Behavioral Risk Factors (behavioral + risk_factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Behavioral Risk Factors

  • behavioral risk factor surveillance system

  • Selected Abstracts

    Incidence of Loss of Ability to Walk 400 Meters in a Functionally Limited Older Population

    Milan Chang PhD
    Objectives: To assess the incidence of and factors related to nondisabled but functionally limited older adults aged 75 to 85 years losing the ability to walk 400 m. Design: Observational study with average follow-up of 21 months. Setting: Community. Participants: At baseline, 101 persons with objective signs of functional limitations and intact cognitive function agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 81 were able to walk 400 m at baseline, and 62 participated in the follow-up examination. Measurements: Mobility disability was defined as an inability to complete a 400-m walk test. At baseline, eligible participants (n=81) had the ability to walk 400 m, scored between 4 and 9 on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB; range 0,12), and scored 18 or more on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Demographics, difficulty in daily activities, disease status, behavioral risk factors, and muscle strength were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results: Of 62 persons at follow-up, 21 (33.9%) developed incident mobility disability. The strongest predictors of loss of mobility were the time to complete the 400-m walk at baseline (odds ratio (OR)=1.6 per 1-minute difference, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04,2.45), and decline in SPPB score over the follow-up (OR=1.4 per 1-point difference, 95% CI=1.01,1.92). Conclusion: Older persons with functional limitations have a high rate of loss of ability to walk 400 m. The 400-m walk test is a highly relevant, discrete outcome that is an ideal target for testing preventive interventions in vulnerable older populations. [source]

    Demographic and risk factors in patients with head and neck tumors

    Ruth Tachezy
    Abstract The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of head and neck cancer has been documented recently. In this study on 86 head and neck cancer patients and 124 controls, data regarding demographics, behavioral risk factors, and risks related to HPV exposure were collected. HPV detection was carried out using polymerase chain reaction in the tumors and in oral exfoliated cells, and HPV typing by a reverse line blot assay specific for 37 HPV types. Sera were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for HPV proteins. Head and neck cancer cases report significantly more oral-anal contact (P,=,0.02) and tobacco and alcohol use than controls (P,=,0.001; P,=,0.02, respectively). High-risk HPV DNA was detected in 43% of oral washings of cases and 4% of controls (P,<,0.0001). The association between the presence of high-risk HPV DNA in oral exfoliated cells and in tumor tissues was statistically significant (adjusted P,<,0.0001). The prevalence of HPV-specific antibodies was significantly higher in cases than in controls (adjusted P,<,0.0001). These results provide epidemiological and immunological evidence for HR HPV as a strong risk factor (OR,=,44.3, P,<,0.0001) for head and neck cancer, even after controlling for age, tobacco and alcohol use. The detection of high-risk HPV DNA in oral exfoliated cells and HPV-specific antibodies in serum can be considered as clinically relevant surrogate markers for the presence of a HPV-associated head and neck cancer, with a high sensitivity (83%) and specificity (88%). J. Med. Virol. 81:878,887, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Binge Drinking and Suboptimal Self-Rated Health Among Adult Drinkers

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2010
    James Tsai
    Background:, Binge drinking accounts for more than half of the 79,000 annual deaths in the United States that are owing to excessive drinking. The overall objective of our study was to examine the prevalence of binge drinking and consumption levels associated with suboptimal self-rated health among the general population of adult drinkers in all 50 states and territories in the United States. Methods:, The study included a total of 200,587 current drinkers who participated in the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. We estimated the prevalence of binge drinking (i.e., ,5 drinks on 1 occasion for men or ,4 drinks on 1 occasion for women) and heavy drinking (i.e., an average of >14 drinks per week for men or >7 drinks per week for women), as well as the average number of binge episodes per person during a 30-day period. Odds ratios were produced with multivariate logistic regression models using binge-drinking levels as a predictor; status of suboptimal self-rated health was used as an outcome variable while controlling for sociodemographic, health, and behavioral risk factors. Results:, We estimate that 34.7 million adult drinkers in the United States engaged in binge drinking in 2008, including an estimated 42.2% who reported either heavy drinking or at least 4 binge-drinking episodes in a 30-day period. Binge drinking with such levels was associated with a 13,23% increased likelihood of reporting suboptimal self-rated health, when compared to the nonbinge drinkers. Conclusions:, Binge drinking continues to be a serious public health concern. Frequent binge drinkers or binge drinkers who consume alcohol heavily are especially at risk of suboptimal self-rated health. Our findings underscore the importance of broad-based implementation in health care settings of screening for and brief interventions to address alcohol misuse, as well as the continuing need to implement effective population-based prevention strategies to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. [source]

    Multiple risk behaviors among smokers in the childhood cancer survivors study cohort

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 9 2004
    Rita M. Butterfield
    The literature on health behaviors of young adult cancer survivors is very limited, and thus little is known about preventable risk factors in this population. This paper describes the prevalence of five behavioral risk factors among 541 young adult survivors of childhood cancers from the CCSS cohort who were identified as smokers and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention. The relationship between presence of multiple risk factors and a number of smoking-related factors was examined. About 31% of the sample engaged in zero or one health-risk behavior in addition to smoking; 63% engaged in 2 or 3, and 6% engaged in 4 or 5. There were positive linear relationships between number of risk factors and smoking rate and nicotine dependence. Number of risk factors was not associated with self-efficacy for quitting, but was related to readiness to quit. This study demonstrated that childhood cancer survivors who smoke have a number of other risk factors for the development of preventable disease and the presence of these risks was associated with factors that decrease the likelihood of quitting smoking. Attention to other health behaviors may be an important strategy for helping smokers quit. In particular, helping childhood cancer survivors who smoke to reduce other risk behaviors might also encourage them to quit smoking. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) of Organ Donors: Is the ,Best' Test the Right Test?

    A Consensus Conference Report
    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for HIV, HBV and HCV shortens the time between infection and detection by available testing. A group of experts was selected to develop recommendations for the use of NAT in the HIV/HBV/HCV screening of potential organ donors. The rapid turnaround times needed for donor testing and the risk of death while awaiting transplantation make organ donor screening different from screening blood-or tissue donors. In donors with no identified risk factors, there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine NAT, as the benefits of NAT may not outweigh the disadvantages of NAT especially when false-positive results can lead to loss of donor organs. For donors with identified behavioral risk factors, NAT should be considered to reduce the risk of transmission and increase organ utilization. Informed consent balancing the risks of donor-derived infection against the risk of remaining on the waiting list should be obtained at the time of candidate listing and again at the time of organ offer. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence to recommend universal prospective screening of organ donors for HIV, HCV and HBV using current NAT platforms. Further study of viral screening modalities may reduce disease transmission risk without excessive donor loss. [source]