Being Related (being + relate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Disability, capacity for work and the business cycle: an international perspective

ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 63 2010
Hugo Benítez-Silva
Summary Important policy issues arise from the high and growing number of people claiming disability benefits for reasons of incapacity for work in OECD countries. Economic conditions play an important part in explaining both the stock of disability benefit claimants and inflows to and outflows from that stock. Employing a variety of cross-country and country-specific household panel data sets, as well as administrative data, we find strong evidence that local variations in unemployment have an important explanatory role for disability benefit receipt, with higher total enrolments, lower outflows from rolls and, often, higher inflows into disability rolls in regions and periods of above-average unemployment. In understanding the nature of the cyclical fluctuations and trends in disability it is important to distinguish between work disability and health disability. The former is likely to be influenced by economic conditions and welfare programmes while the latter evolves in a slower fashion with medical technology and demographic changes. There is little evidence of health disability being related to the business cycle, so cyclical variations are driven by work disability. The rise in unemployment due to the current global economic crisis is expected to increase the number of disability insurance claimants. --- Hugo Benítez-Silva, Richard Disney and Sergi Jiménez-Martín [source]

Freeze tolerance of the yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii: cellular and biochemical basis

Cecília Alves-Araújo
Abstract The freeze stress responses to prolonged storage at ,20 °C in Torulaspora delbrueckii PYCC5323 were investigated. In this yeast, no loss of cell viability was observed for at least 120 days during freezing at ,20 °C, whereas a loss of 80% was observed in a commercial baker's yeast after 15 days. In the former strain, freeze resistance was dependent on an adaptation process. The primary cell target of freeze stress was the plasma membrane, preservation of its integrity being related with a lower increase of lipid peroxidation and with a higher resistance to H2O2, but not with the intracellular trehalose concentration. [source]

Functional biodiversity of macroinvertebrate assemblages along major ecological gradients of boreal headwater streams

JANI HEINOArticle first published online: 3 AUG 200
Summary 1. Biodiversity,environment relationships are increasingly well-understood in the context of species richness and species composition, whereas other aspects of biodiversity, including variability in functional diversity (FD), have received rather little rigorous attention. For streams, most studies to date have examined either taxonomic assemblage patterns or have experimentally addressed the importance of species richness for ecosystem functioning. 2. I examined the relationships of the functional biodiversity of stream macroinvertebrates to major environmental and spatial gradients across 111 boreal headwater streams in Finland. Functional biodiversity encompassed functional richness (FR , the number of functional groups derived from a combination of functional feeding groups and habit trait groups), FD , the number of functional groups and division of individuals among these groups, and functional evenness (FE , the division of individuals among functional groups). Furthermore, functional structure (FS) comprised the composition and abundance of functional groups at each site. 3. FR increased with increasing pH, with additional variation related to moss cover, total nitrogen, water colour and substratum particle size. FD similarly increased with increasing pH and decreased with increasing canopy cover. FE decreased with increasing canopy cover and water colour. Significant variation in FS was attributable to pH, stream width, moss cover, substratum particle size, nitrogen, water colour with the dominant pattern in FS being related to the increase of shredder-sprawlers and the decrease of scraper-swimmers in acidic conditions. 4. In regression analysis and redundancy analysis, variation in functional biodiversity was not only related to local environmental factors, but a considerable proportion of variability was also attributable to spatial patterning of environmental variables and pure spatial gradients. For FR, 23.4% was related to pure environmental effects, 15.0% to shared environmental and spatial effects and 8.0% to spatial trends. For FD, 13.8% was attributable to environmental effects, 15.2% to shared environmental and spatial effects and 5% to spatial trends. For FE, 9.0% was related to environmental variables, 12.7% to shared effects of environmental and spatial variables and 4.5% to spatial variables. For FS, 13.5% was related to environmental effects, 16.9% to shared environmental and spatial effects and 15.4% to spatial trends. 5. Given that functional biodiversity should portray variability in ecosystem functioning, one might expect to find functionally rather differing ecosystems at the opposite ends of major environmental gradients (e.g. acidity, stream size). However, the degree to which variation in the functional biodiversity of stream macroinvertebrates truly portrays variability in ecosystem functioning is difficult to judge because species traits, such as feeding roles and habit traits, are themselves strongly affected by the habitat template. 6. If functional characteristics show strong responses to natural environmental gradients, they also are likely to do so to anthropogenic environmental changes, including changes in habitat structure, organic inputs and acidifying elements. However, given the considerable degree of spatial structure in functional biodiversity, one should not expect that only the local environment and anthropogenic changes therein are responsible for this variability. Rather, the spatial context, as well as natural variability along environmental gradients, should also be explicitly considered in applied research. [source]

Ownership,efficiency relationship and the measurement selection bias

Richard Bozec
G32; H11; L33 Abstract This study analyses the bias in the selection of performance measures for ownership comparisons, which depends on the specific objectives of the firms being compared. Our sample includes 13 Canadian state-owned enterprises (SOEs), commercialized and/or privatized between 1976 and 2001. To replace profitability measures and reduce biases, we propose the use of technical efficiency, which provides for SOEs' specificities. Overall, the results clearly support the view that privatization has no impact on a firm's technical efficiency, the only positive impact being related to a change in the objectives of the firm while using profitability measures. The results of this study raise the question of the validity of comparisons between SOEs and private firms when using profitability indicators. The potential bias in favour of the private firms contributes to a misleading image of the public sector being presented as inferior and inefficient. The use of more sophisticated measures, such as data envelopment analysis, suggests conflicting conclusions. This study also casts doubt on the legitimacy of the privatization program initiated around the world and more specifically in Canada in which the main justification for such a reform has been to increase the performance of SOEs. [source]

GABRA2 and Alcohol Use Disorders: No Evidence of an Association in an Italian Case,Control Study

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2010
Nicoletta Onori
Background:, Alcoholism is a major health and social issue, a highly frequent disease and a cause of premature death. It is also the most expensive addictive disorder being related to high morbidity and mortality, violence, accidents, and social and legal problems. It is a quantitative disorder, where the combined incidence of environmental and multiple genetic factors varies from 1 subject to another. Recent association studies have identified several genes as candidates for alcoholism, including GABAA receptor genes, due to their role in mediating several behavioral effects of alcohol, such as motor incoordination, anxiolysis, sedation, and withdrawal. The proposed association between the 3, half of the gene encoding the alpha-2 subunit of GABA receptor (3,-GABRA2) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has received several independent confirmations. Methods:, In this study, 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the 3,-GABRA2 gene, previously reported to be implicated in alcohol dependence, were used to evaluate the linkage between selected SNPs and AUDs in an Italian sample and to compare findings with those of previous studies. Results:, No evidence of an association was found at the allele, genotype, haplotype, or diplotype levels between the 3,-GABRA2 polymorphisms investigated and alcoholism in 149 Italian alcoholics (98 alcohol dependents and 51 alcohol abusers) and 278 controls. Conclusions:, Despite previous reports, we did not find an association between AUDs and 3,-GABRA2 polymorphisms. This is probably due to the minimal comorbidity of our Italian sample suggesting that this gene is implicated in polysubstance dependence rather than in alcoholism alone. [source]

Anomalous charge relaxation in channels of pentacene-based organic field-effect transistors: a charge transient spectroscopy study

I. Thurzo
Abstract Two types of Si/SiO2/pentacene organic field-effect transistors (OFET) with bottom Au-source (S) and , drain (D) electrodes were examined by charge transient spectroscopy (QTS), applying pulsed bias ,UDS to the channel of an OFET with floating gate electrode. The transient charge Q (t ), flowing through the channel after the removal of the bias pulse, was processed at a constant temperature by a three-channel correlator yielding the signal ,Q = Q (t1) , 3/2Q (2t1) + 1/2Q (4t1), the scanned delay t1 being related to the trailing edge of the bias pulse. Most of the QTS spectra were characterized by peaks of ,Q (t1) with FWHM corresponding to discrete time constants ,m , t1m, while scanning t1 from 2 ,s to 0.1 s. The common feature of the QTS spectra was a linear dependence of the peak height ,Qm on ,UDS for both polarities of the latter, thereby resembling what is expected for dielectric relaxation (polarization). Some devices showed anomalous (reversed) sign of the signal with respect to the polarity of ,UDS, or even features like transitions from the correct sign to the reversed one. In order to customize the anomalies, a model is presented which ignores injection of excess charge carriers and takes into account two contributions to the total transient charge: a/space charge of intrinsic charge carriers piled up at the blocking Au-electrodes during the pulse, relaxing with the dielectric relaxation time ,D = ,0,r/, (, being conductivity of the organics); b/orientation of molecular dipoles (,dip) in the relaxing electric field of the space charge. It is the dipolar component that is responsible for the anomalous charge flow direction manifested by the signal reversal. The origin of the permanent dipole moment of the otherwise non-polar pentacene molecules may be either attached excess or missing atoms (vacancies) of the defect molecules [J. E. Northrup and M. L. Chabinyc, Phys. Rev. B 68, 041202 (2003)]. In cases of non-blocking contacts the dipolar relaxation would lead to QTS peaks of correct sign, to be distinguished from possibly non-negligible contribution of the dielectric relaxation in the semiconductor. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

A Bayesian zero-failure reliability demonstration test of high quality electro-explosive devices

Tsai-Hung Fan
Abstract Usually, for high reliability products the production cost is high and the lifetime is much longer, which may not be observable within a limited time. In this paper, an accelerated experiment is employed in which the lifetime follows an exponential distribution with the failure rate being related to the accelerated factor exponentially. The underlying parameters are also assumed to have the exponential prior distributions. A Bayesian zero-failure reliability demonstration test is conducted to design forehand the minimum sample size and testing length subject to a certain specified reliability criterion. Probability of passing the test design as well as predictive probability for additional experiments is also derived. Sensitivity analysis of the design is investigated by a simulation study. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Synthesis and structural characteristics of lithocholate triads: steroid-type channels occupied by spacer fragments

Urszula Rychlewska
Reported in this paper are the syntheses and X-ray investigations of C2 symmetrical molecular A,B,A triads consisting of two steroid units (lithocholic acid or its methyl ester) joined together by linkers derived from bifunctional molecules such as terephthalic acid or N,N,-dicarboxypiperazine. Unlike their monomeric analogues, some of these compounds form inclusion complexes. All steroidal triads form crystals that are highly pseudo-centrosymmetric, in which the constituting molecules are held together either exclusively by van der Waals forces or form lattice inclusion complexes, with guest molecules hydrogen bonded to the host. The presence of carboxyl groups promotes the inclusion of pyridine molecules and the formation of the well known carboxylic acid...pyridine hydrogen bonds. Combined with pairwise face-to-face ,-stacking between pyridine rings, these hydrogen-bond interactions lead to the formation of extended supramolecular tapes, analogous to polymers. The co-crystals of pyridine and a lithocholic acid triad undergo a symmetry-lowering phase transition from a P1 cell with Z = 1 to a P1 cell with Z = 2. The two structures are virtually the same, the two independent molecules in the larger cell being related by pseudo-translation. Changes in the type of spacer between two methyl lithocholate units from planar aromatic (terephthalic acid) to highly puckered aliphatic six-membered ring (N,N,-dicarboxypiperazine) bring about inclusion properties and changes in side-chain conformation in a crystal. Although the efficient packing of these highly elongated molecules is hindered, as indicated by low values of crystal density, ranging from 1.16 to 1.19,g,cm,3, several very short C...O and H...H contacts are present in the crystals. [source]

Structure and oxygen mobility in mayenite (Ca12Al14O33): a high-temperature neutron powder diffraction study

H. Boysen
The structure of mayenite, Ca12Al14O33, was investigated by neutron powder diffraction up to 1323,K. It has been described previously as a calcium,aluminate framework, in which 32 of the 33 oxygen anions are tightly bound, containing large cages, 1/6 of them being filled randomly by the remaining `free' oxygen. At ambient temperature excess oxygen was found, corresponding to the composition Ca12Al14O33.5 which was attributed to the presence of hydroxide, peroxide and superoxide radicals in the cages. Above 973,K these are lost under vacuum conditions and the composition becomes stoichiometric. From the refined structural parameters it is concluded that the structure is more adequately described as a relatively stable aluminate framework consisting of eightfold rings of AlO4 tetrahedra with disordered Ca and `free' O distributed within. At high temperatures the density of the `free' oxygen is extremely spread out, with the expansion being related to the high ionic conductivity of this material. Since no continuous density distribution between adjacent cages was found and the `free' O forms bonds with part of the Ca, the diffusion proceeds via a jump-like process involving exchange of the `free' oxygen with framework oxygen. The results confirm the recent theoretical predictions of Sushko et al. [(2006), Phys. Rev. B, 73, 014101-1-10]. [source]

Evaluation of the risk of overwintering Helicoverpa spp. pupae under irrigated summer crops in south-eastern Australia and the potential for area-wide management

Summary Surveys were undertaken to determine the distribution of overwintering pupae of two species of Helicoverpa in south-eastern Australia. The results indicate that significant populations of H. armigera have the potential to overwinter as pupae in the region under residues of their summer crop hosts. H. punctigera, conversely, was found not to overwinter in the region to any significant degree. The results also suggest that a high proportion of the overwintering H. armigera population are located in relatively few high risk fields. The overwintering population represents an ideal opportunity for control on an area-wide basis using post harvest cultivation or "pupae busting". The risk of overwintering H. armigera pupae occurring was largely associated with crop type, the mechanism being related to the date that the crop flowers, the level of pupal parasitism and the use of larval control measures. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations for farmers and it is suggested that a concerted effort to cultivate high risk fields has the potential to significantly reduce the population on an area-wide basis. [source]

Ecology and conservation status of temporary and fluctuating ponds in two areas of southern England

D.T. Bilton
Abstract 1.A high proportion of ponds are temporary in nature, although the biodiversity value of such sites is still poorly recognized. This work explores the plant and macroinvertebrate communities of 76 temporary and fluctuating water bodies in two regions of southern England (Lizard Peninsula, Cornwall and New Forest, Hampshire) that have retained high pond densities. The ecology and conservation status of sites is examined, and comparisons made with ponds elsewhere in England and Wales. 2.Lizard and New Forest ponds supported 119 plant and 165 macroinvertebrate species respectively. Patterns of community similarity for plants and macroinvertebrates were highly concordant, taxa being related in a similar manner to measured environmental variables including pond area, depth, pH and water chemistry. 3.Patterns of pond occupancy revealed that most species were locally rare, over half occurring in less than 10% of ponds, and less than 10% being recorded from more than 50% of sites. More than 50% of ponds supported at least one nationally rare plant and almost 75% at least one nationally rare macroinvertebrate. These taxa occupied a wide range of pond types in each region, and did not have predictably different ecologies from common species. 4.Comparisons with ponds elsewhere in England and Wales revealed that Lizard and New Forest communities are nationally distinct, being most similar to ponds in areas of low intensity agriculture elsewhere in western Britain. Individual ponds in both regions supported more nationally rare taxa, on average, than ponds sampled in the national survey. 5.Ponds in the two areas have high conservation value, both regionally and nationally, supporting almost 75% of the global species richness of temporary ponds sampled across England and Wales. Within each region, many taxa are found in relatively few sites, and effective conservation of pond biodiversity will require a regional management approach. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Interrelating within the families of young psychotherapy outpatients

Argyroula E. Kalaitzaki
Interrelating is a combination of relating to and being related to by another. The Couple's Relating to Each Other Questionnaires (CREOQ) and the Family Members Interrelating Questionnaires (FMIQ) measure negative forms of both self and other relating, across a close/distant and an upper/lower axis. These were used to measure the interrelating between the parents of young adults, and between young adults and their parents, in a sample of young, Greek, psychotherapy outpatients and a comparable sample of non- patients. In a proportion of both samples, the interrelating of the young adults was compared with that of a well sibling. The patients' parents were significantly more distant towards each other than those of the non-patients. The interrelating between the patients and their parents was markedly worse than that between the non-patients and their parents. It was also markedly worse between the patients and their parents than between the siblings and their parents.,Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]