Beta Subunit (beta + subunit)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Pigment epithelium-derived factor binds to cell-surface F1 -ATP synthase

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 9 2010
Luigi Notari
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a potent blocker of angiogenesis in vivo, and of endothelial cell migration and tubule formation, binds with high affinity to an as yet unknown protein on the surfaces of endothelial cells. Given that protein fingerprinting suggested a match of a , 60 kDa PEDF-binding protein in bovine retina with Bos taurus F1 -ATP synthase ,-subunit, and that F1Fo -ATP synthase components have been identified recently as cell-surface receptors, we examined the direct binding of PEDF to F1. Size-exclusion ultrafiltration assays showed that recombinant human PEDF formed a complex with recombinant yeast F1. Real-time binding as determined by surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that yeast F1 interacted specifically and reversibly with human PEDF. Kinetic evaluations revealed high binding affinity for PEDF, in agreement with PEDF affinities for endothelial cell surfaces. PEDF blocked interactions between F1 and angiostatin, another antiangiogenic factor, suggesting overlapping PEDF-binding and angiostatin-binding sites on F1. Surfaces of endothelial cells exhibited affinity for PEDF-binding proteins of , 60 kDa. Antibodies to F1,-subunit specifically captured PEDF-binding components in endothelial plasma membranes. The extracellular ATP synthesis activity of endothelial cells was examined in the presence of PEDF. PEDF significantly reduced the amount of extracellular ATP produced by endothelial cells, in agreement with direct interactions between cell-surface ATP synthase and PEDF. In addition to demonstrating that PEDF binds to cell-surface F1, these results show that PEDF is a ligand for endothelial cell-surface F1Fo -ATP synthase. They suggest that PEDF-mediated inhibition of ATP synthase may form part of the biochemical mechanisms by which PEDF exerts its antiangiogenic activity. Structured digital abstract ,,MINT-7711286: angiostatin (uniprotkb:P00747) physically interacts (MI:0915) with F-ATPase alpha subunit (uniprotkb:P07251), F-ATPase beta subunit (uniprotkb:P00830), F-ATPase gamma subunit (uniprotkb:P38077), F-ATPase delta subunit (uniprotkb:Q12165) and F-ATPase epsilon subunit (uniprotkb:P21306) by competition binding (MI:0405) ,,MINT-7711113: angiostatin (uniprotkb:P00747) physically interacts (MI:0915) with F-ATPase epsilon subunit (uniprotkb:P21306), F-ATPase delta subunit (uniprotkb:Q12165), F-ATPase gamma subunit (uniprotkb:P38077), F-ATPase beta subunit(uniprotkb:P00830) and F-ATPase alpha subunit (uniprotkb:P07251) by surface plasmon resonance (MI:0107) ,,MINT-7711060: F-ATPase gamma subunit (uniprotkb:P38077), F-ATPase beta subunit (uniprotkb:P00830), F-ATPase alpha subunit (uniprotkb:P07251) and PEDF (uniprotkb:P36955) physically interact (MI:0915) by molecular sieving (MI:0071) ,,MINT-7711313: F-ATPase epsilon subunit (uniprotkb:P21306), F-ATPase delta subunit (uniprotkb:Q12165), PEDF (uniprotkb:P36955), F-ATPase alpha subunit (uniprotkb:P07251), F-ATPase beta subunit (uniprotkb:P00830) and F-ATPase gamma subunit(uniprotkb:P38077) physically interact (MI:0915) by molecular sieving (MI:0071) ,,MINT-7711083: PEDF (uniprotkb:P36955) physically interacts (MI:0915) with F-ATPase epsilon subunit (uniprotkb:P21306), F-ATPase delta subunit (uniprotkb:Q12165), F-ATPase gamma subunit (uniprotkb:P38077), F-ATPase beta subunit (uniprotkb:P00830) and F-ATPase alpha subunit (uniprotkb:P07251) by surface plasmon resonance (MI:0107) [source]


Simultaneous activation of JAK1 and JAK2 confers IL-3 independent growth on Ba/F3 pro-B cells

JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2005
Huei-Mei Huang
Abstract JAK1 and JAK2 are tyrosine kinases involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. These proteins may play a key role in mediating the effects of the cytokine IL-3 on hematopoietic cells. IL-3 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of both JAK1 and JAK2. However, it is not clear whether the activation of JAK1, JAK2, or both is sufficient to confer factor-independent growth in IL-3 dependent cells. To address this issue, fusion proteins CD16/CD7/JAK (CDJAK), comprised of a CD16 extracellular domain, a CD7 transmembrane domain, and a JAK cytoplasmic region (either a wild-type JAK or a dominant negative mutant of JAK) were constructed. We established several Ba/F3 derivatives that stably overexpress the conditionally active forms of either CDJAK1, CDJAK2, or both these fusion proteins. In this study, the autophosphorylation of CDJAK1 or CDJAK2 was induced by crosslinking with anti-CD16 antibody. We demonstrated that, like their wild-type counterparts, CDJAK1 and CDJAK2 were preassociated with the IL-3 receptor beta and alpha subunits, respectively. Furthermore, the simultaneous activation of both CDJAK1 and CDJAK2 fusion proteins, but not either one alone, led to the tyrosine phosphorylation of the IL-3 receptor beta subunit, the activation of downstream signaling molecules, including STAT5, Akt, and MAPK, and the conferring of factor-independent growth to IL-3-dependent Ba/F3 cells. Coexpression of dominant negative mutants CDJAK1KE or CDJAK2KE with wild type CDJAK2 or CDJAK1, respectively, inhibited these activation activities. These results suggest that JAK1 and JAK2 must work cooperatively and not independently and that their actions are dependent on having normal kinase activity to trigger downstream signals leading to IL-3 independent proliferation and survival of Ba/F3 cells. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


AKIN,1 is Involved in the Regulation of Nitrogen Metabolism and Sugar Signaling in Arabidopsis

JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Xiao-Fang Li
Abstract Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) has been located at the heart of the control of metabolism and development in plants. The active SnRK1 form is usually a heterotrimeric complex. Subcellular localization and specific target of the SnRK1 kinase are regulated by specific beta subunits. In Arabidopsis, there are at least seven genes encoding beta subunits, of which the regulatory functions are not yet clear. Here, we tried to study the function of one beta subunit, AKIN,1. It showed that AKIN,1 expression was dramatically induced by ammonia nitrate but not potassium nitrate, and the investigation of AKIN,1 transgenic Arabidopsis and T-DNA insertion lines showed that AKIN,1 negatively regulated the activity of nitrate ruductase and was positively involved in sugar repression in early seedling development. Meanwhile AKIN,1 expression was reduced upon sugar treatment (including mannitol) and did not affect the activity of sucrose phosphate synthase. The results indicate that AKIN,1 is involved in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism and sugar signaling. [source]


Use of rpoB and 16S rRNA genes to analyse bacterial diversity of a tropical soil using PCR and DGGE

LETTERS IN APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
R.S. Peixoto
Aim: To evaluate the rpoB gene as a biomarker for PCR-DGGE microbial analyses using soil DNA from the Cerrado, Brazil. Methods: DNA extraction from soil was followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of rpoB and 16S rRNA genes. PCR products were compared by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) to compare gene/community profiles. Results: The rpoB DGGE profiles comprised fewer bands than the 16S rDNA profiles and were easier to delineate and therefore to analyse. Comparison of the community profiles revealed that the methods were complementary. Conclusions, Significance and Impact of the Study: The gene for the beta subunit of the RNA polymerase, rpoB, is a single copy gene unlike 16S rDNA. Multiple copies of 16S rRNA genes in bacterial genomes complicate diversity assessments made from DGGE profiles. Using the rpoB gene offers a better alternative to the commonly used 16S rRNA gene for microbial community analyses based on DGGE. [source]


Differential expression of sarcoplasmic proteins in four heterogeneous ovine skeletal muscles

PROTEINS: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND BIOINFORMATICS, Issue 2 2007
Muriel Hamelin
Abstract Fiber-type distribution is known to vary widely within and between muscles according to differences in muscle functions. 2-DE and MALDI-MS were used to investigate the molecular basis of muscle fiber type-related variability. We compared four lamb skeletal muscles with heterogeneous fiber-type composition that are relatively rich in fast-twitch fiber types, i.e., the semimembranosus, vastus medialis, longissimus dorsi, and tensor fasciae latae (TL). Our results clearly showed that none of the glycolytic metabolism enzymes detected, including TL which was most strongly glycolytic, made intermuscular differentiation possible. Muscle differentiation was based on the differential expression of proteins involved in oxidative metabolism, including not only citric acid cycle enzymes but also other classes of proteins with functions related to oxidative metabolism, oxidative stress, and probably to higher protein turnover. Detected proteins were involved in transport (carbonate dehydratase, myoglobin, fatty acid-binding protein), repair of misfolding damage (heat shock protein (HSP) 60,kDa, HSP-27,kDa, alpha-crystallin beta subunit, DJ1, stress-induced phosphoprotein), detoxification or degradation of impaired proteins (GST-Pi, aldehyde dehydrogenase, peroxiredoxin, ubiquitin), and protein synthesis (tRNA-synthetase). The fractionating method led to the detection of proteins involved in different functions related to oxidative metabolism that have not previously been shown concomitancy. [source]


Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) as a model for studying the molecular mechanism of seasonal reproduction

ANIMAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
Hiroko ONO
ABSTRACT Photoperiodism is an adaptation mechanism that enables animals to predict seasonal changes in the environment. Japanese quail is the best model organism for studying photoperiodism. Although the recent availability of chicken genome sequences has permitted the expansion from single gene to genome-wide transcriptional analysis in this organism, the photoperiodic response of the domestic chicken is less robust than that of the quail. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the photoperiodic response of the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), a predecessor of the domestic chicken, to test whether this animal could be developed as an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of seasonal reproduction. When red jungle fowls were transferred from short-day- to long-day conditions, gonadal development and an increase in plasma LH concentration were observed. Furthermore, rapid induction of thyrotropin beta subunit, a master regulator of photoperiodism, was observed at 16 h after dawn on the first long day. In addition, the long-day condition induced the expression of type 2 deiodinase, the key output gene of photoperiodism. These results were consistent with the results obtained in quail and suggest that the red jungle fowl could be an ideal model animal for the genome-wide transcriptional analysis of photoperiodism. [source]


Genetic variation in the beta subunit of the high affinity IgE receptor and atopy and asthma

CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Issue 7 2006
Julian Hopkin
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


AKIN,1 is Involved in the Regulation of Nitrogen Metabolism and Sugar Signaling in Arabidopsis

JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Xiao-Fang Li
Abstract Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) has been located at the heart of the control of metabolism and development in plants. The active SnRK1 form is usually a heterotrimeric complex. Subcellular localization and specific target of the SnRK1 kinase are regulated by specific beta subunits. In Arabidopsis, there are at least seven genes encoding beta subunits, of which the regulatory functions are not yet clear. Here, we tried to study the function of one beta subunit, AKIN,1. It showed that AKIN,1 expression was dramatically induced by ammonia nitrate but not potassium nitrate, and the investigation of AKIN,1 transgenic Arabidopsis and T-DNA insertion lines showed that AKIN,1 negatively regulated the activity of nitrate ruductase and was positively involved in sugar repression in early seedling development. Meanwhile AKIN,1 expression was reduced upon sugar treatment (including mannitol) and did not affect the activity of sucrose phosphate synthase. The results indicate that AKIN,1 is involved in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism and sugar signaling. [source]


Association of Unexplained Infertility with Gonadotropin and Ovarian Antibodies

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 5-6 2006
Seerin V. Shatavi
Problem, To determine the prevalence and characteristics of gonadotropin autoantibodies (GAB) associated with unexplained infertility, and to assess the relationship between ovarian autoantibodies (OVAB) and GAB. Method of study, Ovarian antibodies and GABs in sera of patients with unexplained infertility (n = 53) and a comparison (population) group from a blood bank (n = 40) were detected by immunoassay. Patients with unexplained infertility had either no prior gonadotropin treatment (n = 15) or two or more gonadotropin cycles to induce ovulation (n = 38). Results, The GABs were detected in 67% of women with treatment, 27% of women without treatment and 8% of women in the population. The GABs recognized follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and their alpha and beta subunits and to a lesser extent thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin. There was no significant difference in OVAB prevalence between gonadotropin treated or untreated women while GABs were significantly more frequent in gonadotropin treated women (P , 0.01). Conclusion, Gonadotropin antibodies may represent a separate marker of ovarian autoimmunity in unexplained infertility as they are correlated with OVAB and are present in patients not treated with gonadotropin. However, as a higher frequency of GAB is associated with gonadotropin treatment, patients with ovarian autoimmunity may tend to have an immune response to gonadotropins in addition to an endocrine response. [source]