is the first step in facilitating providers to identify their role in enabling patients to overcome these barriers. Healthcare providers can develop strategies to clarify and individualise treatment guidelines, implement continuing education, improve communication skills, and help motivate patients to achieve desired behavioral changes. [source]

    Critical appraisal of the management of severe malnutrition: 1.

    Epidemiology, treatment guidelines
    Abstract: Hospital case-fatality rates for severe malnutrition in the developing world remain high, particularly in Africa where they have not changed much over recent decades. In an effort to improve case management, WHO has developed treatment guidelines. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the evidence for the guidelines and review important recent advances in the management of severe malnutrition. We conclude that not only is the evidence base deficient, but also the external generalisability of even good-quality studies is seriously compromised by the great variability in clinical practice between regions and types of health facilities in the developing world, which is much greater than between developed countries. The diagnosis of severe wasting is complicated by the dramatic change in reference standards (from CDC/WHO 1978 to CDC 2000 in EpiNut) and also by difficulties in accurate measurement of length. Although following treatment guidelines has resulted in improved outcomes, there is evidence against the statement that case-fatality rates (particularly in African hospitals) can be reduced below 5% and that higher rates are proof of poor practice, because there is wide variation in severity of illness factors. The practice of prolonged hospital treatment of severe malnutrition until wasting and/or oedema has resolved is being replaced by shorter hospital stays combined with outpatient or community follow-up because of advances in dietary management outside of hospital. [source]

    CE ARTICLE: Recognizing and treating upper extremity lymphedema in postmastectomy/lumpectomy patients: A guide for primary care providers

    Eva Quirion MSN
    Abstract Purpose: To provide an overview of the lymphatics, physiology of lymphedema (LE), incidence, risks, and costs as well as a guide for the primary care provider on how to recognize the symptoms of LE, a review of current published treatment recommendations, and advice about making a referral to appropriate LE specialists. Data sources: Selected studies on diagnosing and treating LE in breast cancer patients following mastectomy/lumpectomy and evidence-based treatment guidelines. Conclusions: LE is the most common complication related to breast cancer treatment with an occurrence estimated between 10% and 60% depending on the parameters used for measurement. Most commonly, LE occurs within the first 3 years after breast cancer treatment, but the remaining cases happen beyond this period of time and can occur after many years. This means that significant numbers of patients with LE can present to primary care clinicians. Implications for practice: A patient who is treated for breast cancer will be followed for a time by the oncology team, but eventually, that patient will be discharged from the oncology practice and will be seen in primary care. Risk factors for developing LE include treatment-related (number of nodes removed and radiation to axilla), disease-related (stage and location of tumor), and patient-related (younger age, obesity, and comorbid conditions) factors. A systematic evaluation of any patient presenting with LE will assure accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment. [source]

    Diagnosis and treatment of atrial fibrillation in the acute care setting

    ACNP-BC, Fatima Nottingham MS
    Abstract Purpose: To discuss the causes of atrial fibrillation (AF), risk factors, and pathophysiology, and review current treatment guidelines for AF in the inpatient setting. Data sources: Peer-reviewed medical and nursing journals, American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Heart Association (AHA), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) practice guidelines. Conclusions: There are many predisposing factors to AF and a variety of treatment modalities. Nurse practitioners (NPs) should acquaint themselves with the pathophysiology and evidence-based treatments in order to provide individually based care to patients. Implications for practice: Pharmacological management is often warranted in patients with AF. NPs must be aware of updated clinical evidence in order to properly treat patients to provide symptomatic relief and improve quality of life. [source]

    Syphilis: An old enemy still lurks

    Assistant Professor of Clinical Nursing, FNP Family Nurse Practitioner, L. A. Ferguson MSN
    Abstract Purpose: To review the problem of increasing cases of syphilis as a communicable disease and to review different presentations of syphilis and to discuss treatment guidelines. Data sources: Extensive review of worldwide scientific literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of syphilis. Conclusions: Syphilis is an infectious sexually transmitted disease, which may have devastating consequences. Previously declining rates have led to complacency in prevention and diagnosis. Primary prevention includes education regarding safer sexual practices. Secondary prevention includes early identification via screening and treatment. Implications for practice: Syphilis is a contagious disease that has devastating consequences if not diagnosed and treated. Providers should keep ever vigilant in its identification. Specifically, it should be considered when evaluating all symptom-less dermatological lesions. [source]

    Health Professionals' Attitudes toward Acute Diarrhea Management

    Iain B. McIntosh
    Background: Travelers' diarrhea is the most frequent health problem in those participating in international journeys, and is responsible for many consultations abroad and on return home. Methods: A questionnaire assessing attitudes toward treatment and management of travel-related and nontravel-related diarrhea was administered to 542 GPs, nurses and pharmacists. Results: Health professionals' attitudes to management of acute diarrhea are variable, with marked divergence regarding adherence to published "good practice" guidelines and recommendations. Inconsistencies exist in stated attitudes toward prescribing antispasmodics and antimotility agents and actual prescribing behavior. Conclusion: Current treatment guidelines may be outdated. Inappropriate or delayed treatment disadvantages the patient. Limiting the use of antidiarrheal agents can deny access, for those inflicted with diarrhea, to a medication which may shorten symptomatology and morbidity, and speed the return to normality. Review of guidelines for diarrhea management in adults is overdue, as is standardization of treatment response. Educational initiatives are required to encourage active intervention and improved provision of care. [source]