Transplant Recipients (transplant + recipient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Transplant Recipients

  • adult kidney transplant recipient
  • adult liver transplant recipient
  • adult lung transplant recipient
  • adult renal transplant recipient
  • allogeneic stem cell transplant recipient
  • bone marrow transplant recipient
  • cardiac transplant recipient
  • cell transplant recipient
  • de novo liver transplant recipient
  • heart transplant recipient
  • kidney transplant recipient
  • liver transplant recipient
  • long-term renal transplant recipient
  • lung transplant recipient
  • marrow transplant recipient
  • novo liver transplant recipient
  • organ transplant recipient
  • pancreas transplant recipient
  • pediatric heart transplant recipient
  • pediatric liver transplant recipient
  • pediatric renal transplant recipient
  • pediatric solid organ transplant recipient
  • pediatric transplant recipient
  • renal transplant recipient
  • solid organ transplant recipient
  • solid-organ transplant recipient
  • stable liver transplant recipient
  • stem cell transplant recipient

  • Selected Abstracts

    Allotransplantation of Cryopreserved Parathyroid Tissue for Severe Hypocalcemia in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    S. M. Flechner
    We report the successful allotransplantation of cryopreserved parathyroid tissue to reverse hypocalcemia in a kidney transplant recipient. A 36-year-old male received a second deceased donor kidney transplant, and 6 weeks later developed severe bilateral leg numbness and weakness, inability to walk, acute pain in the left knee and wrist tetany. His total calcium was 2.6 mg/dL and parathormone level 5 pg/mL (normal 10,60 pg/mL). He underwent allotransplantation of parathyroid tissue cryopreserved for 8 months into his left brachioradialis muscle. Immunosuppression included tacrolimus (target C0 10,12 ng/mL), mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Within 2 weeks, the left knee pain, leg weakness and numbness resolved, and by 1 month he could walk normally. After a peak at month 2, his parathyroid hormone (PTH) level fell to <10 pg/mL; therefore at month 3 he received a second parathyroid transplant from the same donor. Eight months later (11 months after initial graft) he has a total calcium of 9.3 mg/dL, PTH level 15 pg/mL and is clinically asymptomatic. The amount of parathyroid tissue needed to render a patient normocalcemic is not known. In our case, the need for second transplant suggests that the amount of tissue transferred for an allograft may need to be substantially greater than for an autograft. [source]

    Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Kidney Transplant Recipient: Parasitic Interstitial Nephritis, a Cause of Renal Dysfunction

    S. Dettwiler
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) due to Leishmania infantum is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean area. It most commonly affects immunosuppressed individuals, especially HIV patients and less frequently organ transplant recipients. Renal involvement seems to be frequent and is mostly associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis, as described in autopsy reports. In the 61 cases of renal transplant recipients with VL reported in the literature, renal dysfunction was noted at clinical presentation and was more frequently observed as a complication of antiparasitic therapy. However, no pathological analysis of the allograft lesions was reported. We present the case of a Swiss renal transplant recipient who developed VL after vacations in Spain and Tunisia, complicated by acute parasitic nephritis in the renal allograft 3 months after a well-conducted treatment of liposomal amphotericin B. [source]

    EBV-Associated Leukoencephalopathy with Late Onset of Central Nervous System Lymphoma in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

    A. Vaglio
    Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a rare posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which usually has a poor outcome. To date, no specific conditions predisposing to this complication have been identified. We here describe the case of a renal transplant patient who was initially diagnosed as having Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated leukoencephalopathy and ultimately developed EBV-positive CNS lymphoma. The patient was a young lady who, 2 years after transplantation, presented with focal neurological and electroencephalographic abnormalities and diffuse white matter lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging. EBV-DNA was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction. After acyclovir therapy and immunosuppressive drug tapering, the symptoms and electroencephalographic abnormalities subsided, and EBV-DNA disappeared from the CSF. Ten years later, a bulky cerebral mass was found. After excision, a diagnosis of EBV-positive, Hodgkin-like monomorphic B-cell PTLD was made. This case illustrates the potential pathophysiological relationships between EBV infection, leukoencephalopathy and CNS lymphoma; although a long time elapsed from the initial neurological illness to CNS lymphoma, a link between these two conditions cannot be excluded. Therefore, a careful long-term follow-up of EBV-related encephalopathy is advisable. [source]

    Successful Immunotherapy of HCMV Disease Using Virus-Specific T Cells Expanded from an Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipient

    G. R. Hill
    Opportunistic infection remains the principal cause of mortality in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients with active extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents an important cause of disease in this setting and the toxicity of protracted and recurrent antiviral treatment together with eventual drug resistance represents a significant limitation to therapy. Although the expansion and adoptive transfer of HCMV-specific T cells from the healthy original donor can be an effective strategy to control viral replication, this is not possible when donors are seronegative or are subsequently inaccessible. Here we demonstrate for the first time, the successful expansion of HCMV-specific T cells from a seropositive transplant recipient of a seronegative graft with active HCMV disease and the long-term reconstitution of protective antiviral immunity following their adoptive transfer back into the patient. [source]

    De Novo HLA Sensitization and Antibody Mediated Rejection Following Pregnancy in a Heart Transplant Recipient

    P. J. O'Boyle
    Here we report a case wherein both donor-specific and third-party, paternal, HLA class II specific antibodies developed following a spontaneous miscarriage resulting in antibody-mediated rejection in a patient who had undergone an orthotopic cardiac transplant six years earlier. [source]

    Single Kidney Transplantation from Young Pediatric Donors in the United States

    L. K. Kayler
    Kidney transplantation (KTX) from small pediatric donors is performed as single or en bloc. Criteria to determine when to split pediatric donor kidneys and transplant as singles are not well established. Data reported to the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipient for donors <10 yrs from 1995 to 2007 were reviewed (n = 5079). Donors were categorized by weight group by 5 kg increments and solitary (n = 3503) versus en bloc (n = 1576). The primary outcome was overall graft survival. Results were compared as adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) relative to ideal standard criteria donors (SCDs) (defined as age 18,39 without other risk factors), non-ideal SCDs (all other SCDs) and expanded criteria donors (age 50,59 with other risk factors or age ,60). Single KTX from donors , 35 kg conferred a similar risk of graft survival as ideal SCDs. Of donors 10,34 kg, risks of en bloc KTX were similar to ideal and risks of single KTX to non-ideal SCDs; single and en bloc KTXs had 7.9 and 5.2 graft losses per 100 follow-up years, respectively. Single KTX from donors >35 kg are similar to ideal SCDs. Single KTX from donors 10,35 kg are similar to non-ideal SCDs. From a resource perspective, pediatric donors 10,35 kg used as singles offer more cumulative graft years than when used en bloc. [source]

    Apparent Remission of a Solitary Metastatic Pulmonary Lesion in a Liver Transplant Recipient Treated with Sorafenib

    M. Yeganeh
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a significant disease worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase. In selected patients, liver transplantation offers a 5-year patient survival between 48% and 75%. However, HCC recurrence occurs in approximately 20% of transplant recipients. No therapy has proven efficacious in decreasing the risk of recurrence after transplantation. Sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to improve survival in patients with advanced HCC that have no history of liver transplantation. We report complete remission of HCC in a 54-year-old man who developed biopsy-proven lung metastasis after liver transplantation treated with sorafenib. [source]

    Travel Medicine and the Solid Organ Transplant Recipient

    C. N. Kotton
    First page of article [source]

    Strongyloides Stercoralis Hyperinfection Transmitted by Liver Allograft in a Transplant Recipient

    M. J. Rodriguez-Hernandez
    We describe a case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in a liver allograft recipient 2.5 months after transplantation. The patient lives in Spain, which is not considered an endemic country for strongyloidiasis, and denied prior residence or travel to any known endemic area. The initial symptoms were fever and vomiting, and he subsequently developed a severe respiratory disease. An endoscopic biopsy of ulcerative lesions of the duodenum revealed massive mucosa infiltration by larvae and adult worms, which were also found in respiratory samples. The patient was successfully treated with combined therapy with albendazole and ivermectin. The strongyloides infection was transmitted by the liver allograft. The donor was from Ecuador and, retrospectively, his serum tested positive for S. stercoralis IgG antibodies. Additionally, the pancreas,left kidney allograft recipient from the same donor later developed an intestinal strongyloidiasis without hyperinfection syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of S. stercoralis infection transmission from the same donor to two solid allograft recipients. [source]

    Anti-Factor H Autoantibodies in a Fifth Renal Transplant Recipient with Atypical Hemolytic and Uremic Syndrome

    M. Le Quintrec
    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) associated with anti-Factor H (anti-FH) autoantibodies is a recently described pathophysiological entity. Monitoring of anti-FH IgG titer may be a sensitive marker of disease activity and guide treatment to eliminate circulating anti-FH antibodies. We report here a case of atypical HUS (aHUS) in which anti-FH autoantibodies were detected during the course of a fifth kidney transplant, 30 years after the first flare of aHUS. This exceptional case suggests that early, specific management based on immunosuppressive therapy and plasma exchanges monitored by anti-FH IgG titer may result in long-term graft survival. [source]

    Death from Metastatic Donor-Derived Ovarian Cancer in a Male Kidney Transplant Recipient

    F. Bellati
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Death from Metastatic Donor-Derived Ovarian Cancer in a Male Kidney Transplant Recipient

    G. S. Lipshutz
    Posttransplant malignancy developing in an allograft is an uncommon complication of organ transplantation. The tumor may represent malignant transformation of donor or recipient cells that were previously normal, metastatic malignancy of recipient origin or malignancy transmitted from organ donor to recipient. Establishing the origin of the malignancy is critical to treatment algorithms. It is generally believed allograft removal and immunosuppression withdrawal will lead to resolution of transmitted malignancies in cases where the renal allograft is the origin. We report a male patient who developed metastatic ovarian malignancy secondary to donor transmission. [source]

    Fatal Graft-Versus-Host Disease Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin in a Pancreas-After-Kidney Transplant Recipient

    F. L. Weng
    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a rare complication of pancreas transplantation. We describe a 54-year-old male with type 1 diabetes who received a zero-antigen mismatched pancreas-after-kidney transplant from a pancreas donor who was homozygous at the HLA-B, -Cw, -DR, and -DQ alleles. Starting on postoperative day (POD) #22, the patient developed persistent fevers. Workup was notable only for low-grade cytomegalovirus viremia, which was treated. The fevers eventually disappeared. On POD #106, the patient was noted to have a diffuse erythematous rash. A skin biopsy was consistent with GVHD. Short tandem repeat DNA analysis of both peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin demonstrated mixed chimerism, confirming the diagnosis of GHVD. Soon after diagnosis, the patient developed pancytopenia and fevers and died of multiorgan failure on POD #145. Transplant clinicians should consider GVHD as a possible, although admittedly rare, cause of fevers of unknown origin in recipients of pancreas transplants. [source]

    Pleural Primary Effusion Lymphoma in a Renal Transplant Recipient

    N. C. V. Melo
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Management of Tuberculosis in the Transplant Recipient

    Robert H. Rubin
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Rhabdomyolysis Due to Lamivudine Administration in a Liver Transplant Recipient

    Gian Luigi Adani
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Endoscopic Diagnosis of Bleeding Meckel's Diverticulum in a Multivisceral Transplant Recipient

    Lawrence U. Liu
    Small bowel transplantation has become a life-saving procedure for patients with intestinal failure who fail conventional therapy. Meckel's diverticulum is a rare cause of occult gastrointestinal bleeding that has not been reported in patients receiving intestinal allografts. We report a case in which transplantation of an asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum as part of a multivisceral allograft led to intestinal bleeding requiring surgical intervention. Endoscopy identified the actual bleeding diverticulum. Diverticulectomy at the time of transplant was not performed due to the difficult operative course, and the need for frequent surveillance ileoscopy, which would be performed across a fresh intestinal anastomosis. The patient underwent resection of the diverticulum, along with 40 cm of ileum, and did not experience further bleeding. [source]

    Reduction in the Incidence of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Treated with Cyclic Photodynamic Therapy

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) produce significant morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), particularly in patients who develop multiple tumors. Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to decrease the number of keratotic lesions in SOTRs, but the duration of the beneficial effect is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of cyclic PDT in the prevention of new SCCs in SOTRs. METHODS Twelve high-risk SOTRs received cyclic PDT treatments at 4- to 8-week intervals for 2 years. The development of new SCCs (invasive and in situ) performed 12 and 24 months after the start of cyclic PDT were compared with the number of SCCs developed during the year before initiation of cyclic PDT. RESULTS The median reduction in the 12- and 24-month post-treatment counts from the 1-month pretreatment counts was 79.0% (73.3,81.8%) and 95.0% (87.5,100.0%), respectively. Treatments were well tolerated. CONCLUSION Cyclic PDT with 5-aminolevulinic acid may reduce the incidence of SCC in SOTRs. Additional studies with larger numbers of patients and optimized protocols are necessary to further explore the potential benefits of cyclic PDT in the prevention of skin cancer in this high-risk patient population. Dr. Lee is member of the Medical Advisory Board of Dusa Pharmaceuticals, Inc. [source]

    Management of Carcinoma of the Skin in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients with Oral Capecitabine

    First page of article [source]

    Guidelines for the Management of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Organ Transplant Recipients

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 4p2 2004
    Thomas Stasko MD
    Background. Solid-organ transplant recipients have a high incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and often develop multiple and aggressive tumors. There are few published studies or reviews, which provide guidance to the clinician in the treatment of these patients. Objective. The objective was to develop useful clinical guidelines for the treatment of skin cancer in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). Methods. The members of the Guidelines Committee of the International Transplant,Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC) carried out a computerized search utilizing the databases of the National Library of Medicine for reports in the literature on SCC in OTRs. These reports were collectively examined by the group and combined with experiences from the members' clinical practices in the development of the guidelines. Results. More than 300 articles relating to SCC in OTRs were reviewed. In general, reports concerning the prevention and treatment of SCC in OTRs are of individual cases or small case series. They are retrospective in nature, statistically nonrigorous, and lack the complete epidemiologic data necessary to derive definitive conclusions. Combining these studies and collective clinical experience, however, is at present the best available method for devising guidelines for the treatment of SCC in OTRs. Conclusion. Guidelines developed for the treatment of skin cancer in OTRs, supported by the best available data and collective clinical experience, may assist in the management of OTRs with SCC. The development of clinical pathways and complete documentation with rigorous prospective study is necessary to improve and refine future guideline development. [source]

    In-Transit Metastasis From Primary Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Organ Transplant Recipients and Nonimmunosuppressed Patients: Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcome in a Series of 21 Patients

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 4p2 2004
    John A. Carucci MD
    Background. In-transit metastases from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) may occur in organ transplant recipients and may indicate aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Objective. The objective of this study was to describe in-transit metastases from cutaneous SCC and to identify factors associated with this phenomenon in a series of 21 patients. We also attempted to evaluate outcome with respect to status as an organ transplant recipient or nonorgan transplant recipient. Methods. A multicenter case series of patients was reviewed; factors included clinical presentation, management, and outcome. Results. Twenty-one patients, 15 organ transplant recipients, and 6 nontransplant recipients with in-transit metastases were reviewed. In-transit metastases presented most commonly as discrete, dermal papules distinct from but in the vicinity of the primary tumor site. Histologic differentiation was variable. At a mean follow up of 24 months, 33% the transplant patients had no evidence of disease compared with 80% of nontransplant patients. Thirty-three percent were dead from disease and 33% were alive with nodal or distant metastases. In contrast, 80% of nonimmunosuppressed patients had no evidence of disease and none had died at mean follow-up of 24 months. Conclusion. In-transit metastasis from cutaneous SCC is a unique presentation of metastatic SCC, more commonly described in organ transplant recipients, and is associated with poor prognosis in that group. This description represents the largest experience with in-transit metastases from cutaneous SCC in the literature. [source]

    Is Age Associated with the Number or Types of Medications Prescribed to Renal Transplant Recipients?

    Marie A. Chisholm PharmD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether age influences the number or types of medications prescribed to younger (aged 18,64) and elderly (aged ,65) renal transplant recipients 3 years posttransplant. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study involving renal transplant recipients. SETTING: Medical College of Georgia. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 100 elderly and 100 younger renal transplant recipients who received posttransplant care at the Medical College of Georgia, were on stable immunosuppressant therapy regimens, and were at least 3 years posttransplant. MEASUREMENTS: Medical and pharmacy data of recipients were evaluated for demographics; presence of a lipid-lowering agent; number of antihypertensives, immunosuppressants, antidiabetic agents, and total medications; number of rejections; dose per kilogram of immunosuppressant(s); infection-related hospitalizations; and measures of blood pressure, blood glucose, serum creatinine, serum tacrolimus/cyclosporine concentrations, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. RESULTS: Elderly recipients were more likely to have diabetes mellitus before the transplant and to develop diabetes mellitus afterwards (P=.04) and were prescribed more total medications (12.40±3.72 vs 10.25±4.07, P<.001) and antidiabetic agents (0.89±0.93 vs 0.42±0.77, P<.001) 3 years posttransplant than younger recipients. Elderly recipients also had fewer chronic rejections, more infection-related hospitalizations, lower diastolic blood pressure, and greater fasting blood glucose levels 3 years posttransplant (P<.05) than younger recipients. CONCLUSION: Future investigation should focus on deciphering the implications of the greater numbers of medications prescribed to elderly renal transplant recipients in terms of maximizing desired health outcomes (e.g., graft survival) and minimizing adverse drug-related experiences (e.g., infection). [source]

    Keratinocyte Dysplasia in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients in the Day 28 to 84 Post Transplant Period.

    Ning Li MD
    Severe keratinocyte dysplasia (SKD) has been reported in the early post-transplant period of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCST) patients, with a frequency as high as 47.4%. In the period less than 3 weeks post-transplant it was associated with cyclophosphamide conditioning. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of SKD in a later post-transplant period, from 28 days to 84 days, and study the possible causes. The 2003 slide file (227 slides) of Seattle Cancer Care Alliance was examined for skin biopsies from patients who had undergone HCST. Twenty-two cases (9.7%) showed SKD. A control group of 22 biopsies matched for days post-transplant and age were selected from the remaining 205 biopsies. SKD was associated with a busulfan conditioning regimen, 72.7% in the SKD group and 36.3% in the control group (p = 0.016). SKD was not associated with cyclophosphamide (p = 0.174), fludarabin (p = 0.263) or total body irradiation (p = 0.50). Although active GVHD (grade 2 or 3) was more commonly seen in SKD group (45.5%) than the control group (22.2%), it did not show significant difference (p = 0.052). Our study showed that SKD developed in 9.7% of the skin biopsies from days 28 to 84 post-transplant, and was associated with busulfan conditioning regimen. [source]

    The biopsied donor liver: Incorporating macrosteatosis into high-risk donor assessment,

    Austin L. Spitzer
    To expand the donor liver pool, ways are sought to better define the limits of marginally transplantable organs. The Donor Risk Index (DRI) lists 7 donor characteristics, together with cold ischemia time and location of the donor, as risk factors for graft failure. We hypothesized that donor hepatic steatosis is an additional independent risk factor. We analyzed the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients for all adult liver transplants performed from October 1, 2003, through February 6, 2008, with grafts from deceased donors to identify donor characteristics and procurement logistics parameters predictive of decreased graft survival. A proportional hazard model of donor variables, including percent steatosis from higher-risk donors, was created with graft survival as the primary outcome. Of 21,777 transplants, 5051 donors had percent macrovesicular steatosis recorded on donor liver biopsy. Compared to the 16,726 donors with no recorded liver biopsy, the donors with biopsied livers had a higher DRI, were older and more obese, and a higher percentage died from anoxia or stroke than from head trauma. The donors whose livers were biopsied became our study group. Factors most strongly associated with graft failure at 1 year after transplantation with livers from this high-risk donor group were donor age, donor liver macrovesicular steatosis, cold ischemia time, and donation after cardiac death status. In conclusion, in a high-risk donor group, macrovesicular steatosis is an independent risk factor for graft survival, along with other factors of the DRI including donor age, donor race, donation after cardiac death status, and cold ischemia time. Liver Transpl 16:874,884, 2010. © 2010 AASLD. [source]

    MELD,Moving steadily towards equality, equity, and fairness

    James Neuberger
    Background and aims: A consensus has been reached that liver donor allocation should be based primarily on liver disease severity and that waiting time should not be a major determining factor. Our aim was to assess the capability of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score to correctly rank potential liver recipients according to their severity of liver disease and mortality risk on the OPTN liver waiting list. Methods: The MELD model predicts liver disease severity based on serum creatinine, serum total bilirubin, and INR and has been shown to be useful in predicting mortality in patients with compensated and decompensated cirrhosis. In this study, we prospectively applied the MELD score to estimate 3-month mortality to 3437 adult liver transplant candidates with chronic liver disease who were added to the OPTN waiting list at 2A or 2B status between November, 1999, and December, 2001. Results: In this study cohort with chronic liver disease, 412 (12%) died during the 3-month follow-up period. Waiting list mortality increased directly in proportion to the listing MELD score. Patients having a MELD score <9 experienced a 1.9% mortality, whereas patients having a MELD score > or =40 had a mortality rate of 71.3%. Using the c-statistic with 3-month mortality as the end point, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the MELD score was 0.83 compared with 0.76 for the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These data suggest that the MELD score is able to accurately predict 3-month mortality among patients with chronic liver disease on the liver waiting list and can be applied for allocation of donor livers.(Gastroenterology 2003;124:91,96.) Context: The Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) score serves as the basis for the distribution of deceased-donor (DD) livers and was developed in response to "the final rule" mandate, whose stated principle is to allocate livers according to a patient's medical need, with less emphasis on keeping organs in the local procurement area. However, in selected areas of the United States, organs are kept in organ procurement organizations (OPOs) with small waiting lists and transplanted into less-sick patients instead of being allocated to sicker patients in nearby transplant centers in OPOs with large waiting lists. Objective: To determine whether there is a difference in MELD scores for liver transplant recipients receiving transplants in small vs large OPOs. Design and setting: Retrospective review of the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients between February 28, 2002, and March 31, 2003. Transplant recipients (N = 4798) had end-stage liver disease and received DD livers. Main outcome measures: MELD score distribution (range, 6,40), graft survival, and patient survival for liver transplant recipients in small (<100) and large (> or =100 on the waiting list) OPOs. RESULTS: The distribution of MELD scores was the same in large and small OPOs; 92% had a MELD score of 18 or less, 7% had a MELD score between 19 and 24, and only 2% of listed patients had a MELD score higher than 24 (P = .85). The proportion of patients receiving transplants in small OPOs and with a MELD score higher than 24 was significantly lower than that in large OPOs (19% vs 49%; P<.001). Patient survival rates at 1 year after transplantation for small OPOs (86.4%) and large OPOs (86.6%) were not statistically different (P = .59), and neither were graft survival rates in small OPOs (80.1%) and large OPOs (81.3%) (P = .80). Conclusions: There is a significant disparity in MELD scores in liver transplant recipients in small vs large OPOs; fewer transplant recipients in small OPOs have severe liver disease (MELD score >24). This disparity does not reflect the stated goals of the current allocation policy, which is to distribute livers according to a patient's medical need, with less emphasis on keeping organs in the local procurement area. (JAMA 2004;291:1871,1874.) [source]

    Pilot Study Examining the Utility of Microarray Data to Identify Genes Associated with Weight in Transplant Recipients

    Ann Cashion
    Purpose/Methods:, Obesity, a complex, polygenic disorder and a growing epidemic in transplant recipients, is a risk factor for chronic diseases. This secondary data analysis identified if microarray technologies and bioinformatics could find differences in gene expression profiles between liver transplant recipients with low Body Mass Index (BMI < 29; n = 5) vs. high (BMI > 29; n = 7). Blood was hybridized on Human U133 Plus 2 GeneChip (Affymetrix) and analyzed using GeneSpring Software. Results:, Groups were similar in age and race, but not gender. Expression levels of 852 genes were different between the low and high BMI groups (P < 0.05). The majority (562) of the changes associated with high BMI were decreases in transcript levels. Among the 852 genes associated with BMI, 263 and 14 genes were affected greater than 2- or 5-fold, respectively. Following functionally classification using Gene Ontology (GO), we found that 19 genes (P < 0.00008) belonged to defense response and 15 genes (P < 0.00006) belonged to immune response. Conclusion:, These data could point the way toward therapeutic interventions and identify those at-risk. These results demonstrate that we can (1) extract high quality RNA from immunosuppressed patients; (2) manage large datasets and perform statistical and functional analysis. [source]

    Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy and Epstein-Barr Virus in Pediatric Organ Transplant Recipients,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 6 2001
    Nina L. Shapiro MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis Epstein-Barr virus,related (EBV-related) lymphoid hyperplasia of the tonsils and adenoids is a precursor to post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). The incidence of post-transplantation adenotonsillar hypertrophy, a potential early sign of PTLD or EBV-related lymphoid hyperplasia, is not known. We sought to identify potential risk factors for adenotonsillar hypertrophy manifested as EBV-related hyperplasia and early PTLD in the pediatric solid organ transplant population. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis. Methods We developed a 65-point questionnaire concerning obstructive sleep disorder and upper respiratory tract infections and an 8-point focused physical examination, to identify prevalence of and risk factors for adenotonsillar hypertrophy in the pediatric transplant population. We evaluated 120 pediatric solid organ transplant recipients by parental questionnaire and focused adenotonsillar physical examination. Results Of the 120 patients, 62 had undergone liver transplantation and 58 had undergone kidney transplantation. Overall, the mean questionnaire score was 8.36 (range, 0,40) and the mean physical examination score was 3.86 (range, 1,8). Patients whose EBV serological test result was negative at the time of transplant had higher scores for both the questionnaire (mean score, 10.24) and the physical examination (mean score, 4.56) than those whose EBV serological test result was positive at the time of transplantation (scores of 7.38 and 3.30 for questionnaire and physical examination, respectively). The difference in examination scores was statistically significant (P <.003). Conclusions Epstein-Barr virus seronegativity at the time of organ transplantation is a known risk factor for PTLD, with associated risk of developing EBV-related lymphoid hyperplasia. Our results indicate a higher incidence of symptoms and signs consistent with adenotonsillar hypertrophy in the EBV seronegative population. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy may be a precursor to EBV-related lymphoid hyperplasia and PTLD and must be identified in this patient population. [source]

    The Quality of Health Insurance Service Delivery for Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Patient Perspective

    E. J. Gordon
    Increased attention has been devoted to improving quality care in kidney transplantation. The discourse on quality care has focused on transplant center metrics and other clinical parameters. However, there has been little discussion on the quality of health insurance service delivery, which may be critical to kidney recipients' access to transplantation and immunosuppression. This paper describes and provides a framework for characterizing kidney transplant recipients' positive and negative interactions with their insurers. A consecutive cohort of kidney recipients (n = 87) participated in semistructured interviews on their interactions with insurance agencies. Patients reported negative (37%) and/or neutral or positive (79%) interactions with their insurer (a subset [16%] reported both). Perceived negative experiences included: poor service, logistical difficulties with confusing and time-consuming paperwork, poor communication, rude behavior and concerns about adequate coverage. Positive experiences related to: having good coverage, a simple application process, straightforward transactions and helpful communication. Findings suggest that even when patients have insurance coverage, difficult interactions with insurers and limited skills in navigating insurance options may limit their access to needed medications and health services. Future research is needed to test this hypothesis in a larger population. [source]

    Early Withdrawal of Calcineurin Inhibitors and Everolimus Monotherapy in de novo Liver Transplant Recipients Preserves Renal Function

    M. Masetti
    We designed a randomized trial to assess whether the early withdrawal of cyclosporine (CsA) followed by the initiation of everolimus (Evr) monotherapy in de novo liver transplantation (LT) patients would result in superior renal function compared to a CsA-based immunosuppression protocol. All patients were treated with CsA for the first 10 days and then randomized to receive Evr in combination with CsA up to day 30, then either continued on Evr monotherapy (Evr group) or maintained on CsA with/without mycophenolate mofetil (CsA group) in case of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seventy-eight patients were randomized (Evr n = 52; CsA n = 26). The 1-year freedom from efficacy failure in Evr group was 75% versus 69.2% in CsA group, p = 0.36. There was no statistically significant difference in patient survival between the two groups. Mean modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) was significantly better in the Evr group at 12 months (87.7 ± 26.1 vs. 59.9 ± 12.6 mL/min; p < 0.001). The incidence of CKD stage ,3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min) was higher in the CsA group at 1 year (52.2% vs. 15.4%, p = 0.005). The results indicate that early withdrawal of CsA followed by Evr monotherapy in de novo LT patients is associated with an improvement in renal function, with a similar incidence of rejection and major complications. [source]

    Primary CMV Infections Are Common in Kidney Transplant Recipients After 6 Months Valganciclovir Prophylaxis

    I. Helanterä
    Prolonging cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis in CMV seronegative recipients of a kidney from CMV seropositive donor (D+/R,) may reduce the incidence of late infections. We analyzed late-onset primary CMV infections after 6 months valganciclovir prophylaxis. Data from all CMV D+/R, kidney transplant recipients between January 2004 and December 2008 at our center were analyzed. Patients with a functioning graft at 6 months after transplantation who received 6 months of valganciclovir prophylaxis 900 mg once daily were included (N = 127). CMV was diagnosed with quantitative PCR. Prophylaxis was completed in 119 patients. Prophylaxis was stopped at 3,5 months due to leukopenia or gastrointestinal side effects in eight patients. Late-onset primary CMV infection developed in 47/127 (37%) patients median 244 days after transplantation (range 150,655) and median 67 days after the cessation of prophylaxis (range 1,475). Four infections were asymptomatic. In others, symptoms included fever (N = 28), gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) (N = 24), respiratory tract symptoms (N = 12), and hepatopathy (N = 6). Median peak viral load was 13500 copies/mL (range 400,2 831 000). Recurrent CMV infection developed in 9/47 (19%) patients. No significant risk factors for CMV infection were identified. Symptomatic primary CMV infections were commonly detected also after prolonged valganciclovir prophylaxis. [source]