Treatment Efficiency (treatment + efficiency)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Efficiency of permeable pavement systems for the removal of urban runoff pollutants under varying environmental conditions

Kiran Tota-Maharaj
Abstract Urban surface water runoff typically contains a high but variable number of pathogens, nutrients, and sediments that require removal before reuse. Permeable pavements can improve the water quality through interception, filtration, sedimentation, nutrient transformation, and microbial removal. There is currently insufficient scientific information available on the treatment efficiencies of permeable pavements combined with earth energy systems with regards to the removal of storm water pollutants such as nutrients, sediments, and microbial pollutants. This study evaluates the efficiency of 12 tanked combined systems during a medium-term study. The research assessed weekly the removal of the microbial indicators total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal Streptococci, as well as the key nutrients ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, and ortho-phosphate-phosphorus, and physical variables such as suspended solids and turbidity. Total coliforms, E. coli, and fecal Streptococci were removed by 98,99%. The ammonia-nitrogen and ortho-phosphate-phosphorus removal efficiencies were 84.6% and 77.5%, respectively. An analysis of variance indicated that the presence or absence of a geotextile did result in a very highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) with respect to the removal of both ammonia-nitrogen and ortho-phosphate-phosphorus. Suspended solids, turbidity, and biochemical oxygen demand were reduced by 91%, 82%, and 88%, respectively. These results indicate the potential of the proposed novel system in urban runoff pollutant removal and subsequent reuse of the treated water. 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2010 [source]

Enhancement of biodegradability of industrial wastewaters by chemical oxidation pre-treatment

Dionissios Mantzavinos
Abstract Chemical oxidation technologies are often employed for the treatment of complex industrial effluents that are not amenable to conventional biological methods. The role of chemical oxidation depends on the treatment objectives and may vary from partial remediation to complete mineralization. In the case of partial treatment, chemical oxidation aims at the selective removal of the more bioresistant fractions and their conversion to readily biodegradable intermediates that can subsequently be treated biologically. Coupling chemical pre-oxidation with biological post-treatment is conceptually beneficial as it can lead to increased overall treatment efficiencies compared with the efficiency of each individual stage. This paper reviews recent developments and highlights some important aspects that need to be addressed when considering such integrated schemes. Copyright 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Remission induction chemotherapy induces in vivo caspase-dependent apoptosis in bone marrow acute myeloid leukemia blast cells and spares lymphocytes

CYTOMETRY, Issue 3 2006
J.-P. Vial
Abstract Background The goal of new therapeutic strategies is to adapt the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients to the prognostic and/or to the hematological response. Methods We analyzed in vivo apoptosis induction in blast cells and in lymphocytes of AML patients receiving remission induction treatment. Results We show, on 12 peripheral blood samples, that the increase of peripheral apoptotic blast cells cannot be considered as the earliest marker of the treatment efficiency, because the significant increase of apoptosis followed the white blood cell and the peripheral blast cell count reductions, probably due to an efficient clearance of circulating apoptotic cells. Furthermore, the study of 65 bone marrow samples at d15 showed that the treatment induced apoptosis of blast cells while sparing the lymphocytes. This apoptosis was evidenced both at the caspase and at the membrane levels using respectively fmk-VAD-FITC and Annexin V binding assays. We found that less than 50% of apoptosis, measured with the fmk-VAD-FITC, in the d15 residual bone marrow blast cells, correlated with lower disease-free survival probability. Conclusion More studies are needed in larger series and earlier during the remission induction treatment to confirm the possible prognostic significance of in vivo apoptosis induction. 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology [source]

Fate and effects of triclosan in activated sludge

Thomas W. Federle
Abstract Triclosan (TCS; 5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichloro-phenoxy]-phenol) is a widely used antimicrobial agent. To understand its fate during sewage treatment, the biodegradation and removal of TCS were determined in activated sludge. In addition, the effects of TCS on treatment processes were assessed. Fate was determined by examining the biodegradation and removal of TCS radiolabeled with 14C in the 2,4-dichlorphenoxy ring in laboratory batch mineralization experiments and bench-top continuous activated-sludge (CAS) systems. In batch experiments with unacclimated sludge, TCS was mineralized to 14CO2, but the total yield varied as a function of test concentration. Systems that were redosed with TCS exhibited more extensive and faster mineralization, indicating that adaptation was a critical factor determining the rate and extent of biodegradation. In a CAS study in which the influent level of TCS was incrementally increased from 40 ,g/L to 2,000 ,g/L, removal of the parent compound exceeded 98.5% and removal of total radioactivity (parent and metabolites) exceeded 85%. Between 1.5 and 4.5% of TCS in the influent was sorbed to the wasted solids, whereas >94% underwent primary biodegradation and 81 to 92% was mineralized to CO2 or incorporated in biomass. Increasing levels of TCS in the influent had no major adverse effects on any wastewater treatment process, including chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, and ammonia removal. In a subsequent experiment, a CAS system, acclimated to TCS at 35 ,g/L, received two separate 4-h shock loads of 750 ,g/L TCS. Neither removal of TCS nor treatment processes exhibited major adverse effects. An additional CAS study was conducted to examine the removal of a low level (10 ,g/L) of TCS. Removal of parent equaled 94.7%, and biodegradation remained the dominant removal mechanism. A subsequent series of CAS experiments examined removal at four influent concentrations (7.5, 11, 20, and 50 ,g/L) of TCS and demonstrated that removal of parent ranged from 98.2 to 99.3% and was independent of concentration. Although TCS removal across all experiments appeared unrelated to influent concentration, removal was significantly correlated (r2 = 0.87) with chemical oxygen demand removal, indicating that TCS removal was related to overall treatment efficiency of specific CAS units. In conclusion, the experiments show that TCS is extensively biodegraded and removed in activated-sludge systems and is unlikely to upset sewage treatment processes at levels expected in household and manufacturing wastewaters. [source]

Assessment of high density of onsite wastewater treatment systems on a shallow groundwater coastal aquifer using PCA

Steven Carroll
Abstract Onsite wastewater treatment systems are common throughout the world, including Australia, with approximately 17% of the Australian population relying on these systems to treat and ultimately dispose of wastewater. Systems which are properly sited, designed and managed are an effective way of providing the necessary treatment of wastewater. However, incidence of onsite system failure is common, and this is further compounded in areas where high densities of systems are established. The density of systems is not appropriately assessed in the siting and design stage. Various factors, such as site and soil characteristics and climate, can influence the treatment efficiency, and this is more critical in high density areas. Principal component analysis was used for assessing chemical and microbiological data from shallow groundwater below a high density of onsite treatment systems. The results of this study confirmed that high system densities can significantly impact shallow groundwater systems. Additionally, changes in spatial and climatic conditions, as well as the type of onsite system, can also influence the quality of groundwater. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of equine respiratory mechanics by impulse oscillometry

Summary Reasons for performing study: The long- established conventional reference technique (CRT) for measuring respiratory mechanics in horses lacks sensitivity and there is a need for further refinement in new technology, such as the impulse oscillometry system (IOS). Objectives: To evaluate the potential use of the IOS as a clinical respiratory function test and compare it to the current CRT in horses suffering from common upper and lower airway dysfunctions. Methods: Six healthy horses were tested before and after induction of a unilateral nasal obstruction (UNO) or transient left laryngeal hemiplegia (LLH). Six heaves-affected horses were tested in clinical remission and during a heaves crisis, before and after nebulisation of cumulative doses of a bronchodilator therapy (ipratropium bromide; IPB). Results: As opposed to the CRT, the IOS was able to detect partial upper airway obstruction (UAO) caused by UNO or LLH in resting horses, without differentiating both conditions. Upper airway obstruction caused an upward shift of resistance (Rrs) from 5 to 35 Hz without altering reactance (Xrs). As for the CRT, IOS respiratory parameters measured in heaves-affected horses in crisis differed significantly from values measured during remission. The difference in frequency-dependent behaviour of Rrs and Xrs allowed discrimination between upper and lower airway obstructions. Bronchodilator treatment induced significant dose-dependent changes in Xrs at 5 and 10 Hz, from the first dose. Total pulmonary resistance (RL) and Rrs at 5 Hz were affected from the second dose and displayed similar sensitivity. Although post treatment RL values were comparable to remission, Rrs and Xrs remained significantly different, characterising persistent peripheral obstruction. Conclusions: The IOS was more sensitive than the CRT in detecting partial UAO in resting horses and persistent post treatment peripheral dysfunction in heaves-affected horses. The IOS is a sensitive test that provides graded quantitative and qualitative information on disease-induced respiratory dysfunctions as well as on treatment efficiency in horses. Potential relevance: The IOS could represent a practical and sensitive alternative respiratory function test for routine clinical investigations of common airway obstructive diseases and therapy in horses. [source]

A Screening Model for Injection-Extraction Treatment Well Recirculation System Design

Monica Y. Wu
Implementation of injection-extraction treatment well pairs for in situ, in-well, or on-site remediation may be facilitated by development and application of modeling tools to aid in hydraulic design and remediation technology selection. In this study, complex potential theory was employed to derive a simple one-step design equation and related type curves that permit the calculation of the extraction well capture zone and the hydraulic recirculation between an injection and extraction well pair oriented perpendicular to regional flow. This equation may be used to aid in the design of traditional fully screened injection-extraction wells as well as innovative tandem recirculating wells when an adequate geologic barrier to vertical ground water flow exists. Simplified models describing in situ bioremediation, in-well vapor stripping, and in-well metal reactor treatment efficiency were adapted from the literature and coupled with the hydraulic design equation presented here. Equations and type curves that combine the remediation treatment efficiency with the hydraulic design equation are presented to simulate overall system treatment efficiency under various conditions. The combined model is applied to predict performance of in situ bioremediation and in-well palladium reactor designs that were previously described in the literature. This model is expected to aid practitioners in treatment system screening and evaluation. [source]

Simulating short-circuiting flow in a constructed wetland: the implications of bathymetry and vegetation effects

Joong-Hyuk Min
Abstract Short-circuiting flow, commonly experienced in many constructed wetlands, reduces hydraulic retention times in unit wetland cells and decreases the treatment efficiency. A two-dimensional (2-D), physically based, distributed modelling approach was used to systematically address the effects of bathymetry and vegetation on short-circuiting flow, which previously have been neglected or lumped in one-dimensional wetland flow models. In this study, a 2-D transient hydrodynamics with advection-dispersion model was developed using MIKE 21 and calibrated with bromide tracer data collected at the Orlando Easterly Wetland Cell 7. The estimated topographic difference between short-circuiting flow zone and adjacent area ranged from 03 to 08 m. A range of the Manning roughness coefficient at the short-circuiting flow zone was estimated (0022,0045 s m,1/3). Sensitivity analysis of topographical and vegetative heterogeneity deduced during model calibration shows that relic ditches or other ditch-shaped landforms and the associated sparse vegetation along the main flow direction intensify the short-circuiting pattern, considerably affecting 2-D solute transport simulation. In terms of hydraulic efficiency, this study indicates that the bathymetry effect on short-circuiting flow is more important than the vegetation effect. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A study of the effect of isothiazolones on the performance and characteristics of a laboratory-scale rotating biological contactor

L. Laopaiboon
Aims: To study the effect of the isothiazolone biocide (Kathon WT) on the performance of laboratory-scale rotating biological contactors (RBCs) and their component biofilms. Methods and Results: Biofilms were established on the RBCs and then exposed to 07,15 p.p.m. isothiazolones. Young, 1-week-old, biofilms were found to attain treatment efficiency equal to that of mature, 2-month-old, biofilms. Isothiazolone concentrations at 3 p.p.m. and above caused a progressive decline in treatment efficiency and 15 p.p.m. isothiazolones inhibited all microbial activity and resulted in the death of the biofilms. Bio-oxidation and the biodegradation of isothiazolones within the biofilms ontinued unhindered at concentrations which caused the total inhibition of planktonic bacteria. Conclusions: There was at least a 10-fold difference in susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm bacteria to isothiazolones. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) test was shown to be a reliable tool for investigating the efficiency of wastewater treatment units when the influent contains isothiazolones, while the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was unreliable due to the inhibition of bio-oxidation by the biocide. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results show that RBCs can be used to treat effluents containing isothiazolones at concentrations up to 15 p.p.m. [source]

Oxidative polymerization and partial dechlorination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by a mixture of peroxidase isozymes from Vaccinium myrtillus

Silvia Rita Stazi
Abstract Plant peroxidases (EC catalyze the oxidation of phenolic pollutants in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In the present study, extracellular peroxidases from Vaccinium myrtillus cell suspension cultures (VMP) were evaluated for their ability to polymerize 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. The effect of pH, temperature, reaction time, enzyme amount and initial pollutant concentration on the treatment efficiency was investigated in order to optimize the reaction conditions for TCP removal. An appreciable removal efficiency and a partial dehalogenation of TCP was observed over a wide range of initial pollutant concentrations (0.1,20,mmol,dm,3) and reaction conditions suggesting that VMP could be useful for potential decontamination applications. The use of polyethylene glycol in the reaction mixture allowed a reduction of the catalyst requirements needed to obtain well defined extents of TCP removal. 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Effect of Photothermal Therapy on Breast Tumor Vascular Contents: Noninvasive Monitoring by Near-infrared Spectroscopy,

Yueqing Gu
ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of photothermal laser irradiation on rat breast tumor (DMBA-4) vascular contents. An 805-nm diode laser was used in our experiment with a power density ranging from 0.32 to 1.27 W/cm2. The dynamic changes of oxygenated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin concentrations, ,[HbO2] and ,[Hb]total, in rat tumors during photothermal irradiation were noninvasively monitored by a near-infrared spectroscopy system. A multichannel thermal detection system was also used simultaneously to record temperatures at different locations within the tumors. Our experimental results showed that: (1) photoirradiation did have the ability to induce hyperthermic effects inside the rat breast tumors in a single exponential trend; (2) the significant changes (P < 0.005) of ,[HbO2] and ,[Hb]total in response to a low dosage of laser irradiation (0.32 W/cm2) have a single exponential increasing trend, similar to that seen in the tumor interior temperature; and (3) the increase in magnitude of ,[Hb]total is nearly two times greater than that of ,[Hb]total, suggesting that photoirradiation may enhance tumor vascular oxygenation. The last observation may be important to reveal the hidden mechanism of photoirradiation on tumors, leading to improvement of tumor treatment efficiency. [source]