Transcription Factors (transcription + factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Transcription Factors

  • activating transcription factor
  • adipogenic transcription factor
  • ap-1 transcription factor
  • b transcription factor
  • bhlh transcription factor
  • box transcription factor
  • bzip transcription factor
  • critical transcription factor
  • downstream transcription factor
  • e2f transcription factor
  • essential transcription factor
  • family transcription factor
  • finger transcription factor
  • forkhead transcription factor
  • heat shock transcription factor
  • helix-loop-helix transcription factor
  • homeodomain transcription factor
  • hypoxia-inducible transcription factor
  • important transcription factor
  • key transcription factor
  • major transcription factor
  • many transcription factor
  • master transcription factor
  • microphthalmia transcription factor
  • microphthalmia-associated transcription factor
  • multiple transcription factor
  • nuclear transcription factor
  • other transcription factor
  • putative transcription factor
  • redox-sensitive transcription factor
  • relate transcription factor
  • runt-related transcription factor
  • several transcription factor
  • shock transcription factor
  • sp1 transcription factor
  • specific transcription factor
  • thyroid transcription factor
  • various transcription factor
  • wrky transcription factor
  • zinc finger transcription factor
  • zinc-finger transcription factor

  • Terms modified by Transcription Factors

  • transcription factor activation
  • transcription factor belonging
  • transcription factor binding
  • transcription factor binding motif
  • transcription factor binding site
  • transcription factor c
  • transcription factor creb
  • transcription factor essential
  • transcription factor family
  • transcription factor foxp3
  • transcription factor gene
  • transcription factor hif-1
  • transcription factor network
  • transcription factor nf
  • transcription factor nuclear factor
  • transcription factor present
  • transcription factor runx2
  • transcription factor sp1

  • Selected Abstracts

    A human phospholamban promoter polymorphism in dilated cardiomyopathy alters transcriptional regulation by glucocorticoids,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 5 2008
    Kobra Haghighi
    Abstract Depressed calcium handling by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca-ATPase and its regulator phospholamban (PLN) is a key characteristic of human and experimental heart failure. Accumulating evidence indicates that increases in the relative levels of PLN to Ca-ATPase in failing hearts and resulting inhibition of Ca sequestration during diastole, impairs contractility. Here, we identified a genetic variant in the PLN promoter region, which increases its expression and may serve as a genetic modifier in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The variant AF177763.1:g.203A>C (at position ,36,bp relative to the PLN transcriptional start site) was found only in the heterozygous form in 1 out of 296 normal subjects and in 22 out of 381 cardiomyopathy patients (heart failure at age of 18,44 years, ejection fraction=22±9%). In vitro analysis, using luciferase as a reporter gene in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, indicated that the PLN-variant increased activity by 24% compared to the wild type. Furthermore, the g.203A>C substitution altered the specific sequence of the steroid receptor for the glucocorticoid nuclear receptor (GR)/transcription factor in the PLN promoter, resulting in enhanced binding to the mutated DNA site. These findings suggest that the g.203A>C genetic variant in the human PLN promoter may contribute to depressed contractility and accelerate functional deterioration in heart failure. Hum Mutat 29(5), 640,647, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Aged Mice Require Full Transcription Factor, Runx2/Cbfa1, Gene Dosage for Cancellous Bone Regeneration After Bone Marrow Ablation,

    Kunikazu Tsuji
    Abstract Runx2 is prerequisite for the osteoblastic differentiation in vivo. To elucidate Runx2 gene functions in adult bone metabolism, we conducted bone marrow ablation in Runx2 heterozygous knockout mice and found that aged (but not young) adult Runx2 heterozygous knockout mice have reduced new bone formation capacity after bone marrow ablation. We also found that bone marrow cells from aged Runx2 heterozygous knockout mice have reduced ALP+ colony-forming potential in vitro. This indicates that full Runx2 dosage is needed for the maintenance of osteoblastic activity in adult mice. Introduction: Null mutation of the Runx2 gene results in total loss of osteoblast differentiation, and heterozygous Runx2 deficiency causes cleidocranial dysplasia in humans and mice. However, Runx2 gene functions in adult bone metabolism are not known. We therefore examined the effects of Runx2 gene function in adult mice with heterozygous loss of the Runx2 gene. Materials and Methods: Bone marrow ablation was conducted in young adult (2.5 ± 0.5 months old) or aged adult (7.5 ± 0.5 months old) Runx2 heterozygous knockout mice and wildtype (WT) littermates. Cancellous bone regeneration was evaluated by 2D ,CT. Results: Although new bone formation was observed after bone marrow ablation in the operated bone marrow cavity of WT mice, such bone formation was significantly reduced in Runx2 heterozygous knockout mice. Interestingly, this effect was observed specifically in aged but not young adult mice. Runx2 heterozygous deficiency in aged mice significantly reduced the number of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)+ cell colonies in the bone marrow cell cultures, indicating a reduction in the numbers of osteoprogenitor cells. Such effects of heterozygous Runx2 deficiency on osteoblasts in vitro was specific to the cells from aged adult mice, and it was not observed in the cultures of marrow cells from young adult mice. Conclusion: These results indicate that full gene dosage of Runx2 is required for cancellous bone formation after bone marrow ablation in adult mice. [source]

    Cloning and Functional Analysis of a Family of Nuclear Matrix Transcription Factors (NP/NMP4) that Regulate Type I Collagen Expression in Osteoblasts

    Pasutha Thunyakitpisal
    Abstract Collagen expression is coupled to cell structure in connective tissue. We propose that nuclear matrix architectural transcription factors link cell shape with collagen promoter geometry and activity. We previously indicated that nuclear matrix proteins (NP/NMP4) interact with the rat type I collagen ,1(I) polypeptide chain (COL1A1) promoter at two poly(dT) sequences (sites A and B) and bend the DNA. Here, our objective was to determine whether NP/NMP4- COL1A1 binding influences promoter activity and to clone NP/NMP4. Promoter-reporter constructs containing 3.5 kilobases (kb) of COL1A1 5, flanking sequence were fused to a reporter gene. Mutation of site A or site B increased promoter activity in rat UMR-106 osteoblast-like cells. Several full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) were isolated from an expression library using site B as a probe. These clones expressed proteins with molecular weights and COL1A1 binding activity similar to NP/NMP4. Antibodies to these proteins disrupted native NP/NMP4- COL1A1 binding activity. Overexpression of specific clones in UMR-106 cells repressed COL1A1 promoter activity. The isolated cDNAs encode isoforms of Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins that contain an AT-hook, a motif found in architectural transcription factors. Some of these isoforms recently have been identified as Cas-interacting zinc finger proteins (CIZ) that localize to fibroblast focal adhesions and enhance metalloproteinase gene expression. We observed NP/NMP4/CIZ expression in osteocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes in rat bone. We conclude that NP/NMP4/CIZ is a novel family of nuclear matrix transcription factors that may be part of a general mechanical pathway that couples cell structure and function during extracellular matrix remodeling. [source]

    Isolation and Expression Analysis of Two Cold-Inducible Genes Encoding Putative CBF Transcription Factors from Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)

    Yong Zhang
    Abstract Two homologous genes of the Arabidopsis C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factors (CBF/DREB1) transcriptional activator were isolated by RT-PCR from Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr. cv. Qinbai 5) and were designated as BcCBF1 and BcCBF2. Each encodes a putative CBF/DREB1 protein with an AP2 (Apetal2) DNA-binding domain, a putative nuclear localization signal, and a possible acidic activation domain. Deduced amino acid sequences show that BcCBF1 is very similar to the Arabidopsis CBF1, whereas BcCBF2 is different in that it contains two extra regions of 24 and 20 amino acids in the acidic domain. The mRNA accumulation profiles indicated that the expression of BcCBF1 and BcCBF2 is strongly induced by cold treatment, but does not respond similarly to dehydration or abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. However, the cold-induced accumulation of BcCBF2 mRNA was rapid but short-lived compared with that of BcCBF1. The mRNA levels of both BcCBF1 and BcCBF2 were higher in leaves than in roots when plants were exposed to cold, whereas, salt stress caused higher accumulation of BcCBF2 mRNA in roots than in leaves, suggesting that the organ specificity of the gene expression of the BcCBFs is probably stress dependent. In addition, the accumulation of BcCBF1 and BcCBF2 mRNAs was greatly enhanced by light compared with darkness when seedlings were exposed to cold. It is concluded that the two BcCBF proteins may be involved in the process of plant response to cold stress through an ABA-independent pathway and that there is also a cross-talk between the light signaling conduction pathway and the cold response pathway in B. pekinensis as in Arabidopsis. (Managing editor: Li-Hui Zhao) [source]

    Heat Shock Transcription Factors and the hsp70 Induction Response in Brain and Kidney of the Hyperthermic Rat During Postnatal Development

    Andrew J. Morrison
    Abstract : Heat shock transcription factor (HSF) 1 levels increase in brain regions and decline in kidney during postnatal rat development. In both neonatal and adult rats, levels of HSF1 protein in brain and kidney are proportional to the levels of HSF DNA-binding activity and the magnitude of heat shock protein hsp70 induction after thermal stress. There appears to be more HSF1 protein in adult brain than is needed for induction of hsp70 after thermal stress, suggesting that HSF1 may have other functions in addition to its role as a stress-inducible activator of heat shock genes. HSF2 protein levels decline during postnatal rat development in brain regions and kidney. Gel mobility shift analysis shows that HSF2 is not in a DNA-binding form in the neonatal brain and kidney, suggesting that HSF2 may not be involved in the constitutive expression of hsps in early postnatal development. There is no apparent relationship between levels of HSF2 protein and basal levels of hsp90, hsp70, heat shock cognate protein hsc70, and hsp60. [source]

    Pituitary Transcription Factors: From Congenital Deficiencies to Gene Therapy

    M. H. Quentien
    Despite the existence of interspecies phenotypic variability, animal models have yielded valuable insights into human pituitary diseases. Studies on Snell and Jackson mice known to have growth hormone, prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiencies involving the hypoplastic pituitary gland have led to identifying alterations of the pituitary specific POU homeodomain Pit-1 transcription factor gene. The human phenotype associated with rare mutations in this gene was found to be similar to that of these mice mutants. Terminal differentiation of lactotroph cells and direct regulation of the prolactin gene both require interactions between Pit-1 and cell type specific partners, including panpituitary transcriptional regulators such as Pitx1 and Pitx2. Synergistic activation of the prolactin promoter by Pitx factors and Pit-1 is involved not only in basal condition, but also in responsiveness to forskolin, thyrotrophin-releasing-hormone and epidermal growth factor. In corticotroph cells, Pitx1 interacts with Tpit. Tpit mutations have turned out to be the main molecular cause of neonatal isolated adrenocorticotrophin deficiency. This finding supports the idea that Tpit plays an essential role in the differentiation of the pro-opiomelanocortin pituitary lineage. The effects of Pit-1 are not restricted to hormone gene regulation because this factor also contributes to cell division and protects the cell from programmed cell death. Lentiviral vectors expressing a Pit-1 dominant negative mutant induced time- and dose-dependent cell death in somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas in vitro. Gene transfer by lentiviral vectors should provide a promising step towards developing an efficient specific therapeutic approach by which a gene therapy programme for treating human pituitary adenomas could be based. [source]

    CREB Gene Transcription Factors: Role in Molecular Mechanisms of Alcohol and Drug Addiction

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2005
    Subhash C. Pandey
    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium presented at the meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in June 2004. The organizers and chairpersons were Subhash C. Pandey and Fulton Crews. The presentations were (1) Ethanol Modulation of CREB: Role in Dependence and Withdrawal, by Fulton Crews; (2) Effects of D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation During Withdrawal From Chronic Morphine: Enhanced CREB Activation and Decreased Conditioned Place Aversion, by Elena H. Chartoff; (3) CREB-Haplodeficient Mice: Role in Anxiety and Alcohol-Drinking Behaviors, by Subhash C. Pandey; and (4) A Role for CREB in Stress and Drug Addiction, by Julie A. Blendy. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Imbalance of T-cell Transcription Factors Contributes to the Th1 Type Immunity Predominant in Pre-eclampsia

    Zhou Jianjun
    Problem, Extensive studies have demonstrated that Th1 type immunity is predominant in pre-eclampsia, but there is little concern with regard to the intracellular mechanisms behind this initial T-cell polarization. In this study, we investigated whether the imbalance of the T-cell transcription factors contributes to it. Method of study, A total of 15 pre-eclamptic patients and 15 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in this study. The expression levels of transcription factors for Th1 (T-bet), Th2 (GATA3), Th17 (RORc) and Treg (FOXP3) cells, together with the Th1/Th2 status, were simultaneously investigated in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and decidua. Results, The expression levels of FOXP3 mRNA were decreased in both PBMCs and decidua from pre-eclamptic patients compared with healthy pregnant women (P < 0.05), and T-bet mRNA and RORc mRNA were significantly increased (P < 0.05), while Th1/Th2 balance shifted toward the Th1 immunity. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between FOXP3 mRNA and Th1 cells (P < 0.05), and the expression level of T-bet mRNA correlated strongly with Th1 cells (P < 0.05). Conclusion, Decreased expression of FOXP3 mRNA and increased expression of T-bet mRNA may contribute to Th1 type immunity predominant in pre-eclampsia. [source]

    Mixture Modeling for Genome-Wide Localization of Transcription Factors

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2007
    Sündüz Kele
    Summary Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA microarray analysis (ChIP-chip methodology) is an efficient way of mapping genome-wide protein,DNA interactions. Data from tiling arrays encompass DNA,protein interaction measurements on thousands or millions of short oligonucleotides (probes) tiling a whole chromosome or genome. We propose a new model-based method for analyzing ChIP-chip data. The proposed model is motivated by the widely used two-component multinomial mixture model of de novo motif finding. It utilizes a hierarchical gamma mixture model of binding intensities while incorporating inherent spatial structure of the data. In this model, genomic regions belong to either one of the following two general groups: regions with a local protein,DNA interaction (peak) and regions lacking this interaction. Individual probes within a genomic region are allowed to have different localization rates accommodating different binding affinities. A novel feature of this model is the incorporation of a distribution for the peak size derived from the experimental design and parameters. This leads to the relaxation of the fixed peak size assumption that is commonly employed when computing a test statistic for these types of spatial data. Simulation studies and a real data application demonstrate good operating characteristics of the method including high sensitivity with small sample sizes when compared to available alternative methods. [source]

    The Expression Profile of Myogenic Transcription Factors in Satellite Cells from Denervated Rat Muscle

    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    Annette Maier;
    The muscle-specific transcription factors of the MyoD family are altered after denervation. In order to determine whether this shift takes place in satellite cells (SC), we investigated the expression pattern of MyoD, myf5, myogenin, and MRF4 in SC. Hindlimb muscles of rats were denervated for 2 days to 4 weeks. SC were isolated, pooled and the transcription of all 4 factors was assessed by RT-PCR. Protein expression was assessed in histological sections of soleus and anterior tibial (TA) muscles; SC were identified by M-cadherin. Pooled SC from innervated muscles expressed myf5 mRNA, and very weakly MyoD and myogenin mRNA. MyoD and myogenin protein was found in only few SC. After denervation, pooled SC expressed myf5 mRNA, and very weakly myogenin and MRF4 mRNA. Myogenin protein was found in less than about 10% of the cells, whereas MRF4 protein was absent from SC. We conclude that the presence of myf5 and the absence of MyoD and MRF4 protein in SC after denervation indicated the quiescent state of the cell cycle. A subset of SC has additionally acquired myogenin. SC after denervation might be less easily recruited into the mitotic cycle than SC from normal muscle, rendering regeneration of denervated muscle less efficient than normal muscle. [source]

    Transcription factor 7,like 2 polymorphism modulates glucose and lipid homeostasis, adipokine profile, and hepatocyte apoptosis in NASH,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Giovanni Musso
    Genetic factors underlying the association of NAFLD with diabetes and atherosclerosis are unknown. Recent human studies suggest transcription factor 7,like 2 (TCF7L2) polymorphism predisposes to diabetes through modulation of ,-cell function and modulates lipid levels in familial dyslipidemia. Emerging experimental evidence connects TCF7L2 to adipocyte metabolism and lipid homeostasis, as well. We tested if TCF7L2 polymorphism is a risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and if it modulates liver injury, glucose homeostasis, lipoprotein, and adipokine profiles in NASH. TCF7L2 genotype and dietary habits of 78 nondiabetic normolipidemic NAFLD subjects and 156 age-, body mass index,, sex-matched healthy controls were assessed. In 39 biopsy-proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and matched controls TCF7L2 polymorphism was correlated to liver histology and oral glucose tolerance test,derived parameters of glucose homeostasis. Patients with NASH and controls consumed a high-fat meal and TCF7L2 genotype was correlated to postprandial circulating lipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokeratin-18 fragments. The TCF7L2 CT/TT genotype was more frequent in NAFLD and predicted the presence and severity of liver disease, of ,-cell dysfunction, of reduced incretin effect and hepatic insulin resistance in NASH; it also modulated postprandial hepatocyte apoptosis, lipoproteins, and adipokine profiles in both groups. Conclusion: TCF7L2 polymorphism predisposes to NAFLD and significantly impacts liver injury, glucose homeostasis, and postprandial lipoprotein and adipokine responses to fat ingestion. This polymorphism also modulates a fat-induced increase in circulating markers of hepatocyte apoptosis in NASH. Targeting postprandial lipemia, at least in at-risk TCF7L2 genotypes, may improve liver disease and glucose dysmetabolism in these patients. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]

    Expression of Ht2 -related genes in response to the HT-Toxin of Exserohilum turcicum in Maize

    H. Wang
    Complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis was conducted to analyze differential expression of Ht2 -related genes between maize (Zea mays) near-isogenic lines (NILs), Huangzaosi (HZS) and HuangzaosiHt2 (HZSHt2), following treatment with a crude extract of the HT-toxin. Twenty-one transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), designated H1 to H21, were specifically expressed or upregulated in HZSHt2 following exposure to the HT-toxin. Among them, 4, 7, 4, 2, 2 and 2 TDFs were detected at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. BLAST analysis showed that H1, H11, H13 and H15 are related to regulation of the defence response to environmental stresses. H3, H6 and H10 are associated with energy metabolism. H5, H17 and H18 are involved in photosynthesis. H9 is similar to ubiquitin-like domain containing CTD phosphatase. H8, H9, H16 and H20 are probably transcription factors. The genes associated with basal energy metabolism and signal of stress tolerance were mainly expressed at 3 h after treatment. Transcription factor and most genes for stress tolerance were expressed at 6 h after treatment. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that H8 was upregulated in HZSHt2 only at 6 h after exposure to the HT-toxin and H13 was upregulated at 6 and 12 h. The full length cDNAs of H8 (GenBank accession number FJ600319) and H13 (FJ600320) were cloned. The deduced protein encoded by H8 cDNA showed 77% homology to the Plus-3 domain containing protein, which is found in yeast gene Rtf1. H13 cDNA encodes a QM-like protein, which is an important protein in plant tolerance to environmental stress. The mechanism regulating the resistance of Ht2 to the HT-toxin might involve a translation elongation factor or an upregulated QM-like protein. [source]

    Regulation of oocyte maturation in fish

    Yoshitaka Nagahama
    A period of oocyte growth is followed by a process called oocyte maturation (the resumption of meiosis) which occurs prior to ovulation and is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. Our studies using fish models have revealed that oocyte maturation is a three-step induction process involving gonadotropin (LH), maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), and maturation-promoting factor (MPF). LH acts on the ovarian follicle layer to produce MIH (17,, 20,-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 17,, 20,-DP, in most fishes). The interaction of ovarian thecal and granulosa cell layers (two-cell type model), is required for the synthesis of 17,,20,-DP. The dramatic increase in the capacity of postvitellogenic follicles to produce 17,,20,-DP in response to LH is correlated with decreases in P450c17 (P450c17-I) and P450 aromatase (oP450arom) mRNA and increases in the novel form of P450c17 (P450c17-II) and 20,-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20,-HSD) mRNA. Transcription factors such as Ad4BP/SF-1, Foxl2, and CREB may be involved in the regulation of expression of these steroidogenic enzymes. A distinct family of G-protein-coupled membrane-bound MIH receptors has been shown to mediate non-genomic actions of 17,, 20,-DP. The MIH signal induces the de novo synthesis of cyclin B from the stored mRNA, which activates a preexisting 35 kDa cdc2 kinase via phosphorylation of its threonine 161 by cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase, thus producing the 34 kDa active cdc2 (active MPF). Upon egg activation, MPF is inactivated by degradation of cyclin B. This process is initiated by the 26S proteasome through the first cut in its NH2 terminus at lysine 57. [source]

    Functional analysis of murine CBF1 during Drosophila development

    Markus Kaspar
    Abstract Transcription factors of the CSL family are the main mediators of the Notch signalling pathway. The CSL factor in Drosophila is called Suppressor of Hairless (Su(H)) and it has been shown that it acts as a transcriptional repressor in the absence of a Notch signal and as a transcriptional activator in its presence in several developmental contexts. Furthermore, recent data suggest that Su(H) can also activate and maintain transcription of some target genes in a Notch-independent manner. However, although it has been shown that the mammalian CSL ortholog, CBF1, acts as a repressor of transcription in cell culture experiments, so far in vivo evidence for such a function has been lacking. Moreover, it is not known whether CBF1 can activate transcription in a Notch-independent manner, just like Su(H). Here we have investigated these questions by introducing murine CBF1 (mCBF1) and asked whether it can functionally replace Su(H) during Drosophila development. We found that this is indeed the case. We show that mCBF1 can act as a repressor of transcription and can activate and maintain the expression of some target genes in a Notch-independent manner. Our results, therefore, indicate that CBF1 can exert these functions also in its normal context, that is during mammalian development. Developmental Dynamics 235:918,927, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Transcription factors that regulate memory in humoral responses

    Kathryn Calame
    Summary:, At least three types of B lymphocytes are important for providing memory in a humoral immune response: ,classical' memory cells that do not secrete immunoglobulin (Ig), long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) in the bone marrow, and ,innate-like' B-1 cells. In this review, our work on B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), a critical regulator of terminal B-cell differentiation, is discussed in the context of current knowledge of all transcriptional controls that regulate these three types of B cells. Blimp-1 is not required for formation of memory cells, but it is required for them to progress toward becoming plasma cells. Blimp-1 is required for Ig secretion in plasma cells and in B-1 cells. Induction of the activator X-box-binding protein-1 and formation of µ-secreted mRNA depend on Blimp-1 in both cell types. Finally, even after their formation, LLPCs in the bone marrow continue to require Blimp-1 for their maintenance. [source]

    Identification of uniquely expressed transcription factors in highly purified B-cell lymphoma samples,,§

    Ulrika Andréasson
    Transcription factors (TFs) are critical for B-cell differentiation, affecting gene expression both by repression and transcriptional activation. Still, this information is not used for classification of B-cell lymphomas (BCLs). Traditionally, BCLs are diagnosed based on a phenotypic resemblance to normal B-cells; assessed by immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry, by using a handful of phenotypic markers. In the last decade, diagnostic and prognostic evaluation has been facilitated by global gene expression profiling (GEP), providing a new powerful means for the classification, prediction of survival, and response to treatment of lymphomas. However, most GEP studies have typically been performed on whole tissue samples, containing varying degrees of tumor cell content, which results in uncertainties in data analysis. In this study, global GEP analyses were performed on highly purified, flow-cytometry sorted tumor-cells from eight subgroups of BCLs. This enabled identification of TFs that can be uniquely associated to the tumor cells of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), hairy cell leukemia (HCL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). The identified transcription factors influence both the global and specific gene expression of the BCLs and have possible implications for diagnosis and treatment. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Snail, Slug, and Smad-interacting protein 1 as novel parameters of disease aggressiveness in metastatic ovarian and breast carcinoma,,

    CANCER, Issue 8 2005
    Sivan Elloul M.Sc.
    Abstract BACKGROUND It was demonstrated previously that the Snail family of transcription factors and Smad-interacting protein 1 (Sip1) regulate E-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) expression, cellular morphology, and invasion in carcinoma. For the current study, the authors analyzed the relation between the expression of Snail, Slug, and Sip1; the expression of MMP-2 and E-cadherin; and clinical parameters in patients with metastatic ovarian and breast carcinoma. METHODS One hundred one fresh-frozen, malignant effusions from patients who were diagnosed with gynecologic carcinomas (78 ovarian carcinomas and 23 breast carcinomas) were studied for mRNA expression of Snail, Slug, Sip1, MMP-2, and E-cadherin using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Snail mRNA and E-cadherin protein expression levels also were studied in ovarian carcinoma effusions using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. The results were analyzed for possible correlation with clinicopathologic parameters in both tumor types. RESULTS E-cadherin mRNA expression was lower in breast carcinoma (P = 0.001), whereas Snail expression was higher (P = 0.003). The Snail/E-cadherin ratio (P < 0.001) and the Sip1/E-cadherin ratio (P = 0.002) were higher in breast carcinomas. Sip1 mRNA expression (P < 0.001) and Slug mRNA expression (P < 0.001) were correlated with the expression of MMP-2 in ovarian carcinomas. The Sip1/E-cadherin ratio was higher in primary ovarian carcinomas at the time of diagnosis compared with postchemotherapy ovarian carcinoma effusions (P = 0.003), higher in Stage IV tumors compared with Stage III tumors (P = 0.049), and higher in pleural effusions compared with peritoneal effusions (P = 0.044). In a univariate survival analysis of patients with ovarian carcinoma, a high Sip1/E-cadherin ratio predicted poor overall survival (P = 0.018). High E-cadherin mRNA expression predicted better disease-free survival (P = 0.023), with a similar trend for a low Slug/E-cadherin ratio (P = 0.07). High Snail mRNA expression predicted shorter effusion-free survival (P = 0.008), disease-free survival (P = 0.03), and overall survival (P = 0.008) in patients with breast carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS Transcription factors that regulate E-cadherin were expressed differentially in metastatic ovarian and breast carcinoma. Snail may predict a poor outcome in patients who have breast carcinoma metastatic to effusions. E-cadherin expression generally was conserved in effusions from patients with ovarian carcinoma, but the subset of patients with postulated Sip1-induced repression of this adhesion molecule had a significantly worse outcome. This finding was in agreement with the stronger suppression of E-cadherin by Snail and Sip1 in breast carcinoma effusions, a clinical condition associated with extremely poor survival. Cancer 2005. © 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]

    Increased Expression of p53 Protein Correlates With the Extent of Myocyte Damage in Cardiac Allograft Rejection

    Bernadette K. McLaren MD
    Acute cardiac allograft rejection (ACAR) has been associated with a poor prognosis. The early diagnosis of ACAR necessitates the accurate detection of myocyte damage. Nuclear damage activates p53, a transcription factor that initiates apoptosis and repair. Endomyocardial biopsies (n=25) from 10 cardiac allograft recipients were stained for nuclear p53. The biopsies were divided into rejection groups based on the grading of ACAR: group 1, grade 0; group 2, grade Ia and Ib; group 3, grades II and III. While clinical indices did not correlate with myocyte damage, significantly more myocytes in group 3 stained for nuclear p53 (2.48±0.60/mm2) compared with group 1 (0.22±0.12/mm2) and group 2 (0.43±0.18/mm2). Increased expression of p53 in cardiac myocytes with grade II or grade III rejection provides an objective quantification as an aid in the diagnosis of ACAR. [source]

    Normoxic destabilization of ATF-4 depends on proteasomal degradation

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
    M. Wottawa
    Abstract Aim:, Hypoxia-inducible gene expression is an important physiological adaptive mechanism in response to a decreased oxygen supply. We have recently described an oxygen- and prolyl-4-hydroxylase (PHD)3-dependent stabilization of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4). The aim of the present study was to examine if the normoxic destabilization of ATF-4 is regulated by oxygen-dependent proteasomal degradation. Methods:, We determined poly-ubiquitination of ATF-4 in normoxia compared to hypoxia by immunoprecipitation and immunoblots. Furthermore, we analysed the expression of the ATF-4 target gene GADD153 as a function of oxygen concentration. Results:, ATF-4 protein levels were not detectable in normoxia. Normoxic degradation correlated with an oxygen-dependent poly-ubiquitination of ATF-4, which was hindered by hypoxic incubation of the cells. As a result of hypoxia, GADD153 was expressed. The hypoxic GADD153 expression was attenuated or increased by transfecting the cells with ATF-4 siRNA or PHD3 siRNA respectively. Conclusion:, Our results demonstrate the involvement of oxygen-dependent proteasomal degradation of ATF-4 in the hypoxia-induced expression of GADD153. Taken together, hypoxia/PHD3-regulated stabilization of ATF-4 by hindering oxygen-dependent degradation may play a critical role in linking cell fate decisions to oxygen availability. [source]

    Steps towards a centralized nervous system in basal bilaterians: Insights from neurogenesis of the acoel Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    Henrike Semmler
    Due to its proposed basal position in the bilaterian Tree of Life, Acoela may hold the key to our understanding of the evolution of a number of bodyplan features including the central nervous system. In order to contribute novel data to this discussion we investigated the distribution of ,-tubulin and the neurotransmitters serotonin and RFamide in juveniles and adults of the sagittiferid Symsagittifera roscoffensis. In addition, we present the expression pattern of the neuropatterning gene SoxB1. Adults and juveniles exhibit six serotonergic longitudinal neurite bundles and an anterior concentration of serotonergic sensory cells. While juveniles show an "orthogon-like" arrangement of longitudinal neurite bundles along the anterior-posterior axis, it appears more diffuse in the posterior region of adults. Commissures between the six neurite bundles are present only in the anterior body region of adults, while irregularly distributed individual neurites, often interconnected by serotonergic nerve cells, are found in the posterior region. Anti-RFamide staining shows numerous individual neurites around the statocyst. The orthogon-like nervous system of S. roscoffensis is confirmed by ,-tubulin immunoreactivity. In the region of highest neurotransmitter density (i.e., anterior), the HMG-box gene SrSoxB1, a transcription factor known to be involved in neurogenesis in other bilaterians, is expressed in juvenile specimens. Accordingly, SoxB1 expression in S. roscoffensis follows the typical pattern of higher bilaterians that have a brain. Thus, our data support the notion that Urbilateria already had the genetic toolkit required to form brain-like neural structures, but that its morphological degree of neural concentration was still low. [source]

    Mechanism of DNA replication-dependent transcriptional activation of the acetylcholinesterase gene in the Ciona intestinalis embryo

    Yumiko Kataoka
    The acetylcholinesterase-encoding gene in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis (Ci-AChE) is expressed in tail muscle cells from the gastrula stage. When the embryo was continuously treated with aphidicolin from the 32-cell stage, Ci-AChE was not expressed even when control embryos reached the tailbud stage. This result suggests that Ci-AChE acquires the competence to be transcribed after passing through a certain number of DNA replication cycles. A lacZ reporter gene containing the 5, flanking region of Ci-AChE was expressed in the tail muscle cells. Aphidicolin treatment from the 32-cell stage affected, but did not completely suppress, the expression of lacZ. A bisulfite sequencing analysis was carried out to examine the methylation status of four regions within the 5, flanking sequence and the first exon. However, all of these regions remained unmethylated from the 16-cell to 110-cell stages. The results suggested that the DNA of the Ci-AChE locus is not responsible for counting the rounds of replication. We examined the expression of the C. intestinalis MyoD (Ci-MyoD), a transcription factor that activates Ci-AChE. Aphidicolin treatment from the 32-cell stage suppressed the expression of Ci-MyoD, even when control embryos reached the gastrula stage. These results suggest that a lack of Ci-MyoD is critical to the suppression of Ci-AChE in aphidicolin-treated embryos. [source]

    Runx3 controls growth and differentiation of gastric epithelial cells in mammals

    Hiroshi Fukamachi
    Runx3 is a transcription factor expressed by gastric epithelial cells. In the Runx3,/, mouse, gastric epithelia exhibited hyperplasia, and epithelial apoptosis was suppressed. By analyzing growth of the epithelial cells in primary culture, we found that Runx3,/, gastric epithelial cells are less sensitive to the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of TGF-,, suggesting that Runx3 is a major growth regulator of gastric epithelial cells by regulating their response to TGF-,. We also found that Runx3 plays an important role in the control of gastric epithelial differentiation. When subcutaneously implanted into nude mice, Runx3,/, gastric epithelial cells formed tumors in which some cells differentiated into intestinal-type cells. Clonal analysis showed that gastric epithelial cells transdifferentiate into intestinal-type cells in the tumor. Considering that gastric epithelial differentiation is very stable, and that intestinal-type cells never differentiate in the mouse stomach, it is remarkable that gastric epithelial cells transdifferentiate into intestinal-type cells. We conclude that Runx3 is deeply involved in the control of both growth and differentiation of gastric epithelial cells. The role of Runx3 in the specification of gastric epithelial cells is discussed. [source]

    Involvement of BMP-4/msx-1 and FGF pathways in neural induction in the Xenopus embryo

    Akihiko Ishimura
    The msx homeodomain protein is a downstream transcription factor of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 signal and a key regulator for neural tissue differentiation. Xmsx-1 antagonizes the dorsal expression of noggin and cerberus, as revealed by in situ hybridization and reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction assays. In animal cap explants, Xmsx-1 and BMP-4 inhibit the neural tissue differentiation induced by noggin or cerberus. A loss-of-function study using the Xmsx-1/VP-16 fusion construct indicated that neural tissue formation was directly induced by the injection of fusion ribonucleic acid, although the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in the cap was less than that in the cap injected with tBR or noggin. In contrast to the single cap assay, unexpectedly, both BMP-4 and Xmsx-1 failed to inhibit neurulation in the ectodermal explants to which the organizer mesoderm was attached. The results of cell-lineage tracing experiments indicated that the neural cells were differentiated from the animal pole tissue where the excess RNA of either BMP-4 or Xmsx-1 was injected, whereas notochord was differentiated from the organizer mesoderm. Neural tissue differentiated from BMP-4 -injected ectodermal cells strongly expressed posterior neural markers, such as hoxB9 and krox20, suggesting that the posterior neural cells differentiated regardless of the existence of the BMP signal. The introduction of a dominant-negative form of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (XFD) into the ectodermal cells drastically reduced the expression of pan and posterior neural markers (N-CAM and hoxB-9) if co-injected with BMP-4 RNA, although XFD alone at the same dose did not shut down the expression of N-CAM in the combination explants. Therefore, it is proposed that an FGF-related molecule was involved in the direct induction of posterior neural tissue in the inducing signals from the organizer mesoderm in vivo. [source]

    Jarid2 is among a set of genes differentially regulated by Nkx2.5 during outflow tract morphogenesis

    Jeremy L. Barth
    Abstract Nkx2.5, a transcription factor implicated in human congenital heart disease, is required for regulation of second heart field (SHF) progenitors contributing to outflow tract (OFT). Here, we define a set of genes (Lrrn1, Elovl2, Safb, Slc39a6, Khdrbs1, Hoxb4, Fez1, Ccdc117, Jarid2, Nrcam, and Enpp3) expressed in SHF containing pharyngeal arch tissue whose regulation is dependent on Nkx2.5. Further investigation shows that Jarid2, which has been implicated in OFT morphogenesis, is a direct target of Nkx2.5 regulation. Jarid2 expression was up-regulated in SHF mesoderm of Nkx2.5-deficient embryos. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed Nkx2.5 interaction with consensus binding sites in the Jarid2 promoter in pharyngeal arch cells. Finally, Jarid2 promoter activity and mRNA expression levels were down-regulated by Nkx2.5 overexpression. Given the role of Jarid2 as a regulator of early cardiac proliferation, these findings highlight Jarid2 as one of several potential mediators of the critical role played by Nkx2.5 during OFT morphogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 239:2024,2033, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Medaka Oct4 is expressed during early embryo development, and in primordial germ cells and adult gonads

    Ana V. Sánchez-Sánchez
    Abstract Oct4 is a crucial transcription factor for controlling pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and the epiblast of mouse embryos. We have characterized the expression pattern of medaka (Oryzias latipes) Ol-Oct4 during embryonic development and in the adult gonads. Genomic analysis showed that Ol-Oct4 is the ortholog of zebrafish spg/pou2. However, their expression patterns are not the same, suggesting that Oct4 may play different roles in zebrafish and medaka. Using specific antibodies for the Ol-Oct4 protein, we showed that Ol-Oct4 is also expressed in primordial germ cells, in the spermatogonia (male germ stem cells), and during different stages of oocyte development. These results suggest that Ol-Oct4 plays a post-embryonic role in the maturing gonads and gametes. The Ol-Oct4 mRNA and protein expression patterns are similar to those of mammalian Oct4 and introduce medaka fish as a valid model for the functional and evolutionary study of pluripotency genes in vivo. Developmental Dynamics 239:672,679, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Prdm1a is necessary for posterior pharyngeal arch development in zebrafish

    Denise A. Birkholz
    Abstract Multiple tissue interactions and signaling within the pharyngeal arches are required for development of the craniofacial skeleton. Here, we focus on the role of the transcription factor prdm1a in the differentiation of the posterior skeleton. prdm1a is expressed in the presumptive pharyngeal arch region and later in an endodermal pouch, the otic vesicle, and pharyngeal teeth. prdm1a mutants display a reduction in pharyngeal arch markers, a loss of posterior ceratobranchial cartilages, and a reduction in most neural crest,derived dermal bones. This is likely caused by a decrease in the number of proliferating cells but not an increase in cell death. Finally, a reduction in two key developmental signaling pathways, Fgf and retinoic acid, alters prdm1a expression, suggesting that prdm1a expression is mediated by these signaling pathways to pattern the posterior craniofacial skeleton. Together, these results indicate an essential role for prdm1a in the development of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. Developmental Dynamics 238:2575,2587, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Overexpression of the transcription factor Msx1 is insufficient to drive complete regeneration of refractory stage Xenopus laevis hindlimbs

    Donna M. Barker
    Abstract Xenopus laevis tadpoles are capable of hindlimb regeneration, although this ability declines with age. Bmp signaling is one pathway known to be necessary for successful regeneration to occur. Using an inducible transgenic line containing an activated version of the Bmp target Msx1, we assessed the ability of this transcription factor to enhance regeneration in older limbs. Despite considerable evidence correlating msx1 expression with regenerative success in vertebrate regeneration models, we show that induction of msx1 during hindlimb regeneration fails to induce complete regeneration. However, we did observe some improvement in regenerative outcome, linked to morphological changes in the early wound epithelium and a corresponding increase in proliferation in the underlying distal mesenchyme, neither of which are maintained later. Additionally, we show that Msx1 is not able to rescue limb regeneration in a Bmp signalling-deficient background, indicating that additional Bmp targets are required for regeneration in anuran limbs. Developmental Dynamics 238:1366,1378, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Transcriptional control of Rohon-Beard sensory neuron development at the neural plate border

    Christy Cortez Rossi
    Abstract Rohon-Beard (RB) mechanosensory neurons are among the first sensory neurons to develop, and the process by which they adopt their fate is not completely understood. RBs form at the neural plate border (NPB), the junction between neural and epidermal ectoderm, and require the transcription factor prdm1a. Here, we show that prior to RB differentiation, prdm1a overlaps extensively with the epidermal marker dlx3b but shows little overlap with the neuroectodermal markers sox3 and sox19a. Birthdating analysis reveals that the majority of RBs are born during gastrulation in zebrafish, suggesting that it is during this period that RBs become specified. Expression analysis in prdm1a and neurogenin1 mutant and dlx3b/dlx4b morpholino-injected embryos suggests that prdm1a is upstream of dlx3b, dlx4b, and neurogenin1 at the NPB. mRNA for neurogenin1 or dlx3b/dlx4b can rescue the lack of RBs in prdm1a mutants. Based on these data, we suggest a preliminary gene regulatory network for RB development. Developmental Dynamics 238:931,943, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    pMesogenin1 and 2 function directly downstream of Xtbx6 in Xenopus somitogenesis and myogenesis

    Shunsuke Tazumi
    Abstract T-box transcription factor tbx6 and basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor pMesogenin1 are reported to be involved in paraxial mesodermal differentiation. To clarify the relationship between these genes in Xenopus laevis, we isolated pMesogenin2, which showed high homology with pMesogenin1. Both pMesogenin1 and 2 appeared to be transcriptional activators and were induced by a hormone-inducible version of Xtbx6 without secondary protein synthesis in animal cap assays. The pMesogenin2 promoter contained three potential T-box binding sites with which Xtbx6 protein was shown to interact, and a reporter gene construct containing these sites was activated by Xtbx6. Xtbx6 knockdown reduced pMesogenin1 and 2 expressions, but not vice versa. Xtbx6 and pMesogenin1 and 2 knockdowns caused similar phenotypic abnormalities including somite malformation and ventral body wall muscle hypoplasia, suggesting that Xtbx6 is a direct regulator of pMesogenin1 and 2, which are both involved in somitogenesis and myogenesis including that of body wall muscle in Xenopus laevis. Developmental Dynamics 237:3749,3761, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Drosophila female sterile (1) homeotic is a multifunctional transcriptional regulator that is modulated by Ras signaling

    Brian L. Florence
    Abstract The Drosophila (fs(1)h) gene encodes small (Fs(1)hS) and large (Fs(1)hL) chromatin-binding BET protein transcription factor isoforms. Zygotic mutations cause either lethality or female sterility, whereas maternal mutations cause segmental deletions and thoracic homeotic transformations. Here, we describe novel fs(1)h embryonic phenotypes: homeosis of the head in zygotic mutants and deletion of head and tail regions in maternal mutants, similar to those caused by dominant torso (torD) alleles. tor activates transcription of tailless (tll) and hückebein (hkb) by means of a canonical Ras pathway, through inactivation of Groucho (Gro), Capicua (Cic) and, possibly, Grainy-head (Grh) repressors. Expression of both tailless and hückebein are de-repressed in fs(1)h maternal mutants, as in torD, gro, grh, and cic mutant animals, indicating fs(1)h is also necessary for tll and hkb repression. These data link Ras signaling with modulation of a chromatin-binding transcription factor, Fs(1)h, suggesting a novel mechanism by which Ras can modulate gene expression. Developmental Dynamics 237:554,564, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]