Treatment Failure (treatment + failure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Treatment Failure

  • helicobacter pylori treatment failure
  • pylori treatment failure

  • Terms modified by Treatment Failure

  • treatment failure rate

  • Selected Abstracts


    Delayed Presentation of Low Molecular Weight Heparin Treatment Failure in a Patient With Mitral Valve Prosthesis

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 1 2007
    Sotiris C. Stamou M.D.
    The patient did not develop the embolic complication from the thrombosis until almost 4 months after the bridging sequence with low molecular weight heparin. The patient underwent thrombectomy of the mitral valve. At least 16 similar cases with mechanical valve prostheses and treatment failure of low molecular weight heparin have been reported. [source]


    Microbial Aetiology Of Endodontic Treatment Failure And Pathogenic Properties Of Selected Species

    AUSTRALIAN ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
    Dip Endo, Dr David Figdor MDSc (Melb), FRACDS
    First page of article [source]


    A Community-Based Study of Helicobacter pylori Therapy Using the Strategy of Test, Treat, Retest, and Re-treat Initial Treatment Failures

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2006
    Yi-Chia Lee
    Abstract Background:, Although eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection can decrease the risk of gastric cancer, the optimal regimen for treating the general population remains unclear. We report the eradication rate (intention-to-treat and per protocol) of a community-based H. pylori therapy using the strategy of test, treat, retest, and re-treat initial treatment failures. Materials and methods:, In 2004, a total of 2658 residents were recruited for 13C-urea breath testing. Participants with positive results for infection received a standard 7-day triple therapy (esomeprazole 40 mg once daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily), and a 10-day re-treatment (esomeprazole 40 mg once daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and levofloxacin 500 mg once daily) if the follow-up tests remained positive. Both H. pylori status and side-effects were assessed 6 weeks after treatment. Results:, Among 886 valid reporters, eradication rates with initial therapy were 86.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 84.7,89.1%) and 88.7% (95%CI: 86.5,90.9%) by intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis, respectively. Re-treatment eradicated infection in 91.4% (95%CI: 86,96.8%) of 105 nonresponders. Adequate compliance was achieved in 798 (90.1%) of 886 subjects receiving the initial treatment and in all 105 re-treated subjects. Mild side-effects occurred in 24% of subjects. Overall intention-to-treat and per protocol eradication rates were 97.7% (95%CI: 96.7,98.7%) and 98.8% (95%CI: 98.5,99.3%), respectively, which were only affected by poor compliance (odds ratio, 3.3; 95%CI, 1.99,5.48; p < .0001). Conclusions:, A comprehensive plan using drugs in which the resistance rate is low in a population combined with the strategy of test, treat, retest, and re-treat of needed can result in virtual eradication of H. pylori from a population. This provides a model for planning country- or region-wide eradication programs. [source]


    ,Rescue' Therapy with Rifabutin after Multiple Helicobacter pylori Treatment Failures

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 2 2003
    Javier P. Gisbert
    abstract Aim. Eradication therapy with proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and amoxicillin is extensively used, although it fails in a considerable number of cases. A ,rescue' therapy with a quadruple combination of omeprazole, bismuth, tetracycline and metronidazole (or ranitidine bismuth citrate with these same antibiotics) has been recommended, but it still fails in approximately 20% of cases. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a rifabutin-based regimen in patients with two consecutive H. pylori eradication failures. Patients and Methods. Design: Prospective multicenter study. Patients: Consecutive patients in whom a first eradication trial with omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin and a second trial with omeprazole, bismuth, tetracycline and metronidazole (three patients) or ranitidine bismuth citrate with these same antibiotics (11 patients) had failed were included. Intervention: A third eradication regimen with rifabutin (150 mg bid), amoxicillin (1 g bid) and omeprazole (20 mg bid) was prescribed for 14 days. All drugs were administered together after breakfast and dinner. Compliance with therapy was determined from the interrogatory and the recovery of empty envelopes of medications. Outcome: H. pylori eradication was defined as a negative 13C-urea breath test 8 weeks after completing therapy. Results. Fourteen patients have been included. Mean age ± SD was 42 ± 11 years, 41% males, peptic ulcer (57%), functional dyspepsia (43%). All patients took all the medications and completed the study protocol. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication was achieved in 11/14 patients (79%; 95% confidence interval = 49,95%). Adverse effects were reported in five patients (36%), and included: abdominal pain (three patients), nausea and vomiting (one patient), and oral candidiasis (one patient); no patient abandoned the treatment due to adverse effects. Conclusion. Rifabutin-based rescue therapy constitutes an encouraging strategy after multiple previous eradication failures with key antibiotics such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and tetracycline. [source]


    Impact of Furazolidone-Based Quadruple Therapy for Eradication of Helicobacter pylori after Previous Treatment Failures

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2002
    G. Treiber
    Abstract Background. One week of quadruple therapy including metronidazole is recommended for Helicobacter pylori treatment failures after first line therapy regardless of resistance status. This study investigated whether a quadruple regimen containing furazolidone could be effective as a third-line (salvage) therapy. Methods. All patients with previous H. pylori treatment failure after a clarithromycin-metronidazole ± amoxicillin combination plus acid suppression were given lansoprazole 30 mg twice a day (bid), tripotassiumdicitratobismuthate 240 mg bid, tetracycline 1 g bid, metronidazole 400 mg (PPI-B-T-M) three times a day (tid) for 1 week. In the case of treatment failure with this second-line therapy, the same regimen was applied for 1 week except for using furazolidone 200 mg bid (PPI-B-T-F) instead of metronidazole (sequential study design). Results. Eighteen consecutive patients were treated with PPI-B-T-M. Eleven of those 18 remained H. pylori positive (38.9% cured). Pretherapeutic metronidazole resistance was associated with a lower probability of eradication success (10% vs. 75%, p= .04). Ten of these 11 patients agreed to be retreated by PPI-B-T-F. Final cure of H. pylori with PPI-B-T-F was achieved in 9/10 patients (90%) nonresponsive to PPI-B-T-M. Conclusions. In the presence of metronidazole resistance, PPI-B-T-M as a recommended second-line therapy by the Maastricht consensus conference achieved unacceptable low cure rates in our metronidazole pretreated population. In this population, metronidazole based second-line quadruple therapy may be best suited in case of a metronidazole-free first line-regimen (e.g. PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin) or a low prevalence of metronidazole resistance. Furazolidone in the PPI-B-T-F combination does not have a cross-resistance potential to metronidazole and is a promising salvage option after a failed PPI-B-T-M regimen. [source]


    The HOMER Study: The Effect of Increasing the Dose of Metronidazole When Given with Omeprazole and Amoxicillin to Cure Helicobacter pylori Infection

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2000
    Karna Dev Bardhan
    Background.Helicobacter pylori eradication with omeprazole, amoxycillin, and metronidazole is both effective and inexpensive. However, eradication rates with different dosages and dosing vary, and data on the impact of resistance are sparse. In this study, three different dosages of omeprazole, amoxycillin, and metronidazole were compared, and the influence of metronidazole resistance on eradication was assessed. Methods. Patients (n = 394) with a positive H. pylori screening test result and endoscopy-proven duodenal ulcer in the past were enrolled into a multicenter study performed in four European countries and Canada. After baseline endoscopy, patients were randomly assigned to treatment for 1 week with either omeprazole, 20 mg twice daily, plus amoxycillin, 1,000 mg twice daily, plus metronidazole, 400 mg twice daily (low M); or omeprazole, 40 mg once daily, plus amoxycillin, 500 mg three times daily, plus metronidazole, 400 mg three times daily (medium M); or omeprazole, 20 mg twice daily, plus amoxycillin, 1,000 mg twice daily, plus metronidazole, 800 mg twice daily (high M). H. pylori status at entry was assessed by a 13C urea breath test and a culture. Eradication was defined as two negative 13C-urea breath test results 4 and 8 weeks after therapy. Susceptibility testing using the agar dilution method was performed at entry and in patients with persistent infection after therapy. Results. The eradication rates, in terms of intention to treat (ITT) (population n = 379) (and 95% confidence interval [CI]) were as follows: low M 76% (68%, 84%), medium M 76% (68%, 84%), and high M 83% (75%, 89%). By per-protocol analysis (population n = 348), the corresponding eradication rates were: low M 81%, medium M 80%, and high M 85%. No H. pylori strains were found to be resistant to amoxycillin. Prestudy resistance of H. pylori strains to metronidazole was found in 72 of 348 (21%) of the cultures at entry (range, 10%,39% in the five countries). The overall eradication rate in prestudy metronidazole-susceptible strains was 232 of 266 (87%) and, for resistant strains, it was 41 of 70 (57%; p < .001). Within each group, the results were as follows (susceptible/resistant): low M, 85%/54%; medium M, 86%/50%; and high M, 90%/75%. There were no statistically significant differences among the treatment groups. 23 strains susceptible to metronidazole before treatment were recultured after therapy failed; 20 of these had now developed resistance. Conclusions.H. pylori eradication rates were similar (approximately 80%) with all three regimens. Metronidazole resistance reduced efficacy; increasing the dose of metronidazole appeared not to overcome the problem or significantly improve the outcome. Treatment failure was generally associated with either prestudy or acquired metronidazole resistance. These findings are of importance when attempting H. pylori eradication in communities with high levels of metronidazole resistance. [source]


    Excellent outcome following down-staging of hepatocellular carcinoma prior to liver transplantation: An intention-to-treat analysis,,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Francis Y. Yao
    We previously reported encouraging results of down-staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to meet conventional T2 criteria (one lesion 2,5 cm or two to three lesions <3 cm) for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in 30 patients as a test of concept. In this ongoing prospective study, we analyzed longer-term outcome data on HCC down-staging in a larger cohort of 61 patients with tumor stage exceeding T2 criteria who were enrolled between June 2002 and January 2007. Eligibility criteria for down-staging included: (1) one lesion >5 cm and up to 8 cm; (2) two to three lesions with at least one lesion >3 cm and not exceeding 5 cm, with total tumor diameter up to 8 cm; or (3) four to five lesions with none >3 cm, with total tumor diameter up to 8 cm. A minimum observation period of 3 months after down-staging was required before OLT. Tumor down-staging was successful in 43 patients (70.5%). Thirty-five patients (57.4%) had received OLT, including two who had undergone live-donor liver transplantation. Treatment failure was observed in 18 patients (29.5%), primarily due to tumor progression. In the explant of 35 patients who underwent OLT, 13 had complete tumor necrosis, 17 met T2 criteria, and five exceeded T2 criteria. The Kaplan-Meier intention-to-treat survival at 1 and 4 years after down-staging were 87.5% and 69.3%, respectively. The 1-year and 4-year posttransplantation survival rates were 96.2% and 92.1%, respectively. No patient had HCC recurrence after a median posttransplantation follow-up of 25 months. The only factor predicting treatment failure was pretreatment alpha-fetoprotein >1,000 ng/mL. Conclusion: Successful down-staging of HCC can be achieved in the majority of carefully selected patients and is associated with excellent posttransplantation outcome. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]


    TRIZAL study: switching from successful HAART to TrizivirTM (abacavir-lamivudine-zidovudine combination tablet): 48 weeks efficacy, safety and adherence results

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 2 2003
    C Katlama
    Objective To assess the antiviral efficacy, safety, and adherence in subjects who switched to TrizivirÔ following long-term HIV-1 RNA suppression. Study design A randomized, open-label, multicentre, 48-week comparative study in subjects who have received two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors plus a protease inhibitor or an nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors for at least 6 months, with a history of undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA since initiation of therapy and plasma viral load of < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL at screening. Methods Subjects were randomized 1:1 to continue their current treatment or to switch to a simplified treatment with TrizivirÔ administered twice daily. Assessments included plasma HIV-1 RNA, lymphocyte counts, clinical laboratory evaluations, adverse events, and adherence to treatment (obtained via subject self-report). Treatment failure was defined as a plasma viral load of , 400 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL on two consecutive occasions or premature discontinuation of randomized treatment. Results At week 48, the proportion of treatment failures in TrizivirÔ arm (23/106, 22%) was noninferior to that observed in continued arm (23/103, 22%) with a treatment difference stratified by prior ART of 1.2%[-10.1; 12.5]. Incidence of adverse events was similar in both treatment groups. The incidence of possible hypersensitivity reaction in the TrizivirÔ arm was 10%. Significant reductions in cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels were observed in the TrizivirÔ arm (P < 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). Conclusion Switching to TrizivirÔ offers a potent and simplified regimen with equivalent efficacy and significant improvement in lipid abnormalities compared to continued triple therapy. [source]


    Infliximab in the treatment of severe, steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis: A pilot study

    INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES, Issue 2 2001
    Dr. Bruce E. Sands
    Abstract We report the experience of 11 patients (of 60 planned patients) enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of infliximab in patients with severe, active steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis. The study was terminated prematurely because of slow enrollment. Patients having active disease for at least 2 weeks and receiving at least 5 days of intravenous corticosteroids were eligible to receive a single intravenous infusion of infliximab at 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight. The primary endpoint used in this study was treatment failure at 2 weeks after infusion. Treatment failure was defined as 1) unachieved clinical response as defined by a modified Truelove and Witts severity score, 2) increase in corticosteroid dosage, 3) addition of immunosuppressants, 4) colectomy, or 5) death. Safety evaluations included physical examination, clinical chemistry and hematology laboratory tests, and occurrence of adverse experiences. Four of 8 patients (50%) who received infliximab were considered treatment successes at 2 weeks, compared with none of 3 patients who received placebo. Improvement in erythrocyte sedimentation rates and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 correlated with the clinical response observed in patients receiving infliximab. Infusion with infliximab produced no significant adverse events. Infliximab was well tolerated and may provide clinical benefit for some patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis. [source]


    Treatment failure with rituximab in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris

    JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    W Weger
    [source]


    Maximally safe resection followed by hypofractionated re-irradiation for locally recurrent ependymoma in children

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 7 2009
    Arthur K. Liu MD
    Abstract Background Treatment failure in children with ependymoma is relatively common, with the majority of events consisting of local failure. Salvage therapy for these children historically had poor results, with repeated local recurrences. To improve these outcomes, we began to offer hypofractionated re-irradiation after resection at first local recurrence. To minimize the duration of therapy, we chose a hypofractionated regimen that has been shown to be well tolerated in adult patients. Procedure We performed a review of the experience at the Children's Hospital in Denver and at the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Colorado Denver from 1995 to 2008 with hypofractionated re-irradiation after maximally safe resection in children with locally recurrent ependymoma. Results Six children with locally recurrent ependymoma were seen in that time period. After maximally safe resection, all six received hypofractionated radiation therapy of 24,30 Gy delivered in three fractions. With a median follow-up of 28 months from the time of re-irradiation, all six children are alive with no evidence of disease. Three children had evidence of radiation necrosis, either clinically or based on imaging, but none required significant intervention. Conclusions Hypofractionated re-irradiation after resection for locally recurrent ependymoma is well tolerated. This approach also appears to provide good local control. Additional follow-up is required to determine the efficacy and potential late effects of hypofractionated re-irradiation in this patient population. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;52:804,807. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Prognostic significance of tumour angiogenesis in schistosoma-associated adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2002
    E. El Sobky
    Objective To report on tumour angiogenesis and its relationship with morphological variables and prognosis in adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder associated with schistosomiasis. Patients and methods Fifty-five vesical adenocarcinomas were evaluated from 30 men and 25 women (mean age 47.2 years, sd 8.7, range 30,65) who were followed up after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion for a mean (sd, range) of 61 (43.5, 2.7,159.5) months. Vessels were stained immunohistochemically using an antibody to the platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule CD31. Microvessels were counted in active areas of angiogenesis within the tumours (at ×,250) and the microvessel density (MVD) quantified using the mean of three counts. Treatment failure was defined as death from cancer or the development of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox's proportional hazard model were used to assess survival. Results The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 57% and 51%, respectively. The presence of lymph node metastasis and high mean vascular density (> 26) were significantly associated with a poor prognosis. The 5-year survival for patients with negative lymph nodes was 66% while no patients with positive nodes survived for 5 years (P < 0.001); the survival was 72% for patients with a low MVD and 33% for those with a high MVD (P = 0.0016). From individual results plotted against vascularity in lymph node-negative patients, there was a significantly better outcome for those with a low MVD ( 26; P = 0.0099); this significance was maintained on multivariate analysis. However, there was no significant relationship between angiogenesis and the different clinicopathological factors apart from the grade (P = 0.03); tumour stage, grade and DNA profile had no significant effect on survival in these patients. Conclusions These findings suggest that assessing angiogenesis using the MVD provides an independent predictor of survival in patients with adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder. [source]


    Antifungal susceptibility and genetic similarity of sequential isolates of Trichophyton rubrum from an immunocompetent patient with chronic dermatophytosis

    CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    R. A. Cordeiro
    Summary Chronic cutaneous dermatophytoses caused by Trichophyton rubrum are common in immunocompromised patients. In immunocompetent indivuals, the disease is more often associated with onychomycosis and tinea pedis. The aim of this study was to perform antifungal susceptibility tests and genetic analysis of sequential isolates of T. rubrum from an immunocompetent patient with chronic dermatophytosis. Antifungal susceptibility tests against griseofulvin, ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole were performed with sequential isolates of T. rubrum. Genetic relationship among the isolates was analysed by the random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. The results revealed that treatment failure was not related to the development of drug resistance, as all of the sequential T. rubrum isolates were sensitive to antifungals tested in vitro. The RAPD data demonstrated that this disease was caused by identical isolates, with no genetic differences among them, representing a single T. rubrum strain. Treatment failure and chronicity of infection do not seem to be related to antifungal resistance. [source]


    The PediSedate® device, a novel approach to pediatric sedation that provides distraction and inhaled nitrous oxide: clinical evaluation in a large case series

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 2 2007
    WILLIAM T. DENMAN MD FRCA
    Summary Background:, Pediatric sedation is of paramount importance but can be challenging. Fear and anticipatory anxiety before invasive procedures often lead to uncooperativeness. A novel device (PediSedate®) provides sedation through a combination of inhaled nitrous oxide and distraction (video game). We evaluated the acceptability and safety of the PediSedate® device in children. Methods:, We enrolled children between 3 and 9 years old who were scheduled to undergo surgical procedures that required general inhalational anesthesia. After the device was applied, he/she played a video game while listening to the audio portion of the game through the earphones. Nitrous oxide in oxygen was administered via the nasal piece of the headset starting at 50% and increasing to 70%, in 10% increments every 8 min. Treatment failures, vital signs, arterial oxygen saturation, depth of sedation, airway patency, side effects, acceptance of the device and parental satisfaction were all evaluated. Results:, Of 100 children included, treatment failure occurred in 18% mainly because of poor tolerance of the device. At least 96% of the children who completed the study exhibited an excellent degree of sedation, 22% had side effects, and none experienced serious airway obstruction. Nausea and vomiting were the most common side effects and no patients had hemodynamic instability. Conclusions:, The PediSedate® device combines nonpharmacologic with pharmacologic methods of sedation. Most of the children we evaluated were able to tolerate the PediSedate® device and achieved an adequate degree of sedation. [source]


    Alternate-Day Tadalafil in the Management of Honeymoon Impotence

    THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 6 2008
    Hussein Ghanem MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Sildenafil has been used successfully in the treatment of honeymoon impotence. However, no study investigated the potential effect of tadalafil in the treatment of honeymoon impotence. Aim., The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of alternate-day tadalafil therapy in the management of unconsummated marriages. Methods., This is a descriptive study comprised of a series of 45 patients. The time frame for the study was 2 years. Forty-five consecutive patients underwent a complete medical and sexual history as well as a focused physical examination. Education about the male and female genital anatomy and the sexual response cycle was carried out. Alternate-day tadalafil 10-mg therapy was administered for 2 weeks with the duration extended as needed. Main Outcome Measures., Primary efficacy endpoints were successful vaginal intromission and change in the abridged version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Results., Of 45 patients included in our study, 41 (91%) were able to achieve vaginal intromission and perform sexually. Thirty-four patients (76%) needed tadalafil for less than 1 month, five (11%) for up to 3 months, and two (4%) for more than 3 months. Four patients (9%) were unsuccessful. IIEF-5 improved significantly with alternate-day tadalafil treatment in this subgroup of patients (P < 0.001). Treatment failures were managed by intracavernous injection therapy, combined with psychosexual therapy, depending on the cause. Conclusions., Tadalafil therapy was safe and effective in the short-term management of this selected group of honeymoon impotence patients. Controlled studies are needed to further confirm these findings. Ghanem H, El-Dakhly M, and Shamloul R. Alternate-day tadalafil in the management of honeymoon impotence. J Sex Med 2008;5:1451,1454. [source]


    XPC genetic polymorphisms correlate with the response to imatinib treatment in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
    Vicent M. Guillem
    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is driven by the BCR-ABL protein, which promotes the proliferation and viability of the leukemic cells. Moreover, BCR-ABL induces genomic instability that can contribute to the emergence of resistant clones to the ABL kinase inhibitors. It is currently unknown whether the inherited individual capability to repair DNA damage could affect the treatment results. To address this, a comprehensive analysis of single nucleotide polimorfisms (SNPs) on the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes (ERCC2-ERCC8, RPA1-RPA3, LIG1, RAD23B, XPA, XPC) was performed in 92 chronic phase CML patients treated with imatinib upfront. ERCC5 and XPC SNPs correlated with the response to imatinib. Haplotype analysis of XPC showed that the wild-type haplotype (499C-939A) was associated with a better response to imatinib. Moreover, the 5-year failure free survival for CA carriers was significantly better than that of the non-CA carriers (98% vs. 73%; P = 0.02). In the multivariate logistic model with genetic data and clinical covariates, the hemoglobin (Hb) level and the XPC haplotype were independently associated with the treatment response, with patients having a Hb ,11 g/dl (Odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5,16.1) or a non-CA XPC haplotype (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.6,10.6) being at higher risk of suboptimal response/treatment failure. Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the NER pathway may influence the results to imatinib treatment in CML. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Prospective non-randomized study of preoperative concurrent platinum plus 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy with or without paclitaxel in esophageal cancer patients: long-term follow-up

    DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 2 2010
    M. Zemanova
    SUMMARY Combined modality treatment for esophageal carcinoma seems to improve survival over surgery alone. Different combinations of cytotoxic drugs have been studied to improve antitumor efficacy and limit the toxicity of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with inconsistent results. We present a prospective study of neoadjuvant CRT with or without paclitaxel in chemotherapy schedule. One hundred seven patients (93 males, 14 females), median age 59 years (range 44,76), with operable esophageal cancer were enrolled. They received the following neoadjuvant therapy: Carboplatin, area under curve (AUC) = 6, intravenously on days 1 and 22, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 200 mg/m2/day, continuous infusion on days 1 to 42, radiation therapy 45 grays/25fractions/5 weeks beginning on day 1. Forty-four patients (41%) were furthermore non-randomly assigned to paclitaxel 200 mg/m2/3 h intravenously on days 1 and 22. Nutritional support from the beginning of the treatment was offered to all patients. Surgery was done within 4,8 weeks after completion of CRT, if feasible. All patients were evaluated for grade 3 plus 4 toxicities: leukopenia (28%), neutropenia (30%), anemia (6%), thrombocytopenia (31%), febrile neutropenia (6%), esophagitis (24%), nausea and vomiting (7%), pneumotoxicity (8%). Seventy-eight patients (73%) had surgery and 63 of them were completely resected. Twenty-two patients (20%) achieved pathological complete remission, and additional 20 (19%) had node-negative and esophageal wall-positive residual disease. There were 10 surgery-related deaths, mostly due to pulmonary insufficiency. Twenty-nine patients were not resected, 15 for early progression, 14 for medical reasons or patient refusal. After a median follow-up of 52 months (range 27,80), median survival of 18.0 months and 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival of 56.7, 37.5, 27.0 and 21% was observed in the whole group of 107 patients. Addition of paclitaxel to carboplatin and continual infusion of FU significantly increased hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity, but treatment results as overall survival or time to progression did not differ significantly in groups with and without paclitaxel. Patients achieving pathological complete remission or nodes negativity after neoadjuvant therapy had favorable survival prognosis, whereas long-term prognosis of node positive patients was poor. Distant metastases prevailed as a cause of the treatment failure. Factors significant for survival prognosis in multivariate analysis were postoperative node negativity, performance status, and grade of dysphagia. Addition of paclitaxel to carboplatin and continual FU significantly increased hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity without influencing efficacy of the treatment. This study confirmed improved prognosis of patients after achieving negativity of nodes. Distant metastases prevailed as cause of the treatment failure. Prospectively, it is important to look for a therapeutic combination with better systemic effect. [source]


    Salvage surgery after radical accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost technique for head and neck carcinomas

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 3 2005
    Daniel Taussky MD
    Abstract Background. Definitive radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer is increasingly used to preserve organ function, whereas surgery is reserved for treatment failure. However, data are sparse regarding the feasibility of salvage surgery, particularly for unselected patients after accelerated RT. Methods. From 1991 to 2001, 297 patients, most with stage III to IV cancer (Union Internationale Contre le Cancer) were treated with concomitant boost RT (median dose, 69.9 Gy in 41 fractions) with or without chemotherapy (in 33%, usually cisplatin with or without 5-fluorouracil). The 75 patients seen with local and/or regional failure were studied. We analyzed the factors influencing the decision to attempt surgical salvage, the oncologic outcome, and the associated complications. Results. Seventeen (23%) of the 75 patients had a salvage operation. This included all five patients with laryngeal cancers but only 16% to 20% of patients with tumors in other locations. Most patients could not be operated on because of disease extension (40%) and poor general condition/advanced age (30%). Patients with low initial primary T and N classification were more likely to undergo surgery (p = .002 and .014, respectively). Median post-recurrence survival was significantly better for patients who had salvage operations than for those without surgical salvage treatment (44 vs 11 months, p = .0001). Thirteen patients were initially seen with postoperative complications (mostly delayed wound healing and fistula formation). Conclusions. After definitive accelerated RT with the concomitant boost technique, only a minority of patients with local or regional recurrence underwent salvage surgery. Disease stage, tumor location, and patient's general condition at the initial diagnosis seemed to be the main factors influencing the decision to attempt surgical salvage. For patients with initially resectable disease who undergo radical nonsurgical treatment, more effective follow-up is needed to favor early detection of treatment failure, which may lead to a timely and effective salvage surgery. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck27: 182,186, 2005 [source]


    Clinical relevance of three subtypes of primary sinonasal lymphoma characterized by immunophenotypic analysis

    HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 7 2004
    Gwi Eon Kim MD
    Abstract Background. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of subtypes categorized by immunophenotypic analysis in primary sinonasal lymphomas. Methods. Eighty patients with localized non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses were divided into three subtypes on the basis of their immunohistochemical findings: (A) B-cell lymphoma (n = 19), (B) T-cell lymphoma (n = 27), and (C) natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (n = 34). The clinicopathologic profiles, immunophenotypic data, patterns of treatment failure, and survival data among the three patient groups were retrospectively compared. Results. The nasal cavity was the predominant site of involvement in T-cell and NK/T-cell lymphoma, whereas sinus involvement without nasal disease was common in B-cell lymphoma. Systemic B symptoms were frequently observed in NK/T-cell lymphoma. Almost all patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma showed a strong association with the Epstein-Barr virus by in situ hybridization studies. Sixty-five patients (81%) patients achieved complete remission after initial treatment, but 36 (55%) of these subsequently experienced treatment failure. Although there were no significant differences in locoregional failure rates among the patients of the three groups, distant failure was far more common in B-cell or NK/T-cell lymphoma than in T-cell lymphoma (p = .005). Most B-cell lymphoma cases showed a predilection for sites of systemic failure in the nodal and extranodal sites below the diaphragm, such as the paraaortic lymph nodes or the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, whereas patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma showed an increased risk of systemic dissemination to the skin, testes, or GI tract, including the development of hemophagocytic syndrome. The 5-year actuarial and disease-free survival rates for all patients were 57% and 51%, respectively. Of the three subtypes of primary sinonasal lymphomas, T-cell lymphoma seemed to carry the most favorable prognosis and NK/T-cell lymphoma the worst. (The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 57% for B-cell lymphoma, 80% for T-cell lymphoma, 37% for NK/T-cell lymphoma; p = .02, log-rank.) By univariate and multivariate analyses, immunophenotype was identified as the most important prognostic factor. Conclusions. Our data indicate that the three subtypes of primary sinonasal lymphomas classified by immunohistochemical studies exhibit different clinical profiles, different patterns of failure, and different treatment outcomes. Given these observations, it is concluded that the recognition of these distinct subsets, diagnosed on the basis of immunophenotypic study, is very important and clinically relevant in predicting their potential behavior and prognosis. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 584,593, 2004 [source]


    Impact of Furazolidone-Based Quadruple Therapy for Eradication of Helicobacter pylori after Previous Treatment Failures

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2002
    G. Treiber
    Abstract Background. One week of quadruple therapy including metronidazole is recommended for Helicobacter pylori treatment failures after first line therapy regardless of resistance status. This study investigated whether a quadruple regimen containing furazolidone could be effective as a third-line (salvage) therapy. Methods. All patients with previous H. pylori treatment failure after a clarithromycin-metronidazole ± amoxicillin combination plus acid suppression were given lansoprazole 30 mg twice a day (bid), tripotassiumdicitratobismuthate 240 mg bid, tetracycline 1 g bid, metronidazole 400 mg (PPI-B-T-M) three times a day (tid) for 1 week. In the case of treatment failure with this second-line therapy, the same regimen was applied for 1 week except for using furazolidone 200 mg bid (PPI-B-T-F) instead of metronidazole (sequential study design). Results. Eighteen consecutive patients were treated with PPI-B-T-M. Eleven of those 18 remained H. pylori positive (38.9% cured). Pretherapeutic metronidazole resistance was associated with a lower probability of eradication success (10% vs. 75%, p= .04). Ten of these 11 patients agreed to be retreated by PPI-B-T-F. Final cure of H. pylori with PPI-B-T-F was achieved in 9/10 patients (90%) nonresponsive to PPI-B-T-M. Conclusions. In the presence of metronidazole resistance, PPI-B-T-M as a recommended second-line therapy by the Maastricht consensus conference achieved unacceptable low cure rates in our metronidazole pretreated population. In this population, metronidazole based second-line quadruple therapy may be best suited in case of a metronidazole-free first line-regimen (e.g. PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin) or a low prevalence of metronidazole resistance. Furazolidone in the PPI-B-T-F combination does not have a cross-resistance potential to metronidazole and is a promising salvage option after a failed PPI-B-T-M regimen. [source]


    Home Hemodialysis: Associations with Modality Failure

    HEMODIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2003
    BA Young
    Purpose: To determine risk factors for home hemodialysis (HH) failure. Methods: We conducted a prospective study from 12/2000 to 9/2002 using data from the 1709 patients who received renal replacement therapy at the Northwest Kidney Centers (NWKC). Prevalent and incident Home Hemodialysis (HH) patients were included in the analysis. Baseline demographics, date of entry and date of exit from HH were ascertained for all patients. Differences among groups were assessed by independent t-test for continuous variables and by chi-squared test for categorical variables. Risk of HH failure was assessed with logistic regression. Results: Of the 116 patients who initiated training in the NWKC HH program (6.8%), 77.7% remained in the HH program, 10.3% received a transplant and 10.3% returned to in-center dialysis. Compared to patients who received a transplant or returned to in-center dialysis, HH patients were more likely to be older (65 vs. 54 yrs, P < .05) and were on dialysis longer (3.8 ± 4.7 vs. 2.3 ± 3.0 yrs, p < 0.05). Ethnicity, gender, primary renal disease and helper status were similar between groups, and were not associated with increased risk of HH failure. Unadjusted 3-year mortality was 31.7% for HH patients. HH patients who died were more likely to be older (p < 0.05) and to have diabetes (P < 0.01) than those who returned to in-center dialysis or who received a transplant. Conclusions: In HH patients, older age but not ethnicity, gender or helper status was associated with treatment failure. Older age and diabetes remain risk factors for mortality in the HH population. [source]


    Features associated with treatment failure in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis and predictive value of the model of end-stage liver disease,,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    Aldo J. Montano-Loza
    Autoimmune hepatitis may fail to respond to corticosteroid therapy, but the frequency and bases for this outcome are uncertain. We aimed to determine the frequency and nature of treatment failure in patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis, define features associated with its occurrence, and assess if the model for end-stage liver disease can predict this outcome. Patients failing conventional corticosteroid regimens were compared to patients who responded to similar regimens. Fourteen of 214 patients (7%) failed corticosteroid treatment. Patients who failed therapy were younger (33 ± 3 years versus 48 ± 1 years, P = 0.0008), had higher serum levels of bilirubin at accession (4.1 ± 0.9 mg/dL versus 2.3 ± 0.2 mg/dL, P = 0.02), presented acutely more frequently (43% versus 14%, P = 0.01), and had a higher frequency of HLA (human leukocyte antigen) DRB1*03 (93% versus 53%, P = 0.004) than did patients who achieved remission. An alternative disease (fatty liver disease) emerged in only 1 patient who failed therapy (7%). Scores determined by the model of end-stage liver disease at presentation of patients who failed treatment were higher than those of who achieved remission (16 ± 1 versus 10 ± 0.3 points, P < 0.0001), and score greater than 12 points had greater sensitivity (97%) and specificity (68%) for treatment failure than did HLA DRB1*03 or other features. Conclusion: Onset at an early age, acute presentation, hyperbilirubinemia, and presence of HLA DRB1*03 characterize patients who fail corticosteroid treatment. The model for end-stage liver disease may be a useful instrument for identifying patients prone to this outcome. (HEPATOLOGY 2007.) [source]


    Definitions of antiretroviral treatment failure for measuring quality outcomes

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 7 2010
    A Samaranayake
    Objectives Our aim was to compare three different definitions of treatment failure and discuss their use as quality outcome measures for a clinical service. Methods Data for treatment-naïve patients who attended the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008 were analysed. Definition 1 was the strict Food and Drug Administration (FDA) definition of treatment failure as determined using the time to loss of virological response (TLOVR) algorithm. Definition 2 defined treatment failure as occurring in those whose viral load never fell to <400 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL or who developed two consecutive viral loads ,400 copies/mL on any treatment (switching or stopping treatment with a viral load <400 copies/mL was permitted). Definition 3 was the same as definition 2 except that individuals were also deemed to have failed if they stopped treatment for 6 months or longer. Results There were 310 antiretroviral-naïve patients who started treatment in the study period. Of these, 156 [50.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 42.1,53.3%] experienced treatment failure under definition 1, 10 (3.2%; 95% CI 1.5,5.8%) experienced treatment failure under definition 2, and 16 (4.5%; 95% CI 2.5,7.4%) experienced treatment failure under definition 3 over the 108 months of follow-up. The probability of failing definition 1 was statistically different from the probability of failing definition 2 or 3 (P=0.01). Conclusion There were significant differences in treatment failure for the three definitions. If definition 1 were used, the outcomes would be sufficiently common to enable clinics to be compared but would be less meaningful. If definition 2 or 3 were used, the events would be too rare to enable clinics to be compared, but it would be possible to set a benchmark level of success that clinics could aim to reach. [source]


    Prevalence of drug resistance and importance of viral load measurements in Honduran HIV-infected patients failing antiretroviral treatment

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 2 2010
    W Murillo
    Objective The Honduran HIV/AIDS Program began to scale up access to HIV therapy in 2002. Up to May 2008, more than 6000 patients received combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). As HIV drug resistance is the major obstacle for effective treatment, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in Honduran HIV-1-infected individuals. Methods We collected samples from 138 individuals (97 adults and 41 children) on cART with virological, immunological or clinical signs of treatment failure. HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained using an in-house method. Resistance mutations were identified according to the 2007 International AIDS Society (IAS)-USA list and predicted susceptibility to cART was scored using the anrs algorithm. Results Resistance mutations were detected in 112 patients (81%), 74% in adults and 98% in children. Triple-, dual- and single-class drug resistance was documented in 27%, 43% and 11% of the study subjects, respectively. Multiple logistic regression showed that resistance was independently associated with type of treatment failure [virological failure (odds ratio (OR)=1) vs. immunological failure (OR=0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.030,0.43) vs. clinical failure (OR=0.037; 95% CI 0.0063,0.22)], route of transmission (OR=42.8; 95% CI 3.73,491), and years on therapy (OR=1.81; 95% CI 1.11,2.93). Conclusion The prevalence of antiretroviral resistance was high in Honduran HIV-infected patients with signs of treatment failure. A majority of study subjects showed dual- or triple-class resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. Virologically defined treatment failure was a strong predictor of resistance, indicating that viral load testing is needed to correctly identify patients with treatment failure attributable to resistance. [source]


    Infliximab in the treatment of severe, steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis: A pilot study

    INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES, Issue 2 2001
    Dr. Bruce E. Sands
    Abstract We report the experience of 11 patients (of 60 planned patients) enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of infliximab in patients with severe, active steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis. The study was terminated prematurely because of slow enrollment. Patients having active disease for at least 2 weeks and receiving at least 5 days of intravenous corticosteroids were eligible to receive a single intravenous infusion of infliximab at 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg body weight. The primary endpoint used in this study was treatment failure at 2 weeks after infusion. Treatment failure was defined as 1) unachieved clinical response as defined by a modified Truelove and Witts severity score, 2) increase in corticosteroid dosage, 3) addition of immunosuppressants, 4) colectomy, or 5) death. Safety evaluations included physical examination, clinical chemistry and hematology laboratory tests, and occurrence of adverse experiences. Four of 8 patients (50%) who received infliximab were considered treatment successes at 2 weeks, compared with none of 3 patients who received placebo. Improvement in erythrocyte sedimentation rates and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 correlated with the clinical response observed in patients receiving infliximab. Infusion with infliximab produced no significant adverse events. Infliximab was well tolerated and may provide clinical benefit for some patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis. [source]


    The long and short of the risk of antibiotic treatment failure

    INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL, Issue 7 2004
    D. A. R. Watson
    First page of article [source]


    EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition radiosensitizes and induces apoptosis in malignant glioma and childhood ependymoma xenografts

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 1 2008
    Birgit Geoerger
    Abstract Malignant gliomas and childhood ependymomas have a high rate of treatment failure. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and radioresistance of many cancers, including brain tumors. Therefore, combining EGFR targeting with irradiation is a potentially attractive therapeutic option. We evaluated the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib for its antitumor activity and potential to radio-sensitize in vivo in two xenograft models: an EGFR amplified glioma and an EGFR expressing ependymoma, both derived from primary tumors. When administered at 100 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days, gefitinib-induced partial tumor regression in all treated EGFR amplified IGRG88 glioma xenografts. The addition of 1 Gy of irradiation prior to gefitinib administration resulted in 5 complete and 4 partial regressions for the 9 treated tumors as well as a significant tumor growth delay of 33 days for the combined treatment compared to 19 days for each therapy alone, suggesting additive antitumor activity. Tumor regression was associated with inhibition of AKT and MAPK pathways by gefitinib. In contrast, the ependymoma IGREP83 was sensitive to irradiation, but remained resistant to gefitinib. Combined treatment was associated with inhibition of radiation-induced MAPK phosphorylation and significant induction of apoptotic cell death though radiation-induced AKT phosphorylation was maintained. Depending on the scheduling of both therapies, a trend towards superior antitumor activity was observed with combined treatment. Thus, EGFR targeting through tyrosine kinase inhibition appears to be a promising new approach in the treatment of EGFR-driven glioma, particularly in combination with radiation therapy. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis , a systematic review with a meta-analysis

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Felipe Francisco Tuon MD
    Background, New World leishmaniasis is an important endemic disease and public health problem in developing countries. The increase in ecologic tourism has extended this problem to developed countries. Few drugs have emerged over the past 50 years, and drug resistance has increased, such that the cure rate is no better than 80% in large studies. Despite these data, there has been no systematic review with a meta-analysis of the therapy used in this important tropical disease. The aim of this study was to determine the best drug management in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Latin America based on the best studies published in the medical literature. Methods, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify articles related to CL and therapy. Articles with adequate data on cure and treatment failure, internal and external validity information, and more than four patients in each treatment arm were included. Results, Fifty-four articles met our inclusion criteria and 12 were included in the meta-analysis. Pentavalent antimonials were the most studied drugs, with a total of 1150 patients, achieving a cure rate of 76.5%. The cure rate of pentamidine was similar to that of pentavalent antimonials. Other drugs showed variable results, and all demonstrated an inferior response. Conclusion, Although pentavalent antimonials are the drugs of choice in the treatment of CL, pentamidine showed similar results. Nevertheless, several aspects, such as cost, adverse effects, local experience, and availability of drugs to treat CL, must be considered when determining the best management of this disease, especially in developing countries where resources are scarce. [source]


    Spirituality and clinical care in eating disorders: A qualitative study

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 1 2007
    Patricia Marsden MA
    Abstract Objective: Historical and contemporary research has posited links between eating disorders and religious asceticism. This study aimed to examine relationships between eating disorders, religion, and treatment. Method: Qualitative study using purposeful sampling, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview, subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Participants were 10 adult Christian women receiving inpatient treatment for anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Five dominant categories emerged: locus of control, sacrifice, self-image, salvation, maturation. Appetitive control held moral connotations. Negative self-image was common, based more on sin than body-image. Medical treatment could be seen as salvation, with religious conversion manifesting a quest for healing, but treatment failure threatened faith. Beliefs matured during treatment, with prayer, providing a healing relationship. Conclusion: Religious beliefs impact on attitudes and motivation in eating disorders. Clinicians' sensitivity determines how beliefs influence clinical outcome. Treatment modifies beliefs such that theological constructs of illness cannot be ignored. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006 [source]


    Current use of the artificial urinary sphincter and its long-term durability: A nationwide survey in Japan

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Yoichi Arai
    Objectives: Although the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is one of the most effective surgical treatments for severe urinary incontinence, little is known about its use in Japan. A nationwide survey was done to determine contemporary trends in AUS use and its long-term durability. Methods: Data on AUS units sold in Japan were provided directly by Takai Hospital Supply Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, and a survey form was sent to all 44 institutes where AUS implantation had been carried out. The survey included various demographic and preoperative variables, surgical variables, and postoperative outcomes. Results: Between 1994 and 2007, a total of 100 AUS devices had been provided in Japan. Of the 44 institutes, 24 responded to the survey, and a total of 64 patients were enrolled in the study. Post-urological surgery incontinence accounted for 81.3% of the indications. During the mean follow-up of 50 months, mechanical failure occurred in four (6.2%), and the device was removed in 13 (20.3%) due to infection (14.0%), erosion (4.7%), or urination difficulty (1.5%). Of the 58 patients evaluated, 91.4% reported social continence. Five- and 10-year failure-free rates were 74.8% and 70.1%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, operative time was an independent predictor of treatment failure (P = 0.0334). Conclusions: Considering recent trends in prostate surgery, the AUS may be significantly underused in Japan. Although excellent long-term durability has been achieved, a learning effect appears to be evident. The Japanese urological community needs to provide appropriate patients with this treatment option. [source]