Treatment Gains (treatment + gain)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cognitive therapy versus moclobemide in social phobia: a controlled study

Désirée B. Oosterbaan
Eighty-two patients with social phobia were randomly assigned to cognitive therapy or double-blind drug treatment with moclobemide (300,600 mg per day) or placebo. After 15 weeks of active treatment, a 2-month treatment-free follow-up as well as a 15-month naturalistic follow-up were scheduled. At post-test, cognitive therapy was significantly superior to moclobemide, but not to placebo, on a composite social phobia measure. At 2-month follow-up, cognitive therapy was superior to both moclobemide and placebo. Treatment gains were maintained in cognitive therapy during 2-month and 15-month follow-up, however, most patients (66%) who completed the study needed additional cognitive and/or behavioural treatment. Moclobemide proved not superior to placebo at post-test as well as at 2-month follow-up. As most patients from the medication conditions were treated with cognitive and/or behavioural treatment during the naturalistic follow-up period, at the 15-month assessment no between-group differential effects were found to remain. These results indicate that cognitive therapy is an effective treatment for social phobia in both the short and long term. As the results from previous studies on the efficacy of moclobemide in social phobia were inconclusive, our data tip the scales in the direction that there is no place for moclobemide in the treatment of social phobia. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Role of exposure with response prevention in cognitive,behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa: Three-year follow-up results

Frances A. Carter
Abstract Background Previous studies have not reported the longer-term outcome of exposure-based treatments for bulimia nervosa. The current study evaluated the 3-year outcome of a randomized clinical trial that compared the additive efficacy of exposure-based versus nonexposure-based behavioral treatments (BT) with a core of cognitive,behavior therapy (CBT). Methods One hundred thirteen women participated in the original treatment trial and attended a 3-year follow-up assessment. Eating disorder diagnoses and primary, secondary, and tertiary outcome measures were assessed. The impact of treatment completion on symptomatology and the stability of treatment effects over time were evaluated. Results At the 3-year follow-up, 85% of the sample had no current diagnosis of bulimia nervosa and 69% had no current eating disorder diagnoses of any sort. Failure to complete CBT was associated with inferior outcome. No clear advantages were evident for participants who completed BT in addition to CBT. For subjects who did complete both CBT and BT, outcome was mostly stable from posttreatment to follow-up. No differential effects were found for exposure versus nonexposure-based treatments at 3-year follow-up. Discussion The results of the current study compare favorably with other treatment outcome studies for bulimia nervosa and suggest that treatment gains are maintained after 3 years. © 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 33: 127,135, 2003. [source]

Long-term effects of a psycholinguistic treatment for dyslexia

Jurgen Tijms
Short and long-term effects of a treatment for dyslexia are evaluated. The treatment is based on psycholinguistic theory and assumes that dyslexia is due to poor lexico-phonological processing of words. The treatment is computer-based and focuses on learning to recognise and to make use of the phonological and morphological structure of Dutch words. The results of the treatment were clear improvements in reading words, reading text and spelling. Effect sizes of standardised treatment gains were large (Cohen's d>0.80 for all variables). Following the treatment, participants attained an average level of text-reading and spelling. The attained level of reading words and reading text was found to be stable over a four-year follow-up period. Spelling showed a slight decline one year after the treatment, but remained stable thereafter.1 [source]

Naltrexone and Cue Exposure With Coping and Communication Skills Training for Alcoholics: Treatment Process and 1-Year Outcomes

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2001
Peter M. Monti
Background: Promising treatments for alcoholics include naltrexone (NTX), cue exposure combined with urge-specific coping skills training (CET), and communication skills training (CST). This study investigated the effects of combining these elements as treatment adjuncts. Methods: A 2 × 2 design investigated the effects of CET combined with CST, as compared with an education and relaxation control treatment, during a 2-week partial hospital program (n= 165) followed by 12 weeks of NTX (50 mg/day) or placebo during aftercare (n= 128). Drinking outcomes were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months after discharge from the partial hospital. Process measures included urge, self-efficacy (confidence about staying abstinent in risky situations), and self-reported coping skills. Medically eligible alcohol-dependent patients were recruited. Results: Among those compliant with medication on at least 70% of days, those who received NTX had significantly fewer heavy drinking days and fewer drinks on days that they drank than those receiving placebo during the medication phase but not during the subsequent 9 months. CET/CST-condition patients were significantly less likely to report a relapse day and reported fewer heavy drinking days at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups than patients in the control treatment. Interactions of medication with behavioral treatments were not significant. Process measures showed that NTX resulted in lower weekly urge ratings, and those in CET/CST used more of the prescribed coping skills after treatment, reported fewer cue-elicited urges, and reported more self-efficacy in a posttest role-play test. Drinking reductions at 3, 6, and 12 months correlated with more use of coping skills, lower urge, and higher self-efficacy. Conclusions: The results suggest the probable value of keeping alcoholics on NTX for longer periods of time and the importance of increasing compliance with NTX. They also support the earlier promising effects of CET and CST as adjuncts to treatment programs for alcoholics by maintaining treatment gains over at least a year. The value of the urge-specific and general coping skills and of self-efficacy and urge constructs was demonstrated in their association with drinking outcomes. [source]

A self-directed psychosocial intervention with minimal therapist contact for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Caroline S. Stevenson
Using a randomized controlled design, the efficacy of a self-directed psychosocial intervention with minimal therapist contact, aimed at reducing the symptoms of adult ADHD, was examined. Following the intervention, the treatment group reported significantly reduced ADHD symptomatology; improved organizational skills; improved self esteem and better anger control, when compared to waiting list controls. Comorbid anxiety, depression, high levels of stress and learning problems, did not effect treatment outcome. Improvements in ADHD symptomatology and organizational skills were maintained at a 2-month follow-up. Although the programme was successful, close adherence to the programme was necessary for optimum treatment gains. These findings build upon an earlier study that used a more intensive form of programme delivery and support the view that psychosocial interventions can enhance daily functioning for adult ADHD. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Anger Treatment for Adults: A Meta-Analytic Review

Raymond DiGiuseppe
We included 50 between-group studies with control groups and 7 studies with only within-group data in a meta-analysis of adult anger treatments. Overall, we examined 92 treatment interventions that incorporated 1,841 subjects. Results showed that subjects who received treatment showed significant and moderate improvement compared to untreated subjects and a large amount of improvement when compared to pretest scores. In the group of controlled studies significant heterogeneity of variance and significant differences among effect sizes for different dependent variable categories were found. Anger interventions produced reductions in the affect of anger, reductions in aggressive behaviors, and increases in positive behaviors. An analysis of follow-up data suggested that treatment gains were maintained. [source]