Treatment Entry (treatment + entry)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Effect of Episodic and Working Memory Impairments on Semantic and Cognitive Procedural Learning at Alcohol Treatment Entry

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2007
Anne Lise Pitel
Background: Chronic alcoholism is known to impair the functioning of episodic and working memory, which may consequently reduce the ability to learn complex novel information. Nevertheless, semantic and cognitive procedural learning have not been properly explored at alcohol treatment entry, despite its potential clinical relevance. The goal of the present study was therefore to determine whether alcoholic patients, immediately after the weaning phase, are cognitively able to acquire complex new knowledge, given their episodic and working memory deficits. Methods: Twenty alcoholic inpatients with episodic memory and working memory deficits at alcohol treatment entry and a control group of 20 healthy subjects underwent a protocol of semantic acquisition and cognitive procedural learning. The semantic learning task consisted of the acquisition of 10 novel concepts, while subjects were administered the Tower of Toronto task to measure cognitive procedural learning. Results: Analyses showed that although alcoholic subjects were able to acquire the category and features of the semantic concepts, albeit slowly, they presented impaired label learning. In the control group, executive functions and episodic memory predicted semantic learning in the first and second halves of the protocol, respectively. In addition to the cognitive processes involved in the learning strategies invoked by controls, alcoholic subjects seem to attempt to compensate for their impaired cognitive functions, invoking capacities of short-term passive storage. Regarding cognitive procedural learning, although the patients eventually achieved the same results as the controls, they failed to automate the procedure. Contrary to the control group, the alcoholic groups' learning performance was predicted by controlled cognitive functions throughout the protocol. Conclusion: At alcohol treatment entry, alcoholic patients with neuropsychological deficits have difficulty acquiring novel semantic and cognitive procedural knowledge. Compared with controls, they seem to use more costly learning strategies, which are nonetheless less efficient. These learning disabilities need to be considered when treatment requiring the acquisition of complex novel information is envisaged. [source]


Effects of a sustained heroin shortage in three Australian States

ADDICTION, Issue 7 2005
Louisa Degenhardt
ABSTRACT Background In early 2001 in Australia there was a sudden and dramatic decrease in heroin availability that occurred throughout the country that was evidenced by marked increases in heroin price and decreases in its purity. Aim This study examines the impact of this change in heroin supply on the following indicators of heroin use: fatal and non-fatal drug overdoses; treatment seeking for heroin dependence; injecting drug use; drug-specific offences; and general property offences. The study was conducted using data from three Australian States [New South Wales (NSW), Victoria (VIC) and South Australia (SA)]. Methods Data were obtained on fatal and non-fatal overdoses from hospital emergency departments (EDs), ambulance services and coronial systems; treatment entries for heroin dependence compiled by State health departments; numbers of needles and syringes distributed to drug users; and data on arrests for heroin-related incidents and property-related crime incidents compiled by State Police Services. Time-series analyses were conducted where possible to examine changes before and after the onset of the heroin shortage. These were supplemented with information drawn from studies involving interviews with injecting drug users. Results After the reduction in heroin supply, fatal and non-fatal heroin overdoses decreased by between 40% and 85%. Despite some evidence of increased cocaine, methamphetamine and benzodiazepine use and reports of increases in harms related to their use, there were no increases recorded in the number of either non-fatal overdoses or deaths related to these drugs. There was a sustained decline in injecting drug use in NSW and VIC, as indicated by a substantial drop in the number of needles and syringes distributed (to 1999 levels in Victoria). There was a short-lived increase in property crime in NSW followed by a sustained reduction in such offences. SA and VIC did not show any marked change in the categories of property crime examined in the study. Conclusions Substantial reductions in heroin availability have not occurred often, but in this Australian case a reduction had an aggregate positive impact in that it was associated with: reduced fatal and non-fatal heroin overdoses; reduced the apparent extent of injecting drug use in VIC and NSW; and may have contributed to reduced crime in NSW. All these changes provide substantial benefits to the community and some to heroin users. Documented shifts to other forms of drug use did not appear sufficient to produce increases in deaths, non-fatal overdoses or treatment seeking related to those drugs. [source]


Progression through early drinking milestones in an adolescent treatment sample

ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
Kristina M. Jackson
ABSTRACT Aims Research using nationally representative and community samples demonstrates a robust association between early onset of drinking and increased likelihood of numerous adverse outcomes. However, little is known about the subsequent drinking that occurs early in the drinking career. The present study dissects the transition from any alcohol use to treatment entry by taking a fine-grained approach to examining the attainment and progression of drinking events in a sample of adolescents in substance use treatment. Design/Setting Data were taken from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study for Adolescents (DATOS-A), a multi-site, community-based study of adolescents entering treatment. Participants Respondents included 3331 youth aged 12,18 years (mean = 15.75) admitted to treatment in 1993,95 (74% male, 52% white, 24% African American, 20% Hispanic). Measurements Age of attainment was obtained for five drinking-related milestones, including first drink of alcohol, first time drunk, first monthly drinking, first drank five or more drinks/day on a weekly basis and first drank five or more drinks/day on a daily basis. Findings Most milestones were attained at a very early age, and average progression through adjacent drinking events was relatively swift, Movement through early drinking milestones was accelerated in girls and white youth. Youth who reported their first drink at an early age (age 10 or younger) showed slower progression, suggesting the existence of distinct processes underlying early use and drinking transitions within an individual. Conclusions This study provides data relevant to understanding drinking progression/natural history in a large clinical sample, especially for differences by gender and ethnicity. The findings have implications for the identification of intermediate stages that might benefit from selected intervention programs. [source]


Improving substance abuse treatment enrollment in community syringe exchangers

ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
Michael Kidorf
ABSTRACT Aims The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention combining motivational enhancement and treatment readiness groups, with and without monetary incentives for attendance and treatment enrollment, on enhancing rates of substance abuse treatment entry among new registrants at the Baltimore Needle Exchange Program (BNEP). Design Opioid-dependent study participants (n = 281) referred by the BNEP were assigned randomly to one of three referral interventions: (i) eight individual motivational enhancement sessions and 16 treatment readiness group sessions (motivated referral condition,MRC); (ii) the MRC intervention with monetary incentives for attending sessions and enrolling in treatment,MRC+I); or (iii) a standard referral condition which directed participants back to the BNEP for referral (standard referral,SRC). Participants were followed for 4 months. Findings MRC+I participants were more likely to enroll in any type of treatment than MRC or SRC participants (52.1% versus 31.9% versus 35.5%; ,2 = 9.12, P = 0.01), and more likely to enroll in treatment including methadone than MRC or SRC participants (40.4% versus 20.2% versus 16.1%; ,2 = 16.65, P < 0.001). MRC+I participants also reported less heroin and injection use than MRC and SRC participants. Conclusions Syringe exchange sites can be effective platforms to motivate opioid users to enroll in substance abuse treatment and ultimately reduce drug use and number of drug injections. [source]


Predictors of 4-year outcome of community residential treatment for patients with substance use disorders

ADDICTION, Issue 4 2008
Charlene Laffaye
ABSTRACT Aims This study examined systematically how predictors of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment outcome worked together over time and identified mediators and moderators of outcome. Design The MacArthur model was applied in this naturalistic study to identify how baseline, discharge and 1-year follow-up factors worked together to predict 4-year improvement in substance-related problems. Setting Eighty-eight community residential facilities were selected based on geographic representativeness, number of patient referrals and type of treatment orientation. Participants Of 2796 male patients who completed intake assessments, 2324 were assessed at the 1-year follow-up and 2023 at the 4-year follow-up. Measurements Self-report measures of symptom severity, functioning, social resources and coping, treatment and involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) were collected at baseline and at 1- and 4-year follow-ups. Provider-rated treatment participation measures were obtained at discharge. Findings Greater substance use severity, more psychiatric symptoms, more prior arrests and stronger belief in AA-related philosophy at treatment entry predicted improvement significantly in substance-related problems 4 years later. At the 1-year follow-up, being employed and greater use of AA-related coping predicted outcome significantly. AA-related coping at 1 year mediated the relationship partially between belief in AA philosophy at treatment entry and 4-year outcome. Conclusions The findings highlight the unique and positive impact of AA involvement on long-term SUD treatment outcome and extend understanding of why AA is beneficial for patients. [source]


Recent life problems and non-fatal overdose among heroin users entering treatment

ADDICTION, Issue 2 2005
Joanne Neale
ABSTRACT Aims To investigate the role of recent life problems in non-fatal overdose among heroin users entering various drug treatment settings. Design Cross-sectional data from a longitudinal study investigating drug treatment effectiveness. Setting Five prison drug treatment services, three residential rehabilitation units, three residential detoxification units and 21 community drug treatment services located in rural, urban and inner-city areas of Scotland. Participants Of a total of 793 primary heroin users commencing drug treatment during 2001,02, 337 (42.5%) were prison drug service clients; 91 (11.5%) were residential rehabilitation clients; 97 (12.2%) were residential detoxification clients; and 268 (33.8%) were community drug treatment clients. Measurements Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analyses examined associations between overdosing in the 90 days prior to treatment entry and basic demographic characteristics, recent drug use and recent life problems. Findings Ninety-one study participants (11.5%) reported at least one overdose and 19 (2.4%) reported more than one overdose in the 90 days prior to treatment entry. A ,2 test revealed no significant difference in rates of recent overdosing between the four treatment settings (P = 0.650). Recent drug use and recent life problems,but not demographic characteristics,were associated independently with recent overdosing. However, recent life problems were not associated independently with recent overdosing among clients entering prison, clients entering residential rehabilitation or with multiple recent overdosing. Conclusions Associations between recent life problems and recent overdose were evident, but varied by treatment setting. Treatment providers should identify and address heroin users' life problems as part of a broad strategy of overdose prevention. [source]


Accessibility of Addiction Treatment: Results from a National Survey of Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Organizations

HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 3 2003
Peter D. Friedmann
Objectives This study examined organization-level characteristics associated with the accessibility of outpatient addiction treatment. Methods Program directors and clinical supervisors from a nationally representative panel of outpatient substance abuse treatment units in the United States were surveyed in 1990, 1995, and 2000. Accessibility was measured from clinical supervisors' reports of whether the treatment organization provided "treatment on demand" (an average wait time of 48 hours or less for treatment entry), and of whether the program turned away any patients. Results In multivariable logistic models, provision of "treatment on demand" increased two-fold from 1990 to 2000 (OR, 1.95; 95 percent CI, 1.5 to 2.6), while reports of turning patients away decreased nonsignificantly. Private for-profit units were twice as likely to provide "treatment on demand" (OR, 2.2; 95 percent CI, 1.3 to 3.6), but seven times more likely to turn patients away (OR, 7.4; 95 percent CI, 3.2 to 17.5) than public programs. Conversely, units that served more indigent populations were less likely to provide "treatment on demand" or to turn patients away. Methadone maintenance programs were also less likely to offer "treatment on demand" (OR, .65; 95 percent CI, .42 to .99), but more likely to turn patients away (OR, 2.4; 95 percent CI, 1.4 to 4.3). Conclusions Although the provision of timely addiction treatment appears to have increased throughout the 1990s, accessibility problems persist in programs that care for indigent patients and in methadone maintenance programs. [source]


Benefit-Cost Analysis of Addiction Treatment: Methodological Guidelines and Empirical Application Using the DATCAP and ASI

HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 2 2002
Michael T. French
Objective. To provide detailed methodological guidelines for using the Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program (DATCAP) and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in a benefit-cost analysis of addiction treatment. Data Sources/Study Setting. A representative benefit-cost analysis of three outpatient programs was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and value of the methodological guidelines. Study Design. Procedures are outlined for using resource use and cost data collected with the DATCAP. Techniques are described for converting outcome measures from the ASI to economic (dollar) benefits of treatment. Finally, principles are advanced for conducting a benefit-cost analysis and a sensitivity analysis of the estimates. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. The DATCAP was administered at three outpatient drug-free programs in Philadelphia, PA, for 2 consecutive fiscal years (1996 and 1997). The ASI was administered to a sample of 178 treatment clients at treatment entry and at 7-months postadmission. Principal Findings. The DATCAP and ASI appear to have significant potential for contributing to an economic evaluation of addiction treatment. The benefit-cost analysis and subsequent sensitivity analysis all showed that total economic benefit was greater than total economic cost at the three outpatient programs, but this representative application is meant to stimulate future economic research rather than justifying treatment per se. Conclusions. This study used previously validated, research-proven instruments and methods to perform a practical benefit-cost analysis of real-world treatment programs. The study demonstrates one way to combine economic and clinical data and offers a methodological foundation for future economic evaluations of addiction treatment. [source]


Coping style of substance-abuse patients: Effects of anxiety and mood disorders on coping change

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
Ingmar H.A. Franken
The authors studied the coping style of substance-abuse patients during clinical cognitive-behavioral group therapy, and the effects of mood and anxiety disorders on changes in coping style. Change in coping style was studied prospectively in a cohort of 132 residential-drug-abuse patients. In addition to pretreatment assessments, which included diagnosis of mood and anxiety disorders and addiction severity, repeated measurements of coping style were performed at predetoxification, pretreatment, and after three and six months of treatment. Considerable change in coping style between predetoxification and pretreatment was found, suggesting that coping assessment in a predetoxification phase is confounded by state factors surrounding treatment entry. Coping style of detoxified substance abusers is related to the presence of mood and anxiety disorders. Coping style was not found to be related to the severity of drug abuse. Furthermore, maladaptive coping styles decreased after three months of inpatient-substance-abuse treatment, and more-adaptive coping styles remained stable for another three months of inpatient treatment. Patients with an anxiety disorder improved less on coping style when compared to non-anxiety patients. Presence of a mood disorder had no impact on coping-style improvement. The results indicate that more attention should be focused on anxiety disorders during substance-abuse treatment in order to improve coping style. Furthermore, more studies are needed on the relation between substance abuse, coping style, and psychopathology. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 57: 299,306, 2001. [source]


Changes in the Episodic Memory and Executive Functions of Abstinent and Relapsed Alcoholics Over a 6-Month Period

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2009
Anne Lise Pitel
Background:, It is still unclear whether episodic memory and executive functions capacities can return to normal in abstinent patients over a 6-month period. Furthermore, the role of interim drinking in cognitive recovery is still not well known. Finally, further research is required to specify the predictive value of cognitive abilities at initial testing in the treatment outcome (abstinence or relapse). The aims of the present study were therefore to measure changes in episodic memory and executive functions over a 6-month period in abstinent and relapsed alcoholics and to ascertain whether neuropsychological results at treatment entry can predict treatment outcome at follow-up. Methods:, Fifty-four alcoholic patients and 54 matched control subjects performed baseline neuropsychological tasks assessing episodic memory, executive functions, the slave systems of working memory and attentional abilities. At the follow-up session (i.e., 6 months later), episodic memory and 3 executive functions (inhibition, flexibility, and updating) were re-examined in the alcoholic patients. Results:, Results showed that over the 6-month interval, the abstainers' episodic memory and executive performances had returned to normal, whereas the relapsers performed lower than before in the flexibility task. Episodic memory and executive functions recovery was correlated, in abstainers, with drinking history and age respectively. Finally, there was no significant difference regarding neuropsychological scores at baseline between abstainers and relapsers. Discussion:, Over the 6-month interval, abstainers normalized episodic memory and executive performances whereas relapsers obtained executive results which were more severely impaired, emphasizing the influence of interim drinking on cognitive changes. Episodic memory, executive functions, the slave systems of working memory and attentional abilities did not appear to be reliable predictors of treatment outcome over a 6-month interval. [source]


Alterations in Brain Serotonin Synthesis in Male Alcoholics Measured Using Positron Emission Tomography

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
Masami Nishikawa
Background:, A consistent association between low endogenous 5HT function and high alcohol preference has been observed, and a number of serotonergic manipulations (uptake blockers, agonists) alter alcohol consumption in animals and humans. Studies have also shown an inverse relationship between alcohol use and cerebrospinal fluid levels of serotonin metabolites, suggesting that chronic alcohol consumption produces alterations in serotonin synthesis or release. Methods:, The objective of the study was to characterize regional brain serotonin synthesis in nondepressed chronic alcoholics at treatment entry in comparison to normal nonalcoholic controls using PET and the tracer ,-[11C]-methyl- l -tryptophan. Results:, Comparisons of the alcoholics and controls by SPM found that there were significant differences in the rate of serotonin synthesis between groups. Serotonin synthesis was significantly lower among alcoholics in Brodmann Area (BA) 9, 10, and 32. However, serotonin synthesis among the alcoholics group was significantly higher than controls at BA19 in the occipital lobe and around the transverse temporal convolution in the left superior temporal gyrus (BA41). In addition, there were correlations between regional serotonin synthesis and a quantity-frequency measure of alcohol consumption. Regions showing a significant negative correlation with QF included the bilateral rectus gyri (BA11) in the orbitofrontal area, the bilateral medial frontal area (BA6), and the right amygdala. Conclusions:, Current alcoholism is associated with serotonergic abnormalities in brain regions that are known to be involved in planning, judgment, self-control, and emotional regulation. [source]


The Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption Following Treatment for Alcohol and Nicotine Dependence

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2008
Molly M. Kodl
Background:, Although depression is common among alcohol and tobacco dependent patients, its impact on treatment outcomes is not well established. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of depressive symptoms on abstinence from tobacco and alcohol after treatment for alcohol dependence and nicotine dependence. Methods:, The Timing of Alcohol and Smoking Cessation Study (TASC) randomized adults receiving intensive alcohol dependence treatment, who were also smokers, to concurrent or delayed smoking cessation treatment. The sample consisted of 462 adults who completed depression and substance use (alcohol and smoking) assessments at treatment entry and 6, 12, and 18 months posttreatment. Longitudinal regression models were used to examine the relationships between depression and subsequent abstinence from alcohol and tobacco after baseline characteristics, including alcohol and smoking histories, were considered. Results:, Depressive symptoms were prospectively related to nonabstinence from alcohol. Depressive symptoms at the previous assessment increased the odds of drinking at the subsequent time point by a factor of 1.67 (95% CI 1.14, 2.43), p < 0.01. Depressive symptoms were not significantly related to subsequent abstinence from cigarettes. Conclusions:, Depression is an important negative predictor of the ability to maintain abstinence from alcohol within the context of intensive alcoholism and smoking treatment. It may be important to include depression-specific interventions for alcohol and tobacco dependent individuals to facilitate successful drinking treatment outcomes. [source]


Genuine Episodic Memory Deficits and Executive Dysfunctions in Alcoholic Subjects Early in Abstinence

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2007
Anne Lise Pitel
Background: Chronic alcoholism is known to impair episodic memory function, but the specific nature of this impairment is still unclear. Moreover, it has never been established whether episodic memory deficit in alcoholism is an intrinsic memory deficit or whether it has an executive origin. Thus, the objectives are to specify which episodic memory processes are impaired early in abstinence from alcohol and to determine whether they should be regarded as genuine memory deficits or rather as the indirect consequences of executive impairments. Methods: Forty recently detoxified alcoholic inpatients at alcohol entry treatment and 55 group-matched controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment of episodic memory and executive functions. The episodic memory evaluation consisted of 3 tasks complementing each other designed to measure the different episodic memory components (learning, storage, encoding and retrieval, contextual memory, and autonoetic consciousness) and 5 executive tasks testing capacities of organization, inhibition, flexibility, updating, and integration. Results: Compared with control subjects, alcoholic patients presented impaired learning abilities, encoding processes, retrieval processes, contextual memory and autonoetic consciousness. However, there was no difference between the 2 groups regarding the storage capacities assessed by the rate of forgetting. Concerning executive functions, alcoholic subjects displayed deficits in each executive task used. Nevertheless, stepwise regression analyses showed that only performances on fluency tasks were significantly predictive of some of the episodic memory disorders (learning abilities for 40%, encoding processes for 20%, temporal memory for 21%, and state of consciousness associated with memories for 26%) in the alcoholic group. Discussion: At alcohol treatment entry, alcoholic patients present genuine episodic memory deficits that cannot be regarded solely as the consequences of executive dysfunctions. These results are in accordance with neuroimaging findings showing hippocampal atrophy. Moreover, given the involvement of episodic memory and executive functions in alcohol treatment, these data could have clinical implications. [source]


Effect of Episodic and Working Memory Impairments on Semantic and Cognitive Procedural Learning at Alcohol Treatment Entry

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2007
Anne Lise Pitel
Background: Chronic alcoholism is known to impair the functioning of episodic and working memory, which may consequently reduce the ability to learn complex novel information. Nevertheless, semantic and cognitive procedural learning have not been properly explored at alcohol treatment entry, despite its potential clinical relevance. The goal of the present study was therefore to determine whether alcoholic patients, immediately after the weaning phase, are cognitively able to acquire complex new knowledge, given their episodic and working memory deficits. Methods: Twenty alcoholic inpatients with episodic memory and working memory deficits at alcohol treatment entry and a control group of 20 healthy subjects underwent a protocol of semantic acquisition and cognitive procedural learning. The semantic learning task consisted of the acquisition of 10 novel concepts, while subjects were administered the Tower of Toronto task to measure cognitive procedural learning. Results: Analyses showed that although alcoholic subjects were able to acquire the category and features of the semantic concepts, albeit slowly, they presented impaired label learning. In the control group, executive functions and episodic memory predicted semantic learning in the first and second halves of the protocol, respectively. In addition to the cognitive processes involved in the learning strategies invoked by controls, alcoholic subjects seem to attempt to compensate for their impaired cognitive functions, invoking capacities of short-term passive storage. Regarding cognitive procedural learning, although the patients eventually achieved the same results as the controls, they failed to automate the procedure. Contrary to the control group, the alcoholic groups' learning performance was predicted by controlled cognitive functions throughout the protocol. Conclusion: At alcohol treatment entry, alcoholic patients with neuropsychological deficits have difficulty acquiring novel semantic and cognitive procedural knowledge. Compared with controls, they seem to use more costly learning strategies, which are nonetheless less efficient. These learning disabilities need to be considered when treatment requiring the acquisition of complex novel information is envisaged. [source]


Factors Affecting %CDT Status at Entry Into a Multisite Clinical Treatment Trial: Experience from the COMBINE Study

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2006
Raymond F. Anton
Background: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) occurs as a higher percentage of normal transferrin (%CDT) in heavy drinkers. %CDT is used as a marker of both alcohol use disorder severity and treatment outcome both clinically and in treatment trials. Nevertheless, little is known about the parameters that predict which patients are %CDT positives at treatment entry. These parameters might include level of drinking, days of abstinence before testing, and severity of alcohol dependence before evaluation. Methods: %CDT levels were collected before randomization from participants of the COMBINE Study, a large federally sponsored multisite clinical trial evaluating medications and behavioral therapies in alcohol-dependent outpatients. %CDT (assayed in a central laboratory) was available in 1,193 individuals for whom drinking history in the 30 days before testing and measures of alcoholism severity were documented. The effects of drinking history and alcohol severity were evaluated for prediction of a %CDT-positive test status. Results: Less percent days abstinent (PDA) and more drinks per drinking day (DDD) were predictive of higher rates of %CDT-positive patients (maximum 67%). Up to 14 days of continuous abstinence before testing did not appear to significantly affect %CDT status. Rates of %CDT positives remained reasonably steady up to about 40% PDA. Years of drinking at dependence levels had an unexpected negative impact on %CDT-positive rates while previous treatment had a small but positive impact of %CDT-positive rates. ADS and DrInC scores had no predictive value over and above recent drinking amounts on %CDT status. Conclusions: %CDT is more likely to be positive in those who have more days of drinking and to a lesser degree in those who drink more per drinking day. It can remain positive even in those alcoholic subjects who stop drinking many days before testing. Alcoholic subjects with more treatment experiences appear to have a marginally higher %CDT-positive rate. [source]


Comorbidity and Psychological Science: Does One Size Fit All?

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, Issue 1 2007
Nancy A. Piotrowski
Psychologists need a thorough understanding of comorbidity involving physical health, substance use, and other mental health problems for clinical research, practice, and training. Comorbidity affects case management from treatment entry through follow-up, touching the work of psychologists in all related settings and at varying levels of training. Conceptualizations of comorbidity, however, are heterogeneous and may vary by training and employment experiences and settings. As such, there is a need to examine the concept of comorbidity more methodically. This article argues that current knowledge and developing language challenges a one-size-fits-all approach to comorbidity. The article outlines and discusses relevant considerations for research, treatment, and training regarding comorbidity. [source]