Treatment Early (treatment + early)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of endoscopic low-pressure liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy in the esophagus

Bruce D. Greenwald
SUMMARY Endoscopic cryotherapy is a new technique for ablation of esophageal dysplasia and neoplasia. Preliminary studies have shown it to be safe and effective for this indication. The objective of this study is to characterize safety, tolerability, and efficacy of low-pressure liquid nitrogen endoscopic spray cryotherapy ablation in a large cohort across multiple study sites. Parallel prospective treatment studies at four tertiary care academic medical centers in the U.S. assessed spray cryotherapy in patients with Barrett's esophagus with or without dysplasia, early stage esophageal cancer, and severe squamous dysplasia who underwent cryotherapy ablation of the esophagus. All patients were contacted between 1 and 10 days after treatment to assess for side effects and complications of treatment. The main outcome measurement was the incidence of serious adverse events and side effects from treatment. Complete response for high-grade dysplasia (HGD) (CR-HGD), all dysplasia (CR-D), intestinal metaplasia (CR-IM) and cancer (CR-C) were assessed in patients completing therapy during the study period. A total of 77 patients were treated for Barrett's high-grade dysplasia (58.4%), intramucosal carcinoma (16.9%), invasive carcinoma (13%), Barrett's esophagus without dysplasia (9.1%), and severe squamous dysplasia (2.6%). Twenty-two patients (28.6%) reported no side effects throughout treatment. In 323 procedures, the most common complaint was chest pain (17.6%) followed by dysphagia (13.3%), odynophagia (12.1%), and sore throat (9.6%). The mean duration of any symptoms was 3.6 days. No side effects were reported in 48% of the procedures (155/323). Symptoms did not correlate with age, gender, diagnosis, or to treatment early versus late in the patient's or site's experience. Logit analysis showed that symptoms were greater in those with a Barrett's segment of 6 cm or longer. Gastric perforation occurred in one patient with Marfan's syndrome. Esophageal stricture developed in three, all successfully treated with dilation. In 17 HGD patients, cryotherapy produced CR-HGD, CR-D, and CR-IM of 94%, 88%, and 53%, respectively. Complete regression of cancer and HGD was seen in all seven patients with intramucosal carcinoma or stage I esophageal cancer. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy ablation using low-pressure liquid nitrogen in the esophagus is safe, well-tolerated, and efficacious. [source]

Youth retention: Factors associated with treatment drop-out from youth alcohol and other drug treatment

Abstract Introduction and Aims. This study examined factors associated with treatment drop-out among young people aged 13,19 years attending alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment. Design and Methods. Data were gathered from structured interviews (n = 79) and a clinical file search of 184 randomly selected young people who had attended youth specific AOD treatment services in Aotearoa, New Zealand during 2003 or 2004. Results. The median length of stay was 2.7 months for those attending day/residential services (n = 42) and 4.0 sessions for those attending outpatient services (n = 37) 16.7% of participants from day/residential services dropped out of treatment early (within the first month) and 32.4% of participants from outpatient treatment services dropped out of treatment early (before the third session). Fixed client characteristics, such as age, sex, ethnicity, substance use and mental health diagnoses were not found to be associated with treatment retention. Dynamic client characteristics, such as motivation to attend treatment and expectations about treatment outcomes and program characteristics, such as positive experiences with treatment staff and feeling involved in the treatment process were found to be associated with treatment retention. Discussion and Conclusions. The findings of this study support previous research indicating that fixed client characteristics are not sufficient to explain youth retention in AOD treatment. Of more use are dynamic client characteristics and program variables. These findings stress the potential for improving treatment retention by creating more youth appropriate services.[Schroder R, Sellman D, Frampton C, Deering D. Youth retention: Factors associated with treatment drop-out from youth alcohol and other drug treatment. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009] [source]

Eating disturbance and severe personality disorder: outcome of specialist treatment for severe personality disorder

Fiona Warren
Abstract Objective To assess the outcome for patients receiving specialist democratic therapeutic community treatment for personality disorder (PD) when they also have eating disturbance. Method Prospective, naturalistic study. Personality psychopathology and disturbed eating attitudes of 135 male and female referrals to tertiary treatment for PD were assessed at referral. Seventy-five referrals were admitted for treatment and 60 were not. Participants were reassessed at 1-year follow-up. Results There was a significant effect of treatment on dieting but not other aspects of eating disturbance. However, patients with eating disturbance were not more likely than those without to terminate treatment early or to have poorer outcome in terms of their personality pathology. Severity of baseline personality pathology did not predict treatment response. Conclusion Clients with comorbidity should be considered for treatment of the personality disorder prior to treatment for the eating disorder. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Eosinophilic fasciitis: demographics, disease pattern and response to treatment: report of 12 cases and review of the literature

Lindsay Bischoff Senior Medical Student
Background, Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare scleroderma-like illness. The clinical spectrum of the disease has evolved since its initial description. Methods, We identified all patients diagnosed with eosinophilic fasciitis over the past 10 years at our scleroderma clinic. Demographics, disease pattern, serologies, tissue pathology and reponse to treatment were all recorded. Results, Twelve patients with eosinophilic fasciitis were identified in our clinic over the past 10 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 49.8 9.8 years, with nine female and three male patients. The first symptoms were noticed at an average of 8.8 6.1 months before diagnosis. The mean initial absolute peripheral blood eosinophil count was 1188 1059 cells/L. Two patients had a monoclonal gammopathy, and two had positive ANA titers. All patients received corticosteroids, 10 of whom received the equivalent dose of > 20 mg/day of prednisone for more than a month. Five patients received hydroxychloroquine, two received methotrexate, one received cyclosporine, one received topical tacrolimus, and one received sulfasalazine. At a mean follow up of 17.6 months (range 2,94 months), 8 patients had a good response to treatment, 2 patients had no effect, and 2 patients had a poor response to treatment. Conclusion, High dose corticosteroid treatment lasting longer than a month with or without an immunosuppressive agent helped most patients with eosinophilic fasciitis, best results seen in those patients who were initiated treatment early on after their first symptoms. [source]

Use of the molecular adsorbents recirculating system as a treatment for acute decompensated wilson disease

Alexander Chiu
Acute decompensated Wilson disease presenting as fulminant liver failure is a life-threatening condition for which liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment. It is listed as a status 1 indication according to the United Network for Organ Sharing classification. A massive amount of copper released during the attack induces hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. Conventional chelating therapy attempting to remove copper from the patient is not satisfactory because there is inadequate time for these drugs to take action and patients are usually oliguric. The Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System (MARS) is a form of modified dialysis that removes putative albumin-bound toxins associated with liver failure. It is believed that extracorporeal albumin dialysate absorbs the circulating copper molecules that are trapped in the patient's circulation. We report 2 patients with acute decompensated Wilson disease treated with MARS. In the first case, the patient was started on MARS once conventional treatment failed. A significant amount of copper was removed from her circulatory system, and her condition stabilized afterwards. The treatment gained her extra time, and she was eventually bridged to liver transplantation. In the second case, the patient was started on MARS treatment early in the course of his illness, and his condition soon stabilized after the treatment. He was able to return to his home country for liver transplantation. In both cases, MARS was used as a means of preventing deterioration rather than salvaging devastation. In conclusion, MARS may confer benefits to patients with acute decompensated Wilson disease if it is started early in the course of illness. Liver Transpl 14:1512,1516, 2008. 2008 AASLD. [source]

Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis with valganciclovir in kidney, pancreas,kidney, and pancreas transplantation

Gaetano Ciancio
Abstract:, Cytomegalovirus, seen in more than 50% of solid organ transplant recipients, is responsible for numerous direct and indirect consequences, including infection with opportunistic pathogens and allograft rejection. Prophylaxis with intravenous ganciclovir has been the gold standard for prevention; however, intravenous treatment is expensive and carries risks of its own. Oral ganciclovir, to be effective, must be given in large, divided doses. Valganciclovir, the valine ester of ganciclovir, at 900 mg/day, provides oral bioavailability equivalent to that of intravenous ganciclovir and superior to that of oral ganciclovir. This retrospective study assessed the efficacy of 3 months prophylaxis with valganciclovir in kidney, simultaneous pancreas,kidney, and pancreas transplantation. Of 161 patients, all of whom received potent immunosuppressive regimens and were followed for a mean of 440 days, only one developed cytomegalovirus infection, at 120 days post-transplantation. Two patients died, and two others lost their grafts. There were seven incidents of acute rejection. Only seven patients discontinued treatment early, five because of leukopenia. These results suggest that prophylaxis with 900 mg/day of valganciclovir for at least 3 months safely and effectively prevents cytomegalovirus infection in kidney, simultaneous pancreas,kidney and pancreas transplant recipients on highly potent immunosuppression. [source]