Behavioural Assessment (behavioural + assessment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

REVIEW: Behavioural assessment of drug reinforcement and addictive features in rodents: an overview

Carles Sanchis-Segura
ABSTRACT Some psychoactive drugs are abused because of their ability to act as reinforcers. As a consequence behavioural patterns (such as drug-seeking/drug-taking behaviours) are promoted that ensure further drug consumption. After prolonged drug self-administration, some individuals lose control over their behaviour so that these drug-seeking/taking behaviours become compulsive, pervading almost all life activities and precipitating the loss of social compatibility. Thus, the syndrome of addictive behaviour is qualitatively different from controlled drug consumption. Drug-induced reinforcement can be assessed directly in laboratory animals by either operant or non-operant self-administration methods, by classical conditioning-based paradigms such as conditioned place preference or sign tracking, by facilitation of intracranial electric self-stimulation, or, alternatively by drug-induced memory enhancement. In contrast, addiction cannot be modelled in animals, at least as a whole, within the constraints of the laboratory. However, various procedures have been proposed as possible rodent analogues of addiction's major elements including compulsive drug seeking, relapse, loss of control/impulsivity, and continued drug consumption despite negative consequences. This review provides an extensive overview and a critical evaluation of the methods currently used for studying drug-induced reinforcement as well as specific features of addictive behaviour. In addition, comic strips that illustrate behavioural methods used in the drug abuse field are provided given for free download under http://www.zi-mannheim/ [source]

Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: cross-sectional analysis from a prospective, longitudinal Belgian study

Sebastiaan Engelborghs
Abstract Objective Given the rather limited knowledge on profiles of neuropsychiatric symptoms (behavioural and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia, BPSD) in several degenerative dementias, we designed a prospective study of which we here present the baseline data. Methods Diagnosed according to strictly applied clinical diagnostic criteria, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n,=,205), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (n,=,29), mixed dementia (MXD) (n,=,39) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n,=,23) were included. All patients underwent a neuropsychological examination and behavioural assessment by means of a battery of scales (Middelheim Frontality Score (MFS), Behave-AD, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia). Results In AD and MXD, activity disturbances and aggressiveness occurred in more than 80% of the patients. With a prevalence of 70%, apathy was very common whereas delusions and hallucinations were rare in FTD patients. Frequently used behavioural assessment scales like the Behave-AD systematically underestimated BPSD in FTD whereas the MFS displayed high sensitivity for frontal lobe symptoms. Hallucinations discriminated DLB patients from other dementias. A high prevalence of disinhibition (65%) in DLB pointed to frontal lobe involvement. Conclusions Behavioural assessment may help differentiating between different forms of dementia, further stressing the need for the development of new and more sensitive behavioural assessment scales. By means of the MFS, frontal lobe involvement was frequently observed in DLB. As 70% of FTD patients displayed apathy, prevalence was about two times higher compared to the other disease groups, meanwhile indicating that apathy is frequently observed in dementia, irrespective of its etiology. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Activities and Participation Questionnaire (CFS-APQ): An overview

Dr Jo Nijs
Abstract Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by severe fatigue and a reduction in activity levels. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of design, reliability, and validity of the CFS Activities and Participation Questionnaire (CFS-APQ). The CFS-APQ was constructed based on a retrospective analysis of the Karnofsky Performance Status Questionnaire and the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (n = 141). In a reliability study of 34 participants the test-retest reliability coefficient of the CFS-APQ was 0.95. In two different studies, the Cronbach alpha coefficient for internal consistency varied between 0.87 (n = 88) and 0.94 (n = 47). The CFS-APQ was administered to 47 patients who listed 183 activities that had become difficult due to their chronic symptoms, and 157 (85.8%) answers matched the content of the CFS-APQ. The outcome of a cross-sectional study (n = 88) studying the correlations between the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 Health Status Survey subscale scores and the CFS-APQ supported the validity of the CFS-APQ. The CFS-APQ scores correlated with a behavioural assessment of the patients' performance of activities encompassed by the questionnaire (r = 0.29,0.55; n = 63), and correlated with exercise capacity parameters (r = 0.26,0.39; n = 77) obtained during a maximal exercise capacity stress test. Finally, the CFS-APQ correlated with visual analogue scales for pain (r = 0.51) and fatigue (r = 0.50; n = 47). It is concluded that the CFS-APQ generates reliable and valid data, and can be used as a clinical measure of disease severity in patients with CFS. Future studies should aim at examining the sensitivity of the CFS-APQ. Copyright 2005 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Spinal administration of lipoxygenase inhibitors suppresses behavioural and neurochemical manifestations of naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal

Tuan Trang
This study investigated the role of spinal lipoxygenase (LOX) products in the induction and expression of opioid physical dependence using behavioural assessment of withdrawal and immunostaining for CGRP and Fos protein expression in the spinal cord. Administration of escalating doses (5,50 mg kg,1; i.p.) of morphine for 5 days markedly elevated CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Naloxone (2 mg kg,1; i.p.) challenge precipitated a robust withdrawal syndrome that depleted CGRP-like immunoreactivity and increased the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal horn. Intrathecal administration of NDGA (10, 20 ,g), a nonselective LOX inhibitor, AA-861 (1.5, 3 ,g), a 5-LOX selective inhibitor, or baicalein (1.4, 2.8 ,g), a 12-LOX selective inhibitor, concurrently with systemic morphine for 5 days or as a single injection immediately preceding naloxone challenge, blocked the depletion of CGRP-like immunoreactivity, prevented increase in the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal horn, and significantly attenuated the morphine withdrawal syndrome. The results of this study suggest that activity of LOX products, at the spinal level, contributes to the expression of opioid physical dependence, and that this activity may be expressed through increased sensory neuropeptide release. British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 140, 295,304. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705440 [source]

Automation in an addiction treatment research clinic: Computerised contingency management, ecological momentary assessment and a protocol workflow system

Abstract Introduction and Aims. A challenge in treatment research is the necessity of adhering to protocol and regulatory strictures while maintaining flexibility to meet patients' treatment needs and to accommodate variations among protocols. Another challenge is the acquisition of large amounts of data in an occasionally hectic environment, along with the provision of seamless methods for exporting, mining and querying the data. Design and Methods. We have automated several major functions of our outpatient treatment research clinic for studies in drug abuse and dependence. Here we describe three such specialised applications: the Automated Contingency Management (ACM) system for the delivery of behavioural interventions, the transactional electronic diary (TED) system for the management of behavioural assessments and the Protocol Workflow System (PWS) for computerised workflow automation and guidance of each participant's daily clinic activities. These modules are integrated into our larger information system to enable data sharing in real time among authorised staff. Results. ACM and the TED have each permitted us to conduct research that was not previously possible. In addition, the time to data analysis at the end of each study is substantially shorter. With the implementation of the PWS, we have been able to manage a research clinic with an 80 patient capacity, having an annual average of 18 000 patient visits and 7300 urine collections with a research staff of five. Finally, automated data management has considerably enhanced our ability to monitor and summarise participant safety data for research oversight. Discussion and Conclusions. When developed in consultation with end users, automation in treatment research clinics can enable more efficient operations, better communication among staff and expansions in research methods. [Vahabzadeh M, Lin J-L, Mezghanni M, Epstein DH, Preston KL. Automation in an addiction treatment research clinic: Computerised contingency management, ecological momentary assessment and a protocol workflow system. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009;28:3,11] [source]

Migration, family structure and children's well-being: a multi-level analysis of the second generation of the 1958 Birth Cohort Study

CHILDREN & SOCIETY, Issue 4 2002
Georgia Verropoulou
The relationship between moving home, family structure and children's well-being, is examined in the National Child Development Study (NCDS) Second-Generation. Well-being is measured as attainment in maths and reading, and on two behavioural assessments. Multivariate multi-level modelling allows for heterogeneity both within and between families. We find little to no association between moving home and children's well-being. Associations between family living arrangements and children's development appear to be mediated by human, financial and social capital, but not, on average, worsened by geographical mobility. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]