Behavioral Science (behavioral + science)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Handbook of Cancer Control and Behavioral Science: A Resource for Researchers, Practitioners, and Policymakers.

PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
Deborah J. Bowen, Edited by Suzanne M. Miller, Julia H. Rowland., Robert T. Croyle
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Statistical Test Theory for the Behavioral Sciences by Dato N. M. de Gruijter, Leo J. Th. van der Kamp

INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL REVIEW, Issue 1 2008
Kimmo Vehkalahti
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Review of: Applied Criminal Psychology: A Guide to Forensic Behavioral Sciences

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 1 2010
Daniel A. Martell Ph.D.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Organizing intelligence: Development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education

JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, Issue 3 2009
William P. Bottom
Conventional history of the predominant, research-based model of business education (RBM) traces its origins to programs initiated by the Ford Foundation after World War II. This paper maps the elite network responsible for developing behavioral science and the Ford Foundation agenda. Archival records of the actions taken by central nodes in the network permit identification of the original vision statement for the model. Analysis also permits tracking progress toward realizing that vision over several decades. Behavioral science was married to business education from the earliest stages of development. The RBM was a fundamental promise made by advocates for social science funding. Appraisals of the model and recommendations for reform must address its full history, not the partial, distorted view that is the conventional account. Implications of this more complete history for business education and for behavioral theory are considered. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Craving: what can be done to bring the insights of neuroscience, behavioral science and clinical science into synchrony

ADDICTION, Issue 8s2 2000
Roger E. Meyer
Alcohol self-administration behavior is the common thread that is necessary to bring the insights of neuroscience, behavioral science and clinical science into synchrony around the concept of craving. Animal models should address the molecular and cellular changes that take place in behaviorally relevant brain regions of rats consequent to chronic self-administration of ethanol. Animal models can focus on the biology of the anticipatory state in alcohol preferring/consuming rats, as well as studies of the effects of possible medications on this state in the animal model, on actual alcohol consuming behavior, and on the residual effects of chronic alcohol on the non-human mammalian brain. In human studies of craving, cue-reactivity in the absence of the opportunity to drink alcohol does not have the same salience as cue-reactivity in which drinking is possible. Moreover, actual drinking behavior serves to validate self-reports of craving. Studies of limited alcohol self-administration in the laboratory are an essential element in screening new medications for the treatment of alcoholism. Studies to date suggest no adverse reaction to the participation of alcoholic subjects in limited alcohol self-administration studies, but the research community should continue to monitor carefully the outcomes of alcohol-dependent subjects who participate in this type of research, and efforts should always be made to encourage these subjects to enter active treatment. In outpatient clinical trials of new treatments for alcoholism, the assessment of craving should include queries regarding symptoms and signs of protracted abstinence such as sleep disturbances, as well as questions regarding situational craving. Field observations of alcoholics in their favorite drinking environments would contribute greatly to our understanding of the real-world phenomenology of craving. [source]


The tyranny of the positive attitude in America: Observation and speculation

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 9 2002
Barbara S. Held
According to both popular and professional indicators, the push for the positive attitude in America is on the rise. After considering the popular culture zeitgeist, I compare and contrast two recent professional psychology movements,those of positive psychology and postmodern therapy,both of which rest on a foundation of optimism and positive thinking despite their opposing views about a proper philosophy of science. I then present cross-cultural empirical research that calls into question the typical (North American) assumption that a positive attitude is necessary for (a sense of) well-being. I also consider findings in health psychology, clinical/counseling psychology, and organizational behavioral science, findings which call into question the assumption that accentuating the positive (and eliminating the negative) is necessarily beneficial in terms of physical and mental health. The clinical/therapeutic implications of this analysis are addressed, as I put forth my conjecture about the existence of what I call the "tyranny of the positive attitude" in the form of a question: If there indeed now exists unprecedented pressure to accentuate the positive, could it then be that the pressure itself to be happy and optimistic contributes to at least some forms of unhappiness? 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 58: 965,991, 2002. [source]


Clinical science and human behavior

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 9 2001
Joseph J. Plaud
The debate between mentalism/cognitivism and behaviorism is analyzed, and it is concluded that behaviorism is the philosophy more closely associated with psychology as a behavioral science, the cognitive approach being more closely aligned with biological science. Specific objections to mentalistic interpretations of behavioral phenomena are detailed, and examples from clinical psychology are used to show the importance of behavioral approaches in applied domains. It is argued that the relation between behavior theory and clinical psychology is critical to the continued advancement of applied psychology. Behavior analysis is offered as a direct, applied extension of behavior theory as well as a highly practical and effective approach for understanding, explaining, and modifying the factors that contribute to and maintain maladaptive behaviors. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 57: 1089,1102, 2001. [source]


Organizing intelligence: Development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education

JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, Issue 3 2009
William P. Bottom
Conventional history of the predominant, research-based model of business education (RBM) traces its origins to programs initiated by the Ford Foundation after World War II. This paper maps the elite network responsible for developing behavioral science and the Ford Foundation agenda. Archival records of the actions taken by central nodes in the network permit identification of the original vision statement for the model. Analysis also permits tracking progress toward realizing that vision over several decades. Behavioral science was married to business education from the earliest stages of development. The RBM was a fundamental promise made by advocates for social science funding. Appraisals of the model and recommendations for reform must address its full history, not the partial, distorted view that is the conventional account. Implications of this more complete history for business education and for behavioral theory are considered. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Gregory Bateson on deutero-learning and double bind: A brief conceptual history

JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, Issue 3 2003
Max Visser Ph.D. assistant professor
The concepts of deutero-learning and double bind have acquired an increasingly important status in various fields of social and behavioral science, particularly in psychiatry, psychotherapy, organization, and policy science. With this proliferation, however, their original meaning and significance has become increasingly muted. In this article it is argued that both concepts are important ingredients of a behavioral theory of (organizational) learning. To support this argument, the development of both concepts is traced to the work of Gregory Bateson. In Bateson's thinking, the two concepts have a firm base in dyadic behavior and interaction. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Profane Research Versus Researching the Profane: Commentary on Ba,oglu (2009)

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 2 2009
Steven H. Miles MD
Torture survivors, therapists, and society look to behavioral science for help understanding the traumatization, needs, and treatment of torture survivors. Any research of torture can and possibly will be used by torturers to refine their abuse of prisoners. It is difficult but necessary to discern profane research from therapeutic research of a profane activity. M. Ba,oǧlu's (2009) study of the traumatization of torture survivors is enormously helpful to clinicians who must heal and to policymakers who must understand the psychological toll of torture. [source]


An Experimental Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior

APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY: HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, Issue 2 2009
Falko Sniehotta
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the leading theories of health behavior, yet supporting evidence is exclusively based on correlational research. This study aims to test the TPB experimentally. N = 579 participants were randomised to receive persuasive messages addressing salient beliefs elicited in a pilot study, following a 2*2*2 factorial design. Participants were randomised to a behavioral-belief-intervention (BBI) or not, a normative-belief-intervention (NBI) or not, and a control-belief-intervention (CBI) or not. The primary outcome was objectively recorded attendance at university sports facilities over 2 months; and the secondary outcomes were post-intervention TPB measures. Main effects of the BBI on attitudes and of the NBI on subjective norm, PBC, attitudes, and intentions were found. The CBI did not alter post-intervention cognitions, but was the only intervention to change behavior not mediated by cognitions. While the findings support the TPB's assumptions on intention formation, behavior change results are not in line with the theory and therefore further question the TPB's leading role in behavioral science. [source]


Can behavioral evolution be measured on a staircase? a commentary

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
Celia L. Moore
Abstract The serious, comparative study of behavioral complexity that Greenberg et al. advocate is a progressive direction for the field, but their proposal to separate comparative psychology from its roots in evolutionary biology seems regressive. Modern evolutionary theory has been broadened within biology to include development and paleontology alongside natural selection, making closer integration with that discipline particularly timely. Such an integrated evolutionary approach in psychology would offer a useful alternative to the adaptationism popularized by evolutionary psychology. Although the differences between comparative psychologists and biologists may be blurred in the process, the behavioral sciences will be better served by a rich biological approach to evolution than by a uniquely psychological approach. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 44: 16,20, 2004. [source]


REJOINDER TO FRACCHIA AND LEWONTIN

HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 1 2005
W. G. RUNCIMAN
ABSTRACT In their response to my article, Fracchia and Lewontin have not refuted any of my three principal objections to theirs; they have ignored altogether my suggestion that evolutionary game theory illustrates particularly clearly the benefits that neo-Darwinian concepts and methods can bring to the human behavioral sciences; and they have attributed to me a version of "methodological individualism" to which I do not subscribe. It is, as is usual at this stage of a Kuhnian paradigm shift, too soon to say how much selectionist theory can contribute to the human behavioral sciences in general and comparative sociology in particular. But selectionism's critics achieve nothing by alleging that its proponents are committed to propositions to which they do not in fact assent and deny propositions with which they in fact agree. [source]


Formalism, Behavioral Realism and the Interdisciplinary Challenge in Sociological Theory

JOURNAL FOR THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR, Issue 1 2009
OMAR LIZARDO
In this paper, I argue that recent sociological theory has become increasingly bifurcated into two mutually incompatible styles of theorizing that I label formalist and behavioral-realist. Formalism favors mathematization and proposes an instrumentalist ontology of abstract processes while behavioral-realist theory takes at its basis the "real" physical individual endowed with concrete biological, cognitive and neurophysiological capacities and constraints and attempts to derive the proper conceptualization of social behavior from that basis. Formalism tends to lead toward a conceptually independent sociology that in principle requires only minimal reference to the empirical and ontological storehouse of other disciplines, while behavioral-realist theory leads to an interdisciplinary sociology that can be located within a hierarchy of behavioral sciences, leading to questions regarding the relationship between sociology and other disciplines as well as issues of transdisciplinary unification and possible interdisciplinary reduction. I explore the consequences of this split for the project of explanatory sociological theory within the context of how it has manifested itself in sociological network theory and social psychology. I close with a critique and assessment of formalist tendencies in sociological theorizing. [source]


Reconceptualizing the core of nurse practitioner education and practice

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF NURSE PRACTITIONERS, Issue 1 2009
BC (Professor), Mary E. Burman PhD
Abstract Purpose: The movement to the doctor of nursing practice (DNP) is progressing rapidly with new programs emerging and curricular documents being developed. We argue that the implementation of the DNP is a good move for nursing, provided that we use the opportunity to reconceptualize the core of advanced practice nursing, especially nurse practitioner (NP) practice. Data sources: Theory and research articles from nursing focused on advanced practice nursing, NPs, and doctoral education. Conclusions: The foundation of NP education is currently based essentially on borrowed or shared content in assessment, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. We argue that the heart and soul of nursing is in health promotion, both in healthy persons and in those dealing with chronic illness. Current master's programs do not prepare NPs to assume high-level practice focused on health promotion and disease management using the latest theoretical developments in health behavior change, behavioral sciences, exercise physiology, nutrition, and medical anthropology. Although these are touched upon in most NP programs, they do not represent the core science of NP education and need to be a critical part of any DNP program. Implications for practice: Ultimately, our vision is for NP care to be consistently "different," yet just as essential as physician care, leading to positive outcomes in health promotion and disease management. [source]


Expectancy and Risk for Alcoholism: The Unfortunate Exploitation of a Fundamental Characteristic of Neurobehavioral Adaptation

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2002
Mark S. Goldman
Psychological investigations of alcohol expectancies over the last 20 years, using primarily verbal techniques, have strongly supported expectancies as an important mediator of biological and environmental antecedent variables that influence risk for alcohol use and abuse. At the same time, rapid developments in neuroscience, cognitive science, affective science, computer science, and genetics proved to be compatible with the concept of expectancy and, in some cases, used this concept directly. By using four principles that bear on the integration of knowledge in the biological and behavioral sciences,consilience, conservation, contingency, and emergence,these developments are merged into an integrated explanation of alcoholism and other addictions. In this framework, expectancy is seen as a functional approach to adaptation and survival that has been manifested in multiple biological systems with different structures and processes. Understood in this context, addiction is not a unique behavioral problem or special pathology distinct from the neurobehavioral substrate that governs all behavior, but is rather a natural (albeit unfortunate) consequence of these same processes. The ultimate intent is to weave a working heuristic that ties together findings from molecular and molar levels of inquiry and thereby might help direct future research. Such integration is critical in the multifaceted study of addictions. [source]


Estimating Returns on Commercial Real Estate: A New Methodology Using Latent-Variable Models

REAL ESTATE ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2000
David C. Ling
Despite their widespreao use as benchmarks of U.S. commercial real estate returns, indexes produced by the National Council of Real Estate Investment Fiduciaries (NCREIF) are subject to measurement problems that severely impair their ability to capture the true risk,return characteristics,especially volatility,of privately held commercial real estate. We utilize latent-variable statistical methods to estimate an alternative index of privately held (unsecuritized) commercial real estate returns. Latent-variable methods have been extensively applied in the behavioral sciences and, more recently, in finance and economics. Unlike factor analysis or other unconditional statistical approaches, latent variable models allow us to extract interpretable common information about unobserved private real estate returns using the information contained in various competing measures of returns that are measured with error. We find that our latent-variable real estate return series is approximately twice as volatile as the aggregate NCREIF total return index, but less than half as volatile as the NAREIT equity index. Overall, our results strongly support the use of latent-variable statistical models in the construction of return series for commercial real estate. [source]


The use of Artificial Neural Networks to classify primate vocalizations: a pilot study on black lemurs

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Luca Pozzi
Abstract The identification of the vocal repertoire of a species represents a crucial prerequisite for a correct interpretation of animal behavior. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been widely used in behavioral sciences, and today are considered a valuable classification tool for reducing the level of subjectivity and allowing replicable results across different studies. However, to date, no studies have applied this tool to nonhuman primate vocalizations. Here, we apply for the first time ANNs, to discriminate the vocal repertoire in a primate species, Eulemur macaco macaco. We designed an automatic procedure to extract both spectral and temporal features from signals, and performed a comparative analysis between a supervised Multilayer Perceptron and two statistical approaches commonly used in primatology (Discriminant Function Analysis and Cluster Analysis), in order to explore pros and cons of these methods in bioacoustic classification. Our results show that ANNs were able to recognize all seven vocal categories previously described (92.5,95.6%) and perform better than either statistical analysis (76.1,88.4%). The results show that ANNs can provide an effective and robust method for automatic classification also in primates, suggesting that neural models can represent a valuable tool to contribute to a better understanding of primate vocal communication. The use of neural networks to identify primate vocalizations and the further development of this approach in studying primate communication are discussed. Am. J. Primatol. 72:337,348, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Free will in context: a contemporary philosophical perspective

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 2 2007
Patrick Grim B.Phil., Ph.D.
Philosophical work on free will is inevitably framed by the problem of free will and determinism. This paper offers an overview of the current state of the philosophical art. Early sections focus on quantum indeterminism, an outline of the most influential logical argument for incompatibilism between free will and determinism, and telling problems that face incompatibilism. A major portion of the paper focuses on the compatiblist alternative, favored by many working philosophers. The conditional account of free will offered by classical compatibilism can be shown to be inadequate. A number of compatibilist options remain open, however, and seem promising for future research. These include ,hierarchical' or ,mesh' accounts of free will, normative perspectives and an approach to free will in terms of an emphasis on context. Final sections draw out the implications of contemporary compatibilism for the brain and behavioral sciences and for the law. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Voluntariness, intention, and the defence of mental disorder: toward a rational approach,

BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES & THE LAW, Issue 5 2003
Bernadette McSherry B.A.(Hons), D.Jur., Grad.Dip.Psych., LL.B.(Hons), LL.M.
This article addresses how mental disorder may be used in common law countries to negate the requirements of voluntariness and intention in serious criminal offences as well as to provide the basis for current versions of the insanity defence. The notion that mental disorder can cause conduct to become completely involuntary or unintentional is questionable, given current thinking in the behavioral sciences. This article argues that different forms of mental disorder should be subsumed within a separate defence of mental disorder. Providing that a range of dispositional options is available, the law in this complex area would be simplified and brought into line with current psychological notions of goal-directed behavior. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]