Behaviour Scores (behaviour + score)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Child sun protection: Sun-related attitudes mediate the association between children's knowledge and behaviours

Caradee Wright
Aim: To describe and investigate the relationship among the sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of New Zealand primary schoolchildren and consider the roles of sex and school year level. Methods: A randomly selected, two-stage cluster sample of 488 children from 27 primary schools in five regions of New Zealand was surveyed regarding their sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. A scoring system was used to assign a knowledge, attitude and behaviour score to each child. Results: Although knowledge increased with school year level, there was a decline in sun protective attitudes and behaviours. There was little variation in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour between boys and girls, but sex,year level interactions were found for knowledge and behaviour. When considering children's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours simultaneously, knowledge was only significantly associated with behaviours when mediated by attitudes. Conclusions: When targeting child sun protection and skin cancer prevention programmes, a focus on attitudes towards sun exposure and a suntan may prove beneficial in influencing sun-related behaviours. [source]

An interim analysis of a cohort study on the preoperative anxiety and postoperative behavioural changes in children having repeat anaesthetics

A. Watson
Introduction Anxiety in the preoperative period and at induction of anaesthesia in children is associated with disturbances in postoperative behaviour (1,4). There is little work looking at the effects of repeat anaesthetic procedures on anxiety and subsequent postoperative behaviour disturbances. The aim of this study was to see if the effect of repeat anaesthetics was cumulative on postoperative behavioural problems and whether repeated anaesthetics provoke increasing anxiety. We investigated factors that may identify children who are susceptible to behavioural changes following repeat anaesthetics. We present an interim analysis of data on 8 patients as part of a long-term cohort study on 40 children with retinoblastoma who have required repeat anaesthetics for assessment and treatment of their condition. Method Approval for this study was granted by the East London and City Health Authority ethics committee. 40 patients are being recruited and being followed over a two year period. All children have retinoblastoma and are between the ages of 18 months to 4 years. The anaesthetic technique was not standardised but details of it were collected. Data collected were demographic details of child (age, sex, weight, ASA grade, siblings, stressful events in the last 3 months, recent immunisations, number of previous anaesthetics, problems with previous general anaesthetics, medical history of children, temperament of child using the EASI scoring system (4); demographic data of parents (age, parental education, family members affected, baseline measure of parental anxiety using State trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Anxiety on entry into the anaesthetic room and at induction was measured by the modified Yale preoperative anxiety scale (mYPAS), cooperation of the child at induction was measured by the Induction compliance checklist (ICC). Anxiety of the parent after induction was measured by the STAI score. Behaviour was measured at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 4 months after each procedure by means of the post hospital behaviour score (PHBQ) (5). A comparison with preoperative behaviour was made and data is presented of the percentage of children with new negative behavioural problems. A detailed analysis of the types of behaviour change was noted. anova for repeat measures with multiple dependent measures was used to analyse data on child anxiety and postoperative behavioural problems. Results Eight patients have had 3 separate anaesthetics over one and a half years. These have been at 4 monthly intervals. There was no significant increase in anxiety levels with repeat anaesthetics. The median mYPAS score at induction were 100 for all 3 anaesthetics. (P = 0.41). The type of behavioural change was variable and demonstrated no trend. No patient was identified as being prone to behavioural changes after every anaesthetic. Patients who displayed new negative behavioural problems would have them after any anaesthetic with no obvious cumulative effect with each repeat anaesthetic. Conclusions Our patients had maximum anxiety scores at induction, so the mYPAS scoring system is not sensitive enough to show that repeat anaesthetics provoke increasing anxiety. There is a very random pattern to behavioural disturbances after repeat anaesthetics with no evidence that negative behavioural changes are compounded with repeated anaesthetics. Collection of complete data from the remaining 32 patients may yield some trends regarding behavioural disturbances but our use of the mYPAS to measure anxiety in this very anxious population is unlikely to be helpful. [source]

Self-care behaviour and related factors in older people with Type 2 diabetes

Yu-Ling Bai
Aim., The present study examined the factors related to self-care behaviour in type 2 diabetic patients aged ,65 years. In addition, this study tested the effect of the important explanatory factors on self-care behaviour. Background., Along with the development of an ageing society, diabetes occurs frequently among older people. Diabetes requires continual medical treatment, with patients responsible for self-care. Although the relationships among social support, depression and self-care have been widely studied, little is know about older diabetic patients, especially in Taiwan. Design., A correlational design was adopted. In total, 165 patients recruited using convenience sampling were diabetic outpatients at three hospitals in southern Taiwan from January,March 2005. Methods., The participants were interviewed using the Personal Resource Questionnaire 2000 (PRQ 2000), Diabetes Self-Care Scale and Taiwan Geriatric Depression Scale (TGDS). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Result., Self-care behaviour scores were significantly influenced by different gender, education level, economic status and religious beliefs of older diabetic patients. Depression and self-care behaviour were negatively correlated. Social support, education and duration of diabetes significantly affected self-care behaviour, accounting for 356% of total variance. Conclusions., Social support plays a vital factor in contributing to the facilitation of self-care behaviour. These analytical findings demonstrate the importance of social support, education and duration of diabetes in determining self-care behaviour for diabetic older diabetic patients and serve as references for future studies of self-care behaviour in type 2 older diabetic patients. Relevance to clinical practice., Implication for nurses highlights the significance of providing patients with social support that will enable them to have good support systems during their disease treatment to enhance self-care abilities and improve quality of life. [source]

Predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome of Malaysian very low birthweight children at 4 years of age

LC Ong
Objective: To determine neonatal, early developmental and social risk factors that predict the neurocognitive and behavioural outcome of very low birthweight (VLBW) preschool children at four years of age. Methodology: From a cohort of 151 eligible VLBW survivors born in Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital, 116 (76.8%) were prospectively followed up from birth till four years. A standardised neurological examination was performed at one and four years to determine the presence of impairment and cerebral palsy, respectively. Cognitive development was assessed using the Mental Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (MDI) at one year and the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WIPPSI-R) at four years. Motor coordination was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement-ABC). Mothers completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI) questionnaires. Logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with cerebral palsy, IQ scores, Movement-ABC and CBCL scores. Results: Factors associated with cerebral palsy were lower MDI scores at one year (P = 0.001) and late neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities (P = 0.036). Minor (P = 0.016) or major impairment (P = 0.003) at one year of age and a low level of paternal education (P = 0.01) were associated with poor motor function on the Movement-ABC scale. Lower levels of maternal education (P < 0.001), impairment at one year (P = 0.002) and late neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities (P = 0.039) predicted Full Scale IQ scores. Higher PSI scores (P = 0.001), younger mothers (P = 0.003) and late neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities (P = 0.009) were associated with worsened child behaviour scores on the CBCL scale. Conclusion: Social factors and the caregiving environment were important determinants of cognitive and behavioural outcome. Cranial ultrasound abnormalities in the late neonatal period and the developmental status at one year might be useful in identifying high risk infants in need of long-term surveillance. [source]

Using food experience, multimedia and role models for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in Bangkok kindergarten children

Abstract Aim:, To evaluate the use of food experience, multimedia and role models for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in kindergarten children. Methods:, A quasi-experimental study was conducted. A Bangkok public primary school was randomly selected and one of the kindergarten levels was purposively chosen. Program implementation consisted of 11 activities over an eight-week period from July to September, 2003. Data on demographic variables, and types and amounts of fruit and vegetables consumed and frequency of fruit and vegetables served were collected before and after the intervention. Program evaluation consisted of an analysis of the pre- and post-test data. Results:, After the intervention, fruit and vegetable eating behaviour scores (median interquartile range) revealed significant changes from 3 8 to 7 8 for vegetables and 6 8 to 9 8 for fruit (P -value < 0.001); the different types of consumed vegetables were increased from two to four (P -value , 0.001); and the fruit and vegetable intake was significantly increased from 53 g to 77 g and from 11 g to 23 g respectively (P -value < 0.005). Conclusions:, Results of this pilot study were effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in the kindergarten, however, longer-term evaluation and assessment of the impact on the home environment are required. The inclusion of nutrition education and instruction on healthy eating habits in the course curriculum combined with social support from teachers and families may improve and sustain fruit and vegetable eating behaviours. [source]

Effect of continuous infusion of asialoerythropoietin on short-term changes in infarct volume, penumbra apoptosis and behaviour following middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

Chrystal D Price
Summary 1. Asialoerythropoietin (aEPO), a derivative of cytokine erythropoietin, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects without haematological complications when administered in single or repeated doses. The present study examines our hypothesis that aEPO may provide neuroprotection against programmed apoptotic cell death when administered in a continuous low dose. 2. Focal cerebral ischaemia was introduced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery using a surgically placed intraluminal filament in young male Sprague Dawley rats (9 weeks old). After 90 min ischaemia, reperfusion was established by filament removal. Both study and control groups had implanted osmotic minipumps through which they received either aEPO (1 ,L/h; 20 ,g/kg per 24 h) or normal saline (1 ,L/h) for 4 days. On Day 4, infarct volume, the number of apoptotic cells and concentrations of activated caspase 3 and 9 were evaluated in the penumbra region. 3. Asialoerythropoietin was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of the study group, whereas none was detected in the control group. Although there were no significant changes in haematocrit levels or behaviour scores (on Days 1 and 4) between the study and control groups, aEPO administration significantly reduced infarct volume in the study group compared with the control group (168 19 vs 249 28 mm3, respectively; P < 0.05). 4. The number of terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP,digoxigenin nick end-labelling (TUNEL)-positive cells and the concentration of activated caspase 3 and 9 in the penumbra region were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. 5. In conclusion, our data suggest that aEPO provides a short-term, possibly histological, protection in young adult male rats when administered immediately after reperfusion. [source]