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  • Selected Abstracts


    INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE RAS, ADVANCED GLYCATION AND NF-kB IN THE DIABETIC KIDNEY: INTERVENTIONAL STUDIES

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Josephine M Forbes
    [source]


    CONIFEROUS WOOD PULP IN TRADITIONAL KOREAN PAPER BETWEEN THE 15TH AND 18TH CENTURIES ad*

    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 3 2009
    H. YUM
    One hundred and sixty-nine fibre samples from books in the Korean collection and 68 samples from books in the Japanese collection at the British Library were analysed. A further 15 samples of Korean paper from a private collection were also examined. The analysis confirmed that most of the papers contained mulberry species (Moraceae family) as the main papermaking material, and other materials, such as hemp, rice straw and reed, which have been commonly known as supplements to traditional Korean papermaking. However, 15 Korean papers and one Japanese paper dating between ad 1498 and 1798 appeared to include coniferous wood fibres. This substantial find supports a previous single find of a coniferous wood fibre in Korean paper. The dates of most of these papers containing wood fibres precede the use of wood pulps in European paper. [source]


    The coumarin herniarin as a sensitizer in German chamomile [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Compositae]

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 6 2010
    Evy Paulsen
    Background: Although German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) is considered a weak sensitizer, recent studies have shown several possible non-sesquiterpene lactone allergens in tea (infusions) from the plant. Objective: The aim of this study was to report the results of patch testing with herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin), which is one of the possible coumarin allergens in chamomile. Patients/materials/methods: Between 1991 and 2009, selected patients with known or suspected Compositae contact allergy were patch tested with herniarin 1% petrolatum. Results: Among 36 patients tested, there was one positive and three doubtful positive reactions to herniarin. All 4 patients had a relevant contact allergy to German chamomile, whereas the majority of the remaining 32 patients had chamomile allergy of unknown relevance. Conclusions: The clinical results suggest that herniarin indeed is one of the non-sesquiterpene lactone sensitizers in German chamomile and that sensitization may occur through, for example, external use of chamomile tea or use of chamomile-containing topical herbal remedies. [source]


    10-Year trends in the treatment and outcomes of patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2010
    J. Nielsen
    Nielsen J, le Quach P, Emborg C, Foldager L, Correll CU. 10-Year trends in the treatment and outcomes of patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Objective:, The first episode of schizophrenia is a critical period for illness course and outcomes. We aimed to investigate treatments and outcomes during the first year after the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Method:, Pharmacoepidemiologic inception cohort study of all newly diagnosed patients with schizophrenia in Denmark (n = 13 600) 1996,2005. Results:, From 1996 to 2005, the mean age at first diagnosis decreased significantly (29.2,26.1 years), more patients received antipsychotics (67.2,80.7%, annual OR = 1.07, CI: 1.06,1.09, P < 0.001) and antipsychotic polypharmacy for >4 months (16.7,37.1%, OR = 1.14, CI: 1.12,1.57, P < 0.001). The antipsychotic defined daily dosage (DDD) doubled (150,332 DDD, P < 0.001), use of antidepressants (24.3,40.6%, P < 0.001). Bed days [89.9 days (CI: 81.8,98.8) to 71.8 days, CI: 63.7,80.8, P < 0.0001] decreased, whereas outpatient contacts [10.2 (CI: 9.5,11.0) to 21.4 (CI: 19.9,21.0), P < 0.0001] doubled. Conclusion:, Between 1996 and 2005, there was an earlier recognition of schizophrenia, intensified outpatient treatment, increased use and dosing of antipsychotics and antidepressants, but also more antipsychotic polypharmacy. [source]


    Agro-Food Preferences in the EU's GSP Scheme: An Analysis of Changes Between 2004 and 2006

    DEVELOPMENT POLICY REVIEW, Issue 6 2008
    Federica DeMaria
    This article examines the extent to which the 2006 revisions to the EU's Generalised System of Preferences improved market-access opportunities for developing-country agro-food exports. It shows that they resulted in only a slight increase in the percentage preferential margin, but that there has been a significant increase in the value of preferential trade and of the preferential margin enjoyed by exporters. This was accompanied by changes in the ranking of beneficiaries. Countries such as China, Brazil, Argentina, India and South Africa maintained their significant shares of GSP agro-food exports, but other countries such as Thailand and Vietnam have now emerged as major GSP beneficiaries. [source]


    National Study on Emergency Department Visits for Transient Ischemic Attack, 1992,2001

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 6 2006
    Jonathan A. Edlow MD
    Abstract Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of U.S. emergency department (ED) visits for transient ischemic attack (TIA) and to measure rates of antiplatelet medication use, neuroimaging, and hospitalization during a ten-year time period. Methods: The authors obtained data from the 1992,2001 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. TIA cases were identified by having ICD-9 code 435. Results: From 1992 to 2001, there were 769 cases, representing 2,969,000 ED visits for TIA. The population rate of 1.1 ED visits per 1,000 U.S. population (95% CI = 0.92 to 1.30) was stable over time. TIA was diagnosed in 0.3% of all ED visits. Physicians administered aspirin and other antiplatelet agents to a small percentage of patients, and 42% of TIA patients (95% CI = 29% to 55%) received no medications at all in the ED. Too few data points existed to measure a statistically valid trend over time. Physicians performed computed tomography scanning in 56% (95% CI = 45% to 66%) of cases and performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in < 5% of cases, and there was a trend toward increased imaging over time. Admission rates did not increase during the ten-year period, with 54% (95% CI = 42% to 67%) admitted. Regional differences were noted, however, with the highest admission rate found in the Northeast (68%). Conclusions: Between 1992 and 2001, the population rate of ED visits for TIA was stable, as were admission rates (54%). Antiplatelet medications appear to be underutilized and to be discordant with published guidelines. Neuroimaging increased significantly. These findings may reflect the limited evidence base for the guidelines, educational deficits, or other barriers to guideline implementation. [source]


    RISK FACTORS FOR RECURRENT BILE DUCT STONES AFTER ENDOSCOPIC PAPILLARY BALLOON DILATION: LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP STUDY

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2 2009
    Akira Ohashi
    Background:, Little is known about the long-term results of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) for bile duct stones. Methods:, Between 1995 and 2000, 204 patients with bile duct stones successfully underwent EPBD and stone removal. Complete stone clearance was confirmed using balloon cholangiography and intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS). Long-term outcomes of EPBD were investigated retrospectively in the year 2007, and risk factors for stone recurrence were multivariately analyzed. Results:, Long-term information was available in 182 cases (89.2%), with a mean overall follow-up duration of 9.3 years. Late biliary complications occurred in 22 patients (12.1%), stone recurrence in 13 (7.1%), cholangitis in 10 (5.5%), cholecystitis in four, and gallstone pancreatitis in one. In 11 of 13 patients (84.6%), stone recurrence developed within 3 years after EPBD. All recurrent stones were bilirubinate. Multivariate analysis identified three risk factors for stone recurrence: dilated bile duct (>15 mm), previous cholecystectomy, and no confirmation of clean duct using IDUS. Conclusion:, Approximately 7% of patients develop stone recurrence after EPBD; however, retreatment with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is effective. Careful follow up is necessary in patients with dilated bile duct or previous cholecystectomy. IDUS is useful for reducing stone recurrence after EPBD. [source]


    Chemoradiation therapy is effective for the palliative treatment of malignant dysphagia

    DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, Issue 3 2004
    J. A. Harvey
    SUMMARY., Between 1993 and 2001, 106 patients with esophageal cancer were reviewed at a multidisciplinary clinic and treated with palliative intent by chemoradiation therapy. This study assesses the palliative benefit on dysphagia and documents the toxicity of this treatment. The study population comprised 72 men and 34 women with a median age of 69 years. Patients were treated with a median radiation dose of 35 Gy in 15 fractions with a concurrent single course of 5 FU-based chemotherapy. Dysphagia was measured at the beginning and completion of treatment and at monthly intervals until death, using a modified DeMeester (4-point) score. Treatment was well tolerated, with only 5% of patients failing to complete therapy. The treatment-related mortality was 6%. The median survival for the study population was 7 months. The median baseline score at presentation was 2 (difficulty with soft food). Following treatment, 49% of patients were assessed as having a dysphagia score of 0 (no dysphagia). Seventy-eight per cent had an improvement of at least one grade in their dysphagia score after treatment. Only 14% of patients showed no improvement with treatment. Fifty-one per cent maintained improved swallowing until the time of last follow-up or death. This single-institution study shows that chemoradiation therapy administered for the palliation of malignant dysphagia is well tolerated and produces a sustainable normalization in swallowing for almost half of all patients. [source]


    Channel sedimentation and erosion of the Jiangsu reach of the Yangtze River during the last 44 years

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 12 2009
    Wang Jian
    Abstract River channel sedimentation in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River can be affected by both changes in sea level and changes in solid discharge from the upper river. To evaluate dynamic changes of sedimentation and erosion in the Jiangsu reach of the Yangtze River (about 330 km in length) from 1959 to 2003, databases were designed and constructed using a digital elevation model (DEM) of channel topography based on the Jiangsu River Relief Map for 1959, 1970, 1985, 1992, and 2003. The results indicated that the main course of the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province had experienced an obvious switch from sedimentation to erosion status around 1985 because of the decreasing amount of solid load from the upper parts of the river channel after that year. The sedimentation process in the main course of the Jiangsu reach of the Yangtze River demonstrated the propulsive process of ,downstream-ward aggradations.' Between 1985 and 2003, the erosion rate of the lower segment was greater than those of the middle and upper segments; this is probably because both channel flow and tide current had influenced the lower segment. When channel flow combines with tide current in the same direction, channel erosion can be intensified, especially if there is a solid load shortage in the channel. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The Stability of the Relation Between the Stock Market and Macroeconomic Forces

    ECONOMIC NOTES, Issue 3 2002
    Fabio Panetta
    This paper identifies the macroeconomic factors that influence Italian equity returns and tests the stability of their relation with securities returns. The relation between stock returns and the macroeconomic factors is found to be unstable: not only are the factor loadings of individual securities virtually uncorrelated over time, but a high percentage of the shares experience a reversal of the sign of the estimated loadings. This result is not confined to single periods or to a small group of shares, but holds in different sub,periods and for securities in all risk classes. These findings suggest that research should carefully investigate the specification of the return generating process and the stability of the risk measures. (J.E.L.: G12, E44). [source]


    What changes in health-related quality of life matter to multiple myeloma patients?

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    A prospective study
    Abstract Objective: To determine the clinical significance of changes in quality-of-life scores in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), we have estimated the minimal important difference (MID) for the health-related quality-of-life instrument, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30. The MID is the smallest change in a quality-of-life score considered important to patients. Methods: Between 2006 and 2008, 239 patients with MM completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 at inclusion (T1) and after 3 months (T2). At T2, a structured quality-of-life interview was also performed. MIDs were calculated by using mean score changes (T2,T1) for patients who in the interview stated they had improved, deteriorated or were unchanged. MIDs were also estimated by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve method as well as by calculation effect sizes using standard deviations of baseline scores. Results: MIDs varied slightly depending on the method used. Patients stating in the interview that they had ,improved' or ,deteriorated' had a corresponding change in EORTC QLQ-C30 score ranging from 6 to15 (improvement) and from 9 to17 (deterioration) (scale range 0,100). The ROC analysis indicated that changes in score from 7 to17 represent clinically important changes to patients. The effect size method suggested 5,6 to be a small and 11,15 to be a medium change. Conclusion: Calculation of MIDs as mean score changes or by ROC analysis suggested that a change in the EORTC QLQ-C30 score in the range of approximately 6,17 is considered important by patients with MM. These MIDs are closer to a medium effect size than to a small effect size. Our findings imply that mean score changes smaller than 6 are unlikely to be important to the patients, even if these changes are statistically significant. [source]


    Evolution of Academic Emergency Medicine over a Decade (1991-2001)

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 10 2002
    E. John Gallagher MD
    Abstract Objective: To test the hypothesis that emergency medicine (EM) has made significant, quantifiable progress within U.S. academic medicine over the past ten years, 1991-2001. Methods: Baseline (7/1/1991) and comparison (7/1/2001) data sets contained all Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME)-accredited schools, Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine (AACEM)-recognized academic departments of EM, Residency Review Committee (RRC)-accredited EM residencies, and Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)-designated academic medical centers. The increase over ten years in the two primary variables of academic departmental status, and EM residencies located at academic medical centers, was examined in the aggregate, then stratified by medical schools grouped by academic rank. Differences over time are expressed as simple proportions, bounded by 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: Between 1991 and 2001, the proportion of academic departments of EM at medical schools increased from 18% to 48% (95% CI for difference of 30%= 19% to 41%). The proportion of EM residencies at academic medical centers increased from 42% to 66% (95% CI for a difference of 24%= 11% to 36%). The largest increment of 37% (95% CI = 22% to 52%) in academic departments of EM, and of 36% (95% CI = 20% to 52%) in EM residencies located at academic medical centers, occurred within medical schools whose academic rank was above the median. Conclusions: A quantitatively and statistically significant increase in academic departments of EM within medical schools and EM residency programs at academic medical centers has occurred over the past decade. Half of all medical schools now have academic departments of EM, and two-thirds of academic medical centers house EM residency programs. This has taken place largely within institutions whose academic ranking places them among the top half of all U.S. medical schools. [source]


    MODAL SPACE: What is the Difference Between all the Mode Indicator Functions?

    EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES, Issue 2 2007
    What Do They all Do?
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Always Poor or Never Poor and Nothing in Between?

    GERMAN ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 2 2010
    Duration of Child Poverty in Germany
    Child poverty; duration analysis; unobserved heterogeneity Abstract. This paper analyses the duration of child poverty in Germany. Observing the entire income history from the individuals' birth to their coming of age at age 18, we are able to analyse dynamics in and out of poverty for the entire population of children, whether they become poor at least once or not. Using duration models, we find that household composition, most importantly single parenthood, and the labour market status as well as level of education of the household head are the main driving forces behind exit from and re-entry into poverty and thus determine the (long-term) experience of poverty. [source]


    Haplotype Analysis Confirms the Association Between the HCRTR2 Gene and Cluster Headache

    HEADACHE, Issue 7 2008
    Innocenzo Rainero MD
    Background., Several studies suggested that genetic factors play a role in cluster headache (CH) susceptibility. We found a significant association between the 1246 G>A polymorphism of the hypocretin receptor-2 (HCRTR2) gene and the disease. This association was confirmed in a large study from Germany but was not replicated in a dataset of CH patients from Northern Europe. Objective., The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the association between CH and the HCRTR2 gene using new polymorphisms, estimating the frequency of different gene haplotypes, searching for gene mutations, and evaluating the effects of the examined polymorphisms on hypocretin binding sites. Methods., We genotyped 109 CH patients and 211 healthy controls for 5 new polymorphisms of the HCRTR2 gene and we inferred different gene haplotypes. Complete HCRTR2 sequencing was undertaken for 11 independent CH patients, 5 of whom had a positive family history. The effects of the 1246 G>A polymorphism on the hypocretin binding sites were evaluated using different computer-assisted analyses. Results., Three new polymorphisms of the HCRTR2 gene resulted significantly associated with CH. The GTAAGG haplotype resulted more frequent in cases than in controls (OR: 3.68; 95% CI: 1.85-7.67). No point mutation of the HCRTR2 gene was found. Binding analyses showed that the 1246 G>A polymorphism (substitution of valine at position 308 by isoleucine) has no effect on the hypocretin binding sites but could influence the dimerization process of the receptor. Conclusion., Our data confirm previous studies suggesting that the HCRTR2 gene or a linked locus significantly modulates the risk for CH. In addition, we suggest that the V308I substitution of the HCRTR2 may interfere with the dimerization process of the receptor, thereby influencing its functional activity. [source]


    Rescue policy for discarded liver grafts: a single-centre experience of transplanting livers ,that nobody wants'

    HPB, Issue 8 2010
    Lucas McCormack
    Abstract Background:, There is a worldwide need to expand the donor liver pool. We report a consecutive series of elective candidates for liver transplantation (LT) who received ,livers that nobody wants' (LNWs) in Argentina. Methods:, Between 2006 and 2009, outcomes for patients who received LNWs were analysed and compared with outcomes for a control group. To be defined as an LNW, an organ is required to fulfil two criteria. Firstly, each liver must be officially offered and refused more than 30 times; secondly, the liver must be refused by at least 50% of the LT programmes in our country before our programme can accept it. Principal endpoints were primary graft non-function (PNF), mortality, and graft and patient survival. Results:, We transplanted 26 LNWs that had been discarded by a median of 12 centres. A total of 2666 reasons for refusal had been registered. These included poor donor status (n= 1980), followed by LT centre (n= 398) or recipient (n= 288) conditions. Incidences of PNF (3.8% vs. 4.0%), in-hospital mortality (3.8% vs. 8.0%), 1-year patient (84% vs. 84%) and graft (84% vs. 80%) survival were equal in the LNW and control groups. Conclusions:, Transplantable livers are unnecessarily discarded by the transplant community. External and internal supervision of the activity of each LT programme is urgently needed to guarantee high standards of excellence. [source]


    Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, as a prognostic factor for post-operative morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients, undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    HPB, Issue 4 2009
    Spiros G. Delis
    Abstract Background/aims:, To evaluate the ability of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) in predicting the post-hepatectomy outcome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods:, Between 2001 and 2004, 69 cirrhotic patients with HCC underwent hepatectomy and the results were retrospectively analysed. MELD score was associated with post-operative mortality and morbidity, hospital stay and 3-year survival. Results:, Seventeen major and 52 minor resections were performed. Thirty-day mortality rate was 7.2%. MELD , 9 was associated with no peri-operative mortality vs. 19% when MELD > 9 (P < 0.02). Overall morbidity rate was 36.23%; 48% when MELD > 9 vs. 25% when MELD , 9 (P < 0.02). Median hospital stay was 12 days [8.8 days, when MELD , 9 and 15.6 days when MELD > 9 (P = 0.037)]. Three-year survival reached 49% (66% when MELD , 9; 32% when MELD > 9 (P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, MELD > 9 (P < 0.01), clinical tumour symptoms (P < 0.05) and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (P < 0.05) were independent predictors of peri-operative mortality; MELD > 9 (P < 0.01), tumour size >5 cm (P < 0.01), high tumour grade (P = 0.01) and absence of tumour capsule (P < 0.01) were independent predictors of decreased long-term survival. Conclusion:, MELD score seems to predict outcome of cirrhotic patients with HCC, after hepatectomy. [source]


    Inflammatory bowel disease patients who leave hospital against medical advice: Predictors and temporal trends

    INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES, Issue 6 2009
    Gilaad G. Kaplan MD
    Abstract Background: Leaving hospital against medical advice (AMA) may have consequences with respect to health-related outcomes; however, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have been inadequately studied. Thus, we determined the prevalence of self-discharge, assessed predictors of AMA status, and evaluated time trends. Methods: We analyzed the 1995,2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to identify 93,678 discharges with a primary diagnosis of IBD admitted to the hospital emergently and did not undergo surgery. We described the proportion of IBD patients who left AMA. Predictors of AMA status were evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression model and temporal trend analyses were performed with Poisson regression models. Results: Between 1995 and 2005, 1.31% of IBD patients left hospitals AMA. Crohn's disease (CD) patients were more likely to leave AMA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.53; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.30,1.79). Characteristics associated with leaving AMA included: ages 18,34 (aOR, 7.77, 95% CI: 4.34,13.89); male (aOR, 1.75; 95% CI: 1.55,1.99); Medicaid (aOR, 4.55; 95% CI: 3.81,5.43) compared to private insurance; African Americans (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09,1.64) compared to white; substance abuse (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI: 2.14,3.54); and psychosis (aOR, 1.55; 95% CI: 1.13,2.14). The incidence rates of self-discharge for CD patients were stable (P > 0.05) between 1995 and 1999, while they significantly (P < 0.0001) increased after 1999. In contrast, AMA rates for UC patients remained stable during the study period. Conclusions: Approximately 1 in 76 IBD patients admitted emergently for medical management leave the hospital AMA. These were primarily disenfranchised patients who may lack adequate outpatient follow-up. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]


    Effect of rapid influenza testing on the clinical management of paediatric influenza

    INFLUENZA AND OTHER RESPIRATORY VIRUSES, Issue 3 2009
    Lance C. Jennings
    Background, Rapid tests are now widely available to assist the diagnosis of influenza; implementation may optimise the use of antiviral and antibiotic agents in the clinical management of influenza. Objective, To explore the clinical management of children with influenza-like illness (ILI) when rapid influenza tests were and were not performed. Methods, Between 15 January 2007 and 30 April 2007, a standardised questionnaire was used to record the clinical features of children aged 1,12 years who presented to office-based paediatricians in Germany with febrile ILI during periods of local influenza activity. For each paediatric contact, a clinical diagnosis of either ,influenza positive', ,influenza negative' or ,suspected ILI' was made. Where performed, the outcome of a Clearview Exact Influenza A + B rapid test was recorded. Prescriptions for antiviral agents and antibiotic medications were also recorded. Results, A total of 16 907 questionnaires were evaluated. After fever (an entry criteria for all children), cough (846%), fatigue/decreased activity (830%), rhinorrhoea (737%) and headache (671%) were the most common symptoms. Influenza was clinically diagnosed in 568% (9596/16 907) of cases. The antiviral oseltamivir was prescribed for 246% (178/725) of children who were influenza positive by symptom assessment alone and 601% (4618/7685) of children who were influenza positive by rapid test. Antibiotics were less commonly prescribed for children who were influenza positive by rapid test [35% (271/7685) versus 172% (125/725) for symptom assessment alone]. Conclusions, In children with ILI, a positive rapid test result for influenza promotes the rational use of antiviral agents and reduces the inappropriate use of antibiotic medications. [source]


    The effect of economic deprivation on oesophageal and gastric cancer in a UK cancer network

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 6 2009
    J. A. Gossage
    Summary Aims:, The National Health Service (NHS) Cancer Plan aims to eliminate economic inequalities in healthcare provision and cancer outcomes. This study examined the influence of economic status upon the incidence, access to treatment and survival from oesophageal and gastric cancer in a single UK cancer network. Methodology:, A total of 3619 patients diagnosed with either oesophageal or gastric cancer in a London Cancer Network (population = 1.48 million) were identified from the Thames Cancer Registry (1993,2002). Patients were ranked into economic quintiles using the income domain of the Multiple Index of Deprivation. Statistical analysis was performed using a ,2 test. Survival analysis was performed using a Cox's proportional hazards model. Results:, Between 1993,1995 and 2000,2002, the incidence of oesophageal cancer in the most affluent males rose by 51% compared with a 2% rise in the least affluent males. The incidence of gastric cancer in most affluent males between 1993,1995 and 2000,2002 fell by 32% compared with a 7% fall in the least affluent males. These changes were less marked in females. Economic deprivation had no effect on the proportion of patients undergoing either resectional surgery or chemotherapy; the least affluent oesophageal cancer patients with a higher incidence of squamous cell carcinoma received significantly more radiotherapy. Economic deprivation had no effect upon survival for either oesophageal or gastric cancer. Conclusions:, There has been an increase in oesophageal cancer and a decrease in gastric cancer incidence among more affluent males in the last 10 years. Economic status did not appear to influence access to treatment or survival. [source]


    Current use of the artificial urinary sphincter and its long-term durability: A nationwide survey in Japan

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Yoichi Arai
    Objectives: Although the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is one of the most effective surgical treatments for severe urinary incontinence, little is known about its use in Japan. A nationwide survey was done to determine contemporary trends in AUS use and its long-term durability. Methods: Data on AUS units sold in Japan were provided directly by Takai Hospital Supply Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, and a survey form was sent to all 44 institutes where AUS implantation had been carried out. The survey included various demographic and preoperative variables, surgical variables, and postoperative outcomes. Results: Between 1994 and 2007, a total of 100 AUS devices had been provided in Japan. Of the 44 institutes, 24 responded to the survey, and a total of 64 patients were enrolled in the study. Post-urological surgery incontinence accounted for 81.3% of the indications. During the mean follow-up of 50 months, mechanical failure occurred in four (6.2%), and the device was removed in 13 (20.3%) due to infection (14.0%), erosion (4.7%), or urination difficulty (1.5%). Of the 58 patients evaluated, 91.4% reported social continence. Five- and 10-year failure-free rates were 74.8% and 70.1%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, operative time was an independent predictor of treatment failure (P = 0.0334). Conclusions: Considering recent trends in prostate surgery, the AUS may be significantly underused in Japan. Although excellent long-term durability has been achieved, a learning effect appears to be evident. The Japanese urological community needs to provide appropriate patients with this treatment option. [source]


    Indications for laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumor with hypertension: Usefulness of adrenocortical scintigraphy

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    HIROFUMI IZAKI
    Aim:, Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently indicated for biochemically and clinically functional adrenal tumors and potentially malignant tumors of the adrenal glands. Non-functional adenomas greater than 5 cm in diameter of the adrenal gland are generally considered to represent potentially malignant tumors. The present study shows indications of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors with hypertension in a retrospective fashion. Methods:, Between 1994 and 2004, 110 laparoscopic adrenalectomies were performed at Tokushima University Hospital. All 110 patients underwent detailed endocrinological examination before surgery. Medical and operative records of these 110 patients (57 men, 53 women), including operative parameters, histopathological findings and pre- and postoperative hypertension, were reviewed. Forty-five patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors, and [131I]6,-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3,-ol (NP-59) scintigraphy was performed for patients with preoperative hypertension. Results:, Mean patient age was 55.0 years (range, 22,77 years). Mean maximum tumor diameter was 42 mm (range, 20,105 mm). All adrenal tumors were removed successfully by laparoscopic surgery. Hypertension was postoperatively improved in seven of the 11 patients with preoperative hypertension, without subclinical Cushing syndrome. Importantly, all patients who improved hypertension after adrenalectomy displayed strong accumulation in adrenal tumors with visualization of the contralateral gland on NP-59 scintigraphy. Conversely, blood pressure did not improve in four patients for whom scintigraphy yielded negative results. Conclusions:, The indication of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors is generally considered for lesions more than 5 cm diameter. However, the present study suggests that laparoscopic surgery should be considered even in patients with tumors less than 5 cm in diameter, if both hypertension and accumulation in tumors on NP-59 scintigraphy are present. [source]


    Impact of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy on postoperative survival in patients with high-risk urothelial cancer

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 7 2004
    SHIN SUZUKI
    Abstract Background:, The objective of this study was to retrospectively investigate the effectiveness of adjuvant combination chemotherapy for locally advanced urothelial cancer. Methods:, Between 1987 and 1998, 56 patients with locally advanced bladder (n = 27) or upper urinary tract (n = 29) cancer (pathological stage T3, T4 or N1, N2 and M0) were treated by radical cystectomy or radical nephroureterectomy and regional lymphadenectomy. Thirty-one patients had lymph node-positive disease and 25 patients did not. Twenty patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and 36 patients were observed after surgery. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the impact of numerous clinicopathological findings on survival. A subgroup analysis of patients with lymph node-positive disease was conducted to evaluate disease-free survival and overall survival rates. Results:, In this series, the median follow-up period was 39 months (range, 4,163) after surgery. Disease-free and overall survival rates of all 56 patients were 45% and 58%, respectively, at 3 years. Only lymph node status was significantly associated with disease-free and overall survival in the multivariate analyses. In a subgroup analysis of patients with lymph node-positive disease, 16 patients who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy had superior disease-free survival compared to 15 patients with no adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.0376). Conclusion:, These findings show that the prognosis of advanced urothelial cancer is significantly associated with nodal status. Furthermore, adjuvant combination chemotherapy has a positive impact on survival in patients with lymph node-positive disease. [source]


    Progression of prostate cancer to neuroendocrine cell tumor

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 8 2001
    Masashi Tanaka
    Abstract Background: The progression to endocrine therapy-resistant prostate cancer is partly due to clonal change to neuroendocrine cell tumor. To elucidate this pathologic process, the clinical courses of four cases of neuroendocrine cell tumor that were found at autopsy are reported. Methods: Between 1995 and 1999, autopsies were performed for 20 cases of prostate cancer. Lesions predominantly composed of a neuroendocrine cell tumor (small cell carcinoma) were found in four men. The clinical courses of these cases were compared to 16 other non-neuroendocrine cell tumors (adenocarcinomas). Results: The outstanding features of the neuroendocrine cell tumors were: (i) survival was brief after relapse, although the duration of control by employing endocrine therapy varied; (ii) the prostate-specific antigen level did not increase after relapse; and (iii) the sites of metastasis were similar to those of common adenocarcinomas. Conclusion: The progression to a neuroendocrine cell tumor indicated a poor prognosis and slight (if any) changes in the serum prostate-specific antigen level. This tumor might not appear to respond to any therapeutic attempt. [source]


    Pre-emptive renal transplantation in children

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 5 2001
    Hiroshi Harada
    Abstract Background: Renal transplantation is a definitive therapeutic modality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Most ESRD patients in Japan experience dialysis prior to renal transplantation. The present study was undertaken to examine the usefulness of pre-emptive renal transplantation (PET). Methods: Between 1987 and 1998, 255 renal transplantations were carried out by the authors. Among those consecutive cases, 10 were cases of PET. In nine pediatric cases, demographics, graft and patient survival, height growth and benefits from successful transplantation were studied and compared with age-matched dialyzed transplantation controls. Results: All transplantation was living-related. There was a disparity of causes of ESRD between the two groups. In PET, acquired renal deterioration due to a congenital lower urinary tract disorder was the major cause. Graft and patient prognosis was favorable in both groups. Growth retardation in PET patients under 15 years of age was significantly less apparent at the time of transplantation and after 3 years compared to the control. The benefits from transplantation were different in the two groups. Most PET patients felt an improvement of their physical condition; however, all of the control patients felt that the major boon was the freedom from the restriction of the daily diet and time for dialysis. Conclusion: In pediatric renal transplantation, short-term preceding dialysis does not have a detrimental effect, but PET could benefit ESRD patients by maintaining their quality of life. Moreover, PET minimizes the production of renal dwarfism in prepubertal children. Thus, PET should be taken into consideration in the choice of renal replacement therapy. [source]


    Before, Between, and Beyond: Three Decades of Dance Writing by banes, sally

    JOURNAL OF AESTHETICS AND ART CRITICISM, Issue 3 2008
    RENEE CONROY
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Vulnerable Older People in the Community: Relationship Between the Vulnerable Elders Survey and Health Service Use

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 1 2008
    Hannah M. McGee PhD
    OBJECTIVES: The Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES), a recently developed screening tool for at-risk older people in the community, has been validated in the United States. This study evaluated its profile in older Irish people. It assessed whether those categorized as vulnerable according to the VES were likely to use health services more frequently than others. DESIGN: Nationally representative cross-sectional interviews. SETTING: Private homes in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Randomly selected older people (aged ,65) (N=2,033; 68% response). MEASUREMENTS: Interviews included the 13-item VES and questions on health service use. RESULTS: The proportion scoring as vulnerable was identical to the U.S. sample (32.1% vs 32.3%). At the community healthcare level, participants categorized as vulnerable visited their primary care physician more frequently (mean visits 6.7 vs 4.0, P<.001), had more home-based public health nurse visits (29% vs 5%, P<.001), and were more likely to have had preventive influenza vaccinations (81% vs 72%, P<.001) in the previous year. More-vulnerable older adults did not differ on assessment of blood pressure (97% vs 96%), cholesterol (82% vs 85%), or receipt of smoking advice (66% vs 52%). Vulnerable participants were more likely to have used emergency department (17% vs 8%, P<.05), inpatient (21% vs 12%, P<.05), and outpatient (28% vs 21%, P<.05) hospital services. Fourteen percent of those categorized as vulnerable had zero or one visit to their family physician in the previous year. CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence, from a different healthcare system, of the potential of the VES to differentiate more-vulnerable older people. Prospective studies are needed to assess use of the VES as a clinical decision aid for community professionals such as family physicians and public health nurses. [source]


    Immediate Clinical Outcome after Prolonged Periods of Brain Protection: Retrospective Comparison of Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest, Retrograde, and Antegrade Perfusion

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 5 2009
    Anil Z. Apaydin M.D.
    Methods: Between 1993 and 2006, 339 patients underwent proximal aortic operations using a period of cerebral protection. Among these, 161 patients (mean age of 55 12 years) who required cerebral protection longer than 25 minutes were included in the analysis. Ascending aorta with or without root was replaced in all patients. In addition, total arch replacement was performed in 36 patients. All patients were cooled to rectal temperature of 16 C. Hypothermic circulatory arrest without adjunctive perfusion was used in 48 patients. Retrograde or antegrade cerebral perfusion was added in 94 and 19 patients, respectively. The mean duration of total cerebral protection was 42 17 minutes. Results: Overall mortality was 15.5% (25/161) and did not differ among the perfusion groups. There was no difference in the incidence of overall neurological events, temporary neurological dysfunction, or major stroke among the groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that transfusion of >3 units of blood (p < 0.03) was an incremental risk factor for mortality. History of hypertension (p < 0.03), coexisting systemic diseases (p < 0.005), and transfusion of >3 units of blood (p < 0.04) were predictors of temporary neurological dysfunction. Conclusion: In proximal aortic operations requiring prolonged periods of cerebral protection, the mortality and neurological morbidity are not determined by the type of cerebral protection method only. Factors like hypertension and diabetes may play a role in the development of temporary neurological dysfunction. [source]


    Results of Treatment Methods in Cardiac Arrest Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 3 2009
    Mehmet R. Guney M.D.
    We evaluated the short- and long-term consequences of these two methods and discussed the indications for re-revascularization. Methods: Between 1998 and 2004, a total of 148 CABG patients, who were complicated with cardiac arrest, were treated with emergency re-revascularization (n = 36, group R) and ICU procedures (n = 112, group ICU). Re-revascularizations are mostly blind operations depending on clinical/hemodynamic criteria. These are: no response to resuscitation, recurrent tachycardia/fibrillation, and severe hemodynamic instability after resuscitation. Re-angiography could only be performed in 3.3% of the patients. Event-free survival of the groups was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Events are: death, recurrent angina, myocardial infarction, functional capacity, and reintervention. Results: Seventy percent of patients, who were complicated with cardiac arrest, had perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI). This rate was significantly higher in group R (p = 0.013). The major finding in group R was graft occlusion (91.6%). During in-hospital period, no difference was observed in mortality rates between the two groups. However, hemodynamic stabilization time (p = 0.012), duration of hospitalization (p = 0.00006), and mechanical support use (p = 0.003) significantly decreased by re-revascularization. During the mean 37.1 25.1 months of follow-up period, long-term mortality (p = 0.03) and event-free survival (p = 0.029) rates were significantly in favor of group R. Conclusion: Better short- and long-term results were observed in the re-revascularization group. [source]


    Does Aortic Root Enlargement Impair the Outcome of Patients With Small Aortic Root?

    JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Issue 5 2006
    Hasan Ardal
    The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term results of the posterior root enlargement. Methods: Between 1985 and 2002, 124 patients underwent aortic valve replacement with a posterior root enlargement. The main indication was a small aortic valve orifice area to patient body surface area (indexed valve area < 0.85 cm2/m2). Fifty-four (44%) patients were male, and 70 (56%) were female with a mean age 39.1 14.3 years. Indications for operation were severe calcified aortic valve stenosis (37.1%), severe aortic insufficiency (25.8%), or combination (37.1%). Seventy-five (60%) patients received double-valve replacement. A pericardial patch was used in 100 patients (80.6%) and a Dacron patch was used in 24 patients. Results: Operative mortality was 6.4% (8 patients). The causes of hospital mortality were low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) (in 6 patients), cerebrovascular events (in 1 patient) and multiple organ failure (in 1 patient). Multivariate analysis demonstrated concomitant coronary revascularization to be a significant (p = 0.03) predictor for early mortality. There were six (5.4%) late deaths. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated LCOS (p = 0.013) and infective endocarditis (p = 0.003) to be significant predictors for late mortality. Atrioventricular block required a permanent pacemaker was observed in 4 patients (3.2%). Conclusions: Posterior aortic root enlargement techniques can be easily applied without additional risks. Long-term survival and freedoms from valve-related complications are satisfactory. [source]