Behavioural Modification (behavioural + modification)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women

H.M. Dallosso
OBJECTIVES To investigate the role of diet and other lifestyle factors in the incidence of overactive bladder and stress incontinence in women. Studies have suggested relationships between different aspects of lifestyle and symptoms of urinary incontinence, but there is a lack of firm evidence about their role in its cause. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A random sample of women aged , 40 years living at home took part in a prospective cohort study. Baseline data on urinary symptoms, diet and lifestyle were collected from 7046 women using a postal survey and food-frequency questionnaire. Follow-up data on urinary symptoms were collected from 6424 of the women in a postal survey 1 year later. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of food and drink consumption and other lifestyle factors with the incidence of overactive bladder and stress incontinence. RESULTS In the multivariate model for the onset of an overactive bladder, there were significantly increased risks associated with obesity, smoking and consumption of carbonated drinks, and reduced risks with higher consumption of vegetables, bread and chicken. Obesity and carbonated drinks were also significant risk factors for the onset of stress incontinence, while consumption of bread was associated with a reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS Causal associations with obesity, smoking and carbonated drinks are confirmed for bladder disorders associated with incontinence, and additional associations with diet are suggested. Behavioural modification of lifestyle may be important for preventing and treating these disorders. [source]

The outcome of voiding dysfunction managed with clean intermittent catheterization in neurologically and anatomically normal children

H.G. Pohl
Objective,To describe the tolerability and efficacy of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) in the management of dysfunctional voiding in patients who are neurologically and anatomically normal. Patients and methods,The medical records were reviewed in 23 patients (16 girls, mean age 9 years, range 6,14.5, and seven males, mean age 8 years, range 5,20.5) with urinary incontinence and/or urinary tract infection (UTI) who were offered CIC because they had a large postvoid residual urine volume (PVR). All had extensive instruction before starting CIC. All patients underwent urodynamic studies, and urinary and fecal elimination habits were recorded. Detrusor hyperactivity, when present, was treated with anticholinergic medication. The follow-up evaluation included tolerance of CIC, continence status and the incidence of UTI. Behavioural modification or biofeedback training was not used in any patient. Results,Of the 23 patients, 13 presented with both UTI and urinary incontinence, five with incontinence only, four with UTI only, one with frequency and no incontinence, and one with haematuria. Associated symptoms included frequency/urgency, constipation or soiling, and straining to void or incomplete emptying (in nine each), and infrequent voiding in six. CIC was performed within 2 days by 15 patients, while four others required up to 2 weeks to master CIC. However, three of the four patients (all older girls) who needed 2 weeks to learn the technique did not tolerate CIC and discontinued it within 3 weeks. Four other adolescents (three girls and one boy) refused to learn CIC. Of the 16 patients remaining on CIC only three had cystitis; no patient had a febrile UTI. Once successfully instituted, all patients became continent while on CIC. Six boys (mean follow-up 4 months) had a marked decrease in their PVR. CIC was discontinued in three girls who voided normally to emptiness within 6 months of starting CIC; they remained dry and infection-free 16 months (two) and 6 years later. Conclusion,CIC is a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of dysfunctional voiding, associated with a large PVR, in the absence of any neurological abnormality. CIC is well tolerated in the sensate patient and provides a means for expeditiously achieving continence and improving bladder emptying cost-effectively. [source]

Rates of adherence to pharmacological treatment among children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

El Sheikh R. Ibrahim
Abstract Pharmacological intervention, mainly with psychostimulants, alone or with psychotherapy or behavioural modification, was found to be effective in increasing sustained attention span, improving concentration, reducing hyperactive behaviour and improving areas of academic deficits in children and adolescents with the diagnosis of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite their proven efficacy, noncompliance of the children and adolescents to the prescribed medication presents serious problems to patients and health care providers alike. Objective To investigate the rate of adherence to prescribed medication in a clinically referred sample of children and adolescents diagnosed as having ADHD. In addition, the stability of reports of adherence over a 3 month period was explored. Method Fifty-one children and adolescents (males: n,=,42; females: n,=,9) between the age of 7 years and 16.6 years diagnosed with ADHD and their parents were administered a children behaviour checklist, a teacher report form scale and a compliance with treatement opinion and attitude scale. Results There were very high reports of adherence by children to prescribed medications for ADHD with rates of compliance greater than 70%. Correlation between the children and adolescents' reports and the parents' reports revealed high agreement both at the end of week 1 and at the end of the study (week 12). There were also findings of stability of adherence reports over a 3 month period. Conclusion The results of this study documented high rates of adherence to medication prescribed for symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a sample of children and adolescents. Their reports of adherence were well correlated with parents' reports. Several factors were found to be related to the high level of adherence. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Fat intake and food choices during weight reduction with diet, behavioural modification and a lipase inhibitor

K. Franson
Abstract. Franson K, Rössner S (The Swedish Association for People with Bowel and Stomach Diseases, Stockholm and Huddinge Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden). Fat intake and food choices during weight reduction with diet, behavioural modification and a lipase inhibitor. J Intern Med 2000: 247: 607,614. Objective. To study the composition of fat intake and fat-rich meals consumed during a trial in which obese subjects were treated with a lipase-inhibitor or placebo, with emphasis on food choices and eating hours. Design. Patients were instructed to record all food and drink taken for four days prior to each dietician visit. The food diaries from all scheduled 15 treatment visits were analysed for nutritional content and composition and for temporal distribution. All meals containing 25 g of fat were defined as fat-rich. Subjects. Twenty-eight women and six men, mean age 45.2 ± 10.9 (SD) years with a mean body mass index of 37.3 ± 3.3 (SD) kg m,2 at the beginning of the study. Results. Fat intake, both as absolute weight and as energy % was generally higher in the placebo group but no significant trend over time could be seen. Fat rich meals were increased by 59% towards the end of the study. Most fat rich meals were eaten at lunch and dinner. Cooking fat, fatty sauces, meat dishes and cheese contributed to the major proportion of fat, both for placebo and drug treated subjects. No major changes were seen in food choice over time. Conclusion. A lipase inhibitor may affect the amount of fat ingested but does not seem to change major sources of fat. The typical fat-rich meal consumed by these subjects was a meat dish, consumed in the evening. [source]

Long-term process evaluation of a school-based programme for overweight prevention

R. Muckelbauer
Abstract Background The epidemic increase in childhood overweight demands effective and also feasible prevention programmes. A school-based environmental and educational intervention focusing on the promotion of water consumption was found to be effective for overweight prevention in children. Process evaluation and long-term surveillance are necessary to evaluate the feasibility and sustainability of the intervention programme in a school setting. Methods Process evaluation was conducted during the intervention period (one school year) and a 19-month follow-up after the intervention trial on the prevention of overweight in 17 elementary schools. Data were collected through measuring the water flow of water fountains installed in schools, and questionnaires and interviews were administered to teachers and headmasters of intervention schools. Main outcomes were implementation of the intervention components, behavioural modification of the children concerning water consumption, and teacher and headmaster attitudes towards the intervention. Results Eleven out of 17 intervention schools maintained the water fountains until 19-month follow-up. The mean water flow of the fountains decreased initially, but remained stable after the during the follow-up period. The implementation rate of the educational units by teachers varied between the units from 13% to 84%. Teachers graded the overall concept of the intervention as good, continuously during the intervention and follow-up period. The majority of teachers organized the water supply of the fountains on the class level during the intervention period but not during the follow-up. Conclusions The long-term process evaluation showed that the combined educational and environmental intervention has potential for sustained modifications in the beverage consumption habits of children. It also identified barriers and promoting factors of a sustainable and feasible implementation of the preventive programme in a school setting. [source]