Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Beetles

  • adult beetle
  • adzuki bean beetle
  • ambrosia beetle
  • bark beetle
  • bean beetle
  • bruchid beetle
  • carabid beetle
  • coccinellid beetle
  • colorado potato beetle
  • diving beetle
  • dung beetle
  • flea beetle
  • flour beetle
  • ground beetle
  • horned beetle
  • lady beetle
  • ladybird beetle
  • leaf beetle
  • mountain pine beetle
  • other beetle
  • pine beetle
  • pine shoot beetle
  • pollen beetle
  • potato beetle
  • red flour beetle
  • scarab beetle
  • seed beetle
  • shoot beetle
  • spruce bark beetle
  • stag beetle
  • subterranean diving beetle
  • tiger beetle
  • water beetle

  • Terms modified by Beetles

  • beetle abundance
  • beetle assemblage
  • beetle attack
  • beetle community
  • beetle diversity
  • beetle fauna
  • beetle horn
  • beetle infestation
  • beetle larva
  • beetle pest
  • beetle population
  • beetle response
  • beetle species

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2008
    Leigh W. Simmons
    Sexual selection is thought to favor the evolution of secondary sexual traits in males that contribute to mating success. In species where females mate with more than one male, sexual selection also continues after copulation in the form of sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Theory suggests that sperm competition should favor traits such as testes size and sperm production that increase a male's competitive fertilization success. Studies of experimental evolution offer a powerful approach for assessing evolutionary responses to variation in sexual selection pressures. Here we removed sexual selection by enforcing monogamy on replicate lines of a naturally polygamous horned beetle, Onthophagus taurus, and monitoring male investment in their testes for 21 generations. Testes size decreased in monogamous lines relative to lines in which sexual selection was allowed to continue. Differences in testes size were dependent on selection history and not breeding regime. Males from polygamous lines also had a competitive fertilization advantage when in sperm competition with males from monogamous lines. Females from polygamous lines produced sons in better condition, and those from monogamous lines increased their sons condition by mating polygamously. Rather than being costly for females, multiple mating appears to provide females with direct and/or indirect benefits. Neither body size nor horn size diverged between our monogamous and polygamous lines. Our data show that sperm competition does drive the evolution of testes size in onthophagine beetles, and provide general support for sperm competition theory. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2008
    Harald F. Parzer
    Different structures may compete during development for a shared and limited pool of resources to sustain growth and differentiation. The resulting resource allocation trade-offs have the potential to alter both ontogenetic outcomes and evolutionary trajectories. However, little is known about the evolutionary causes and consequences of resource allocation trade-offs in natural populations. Here, we explore the significance of resource allocation trade-offs between primary and secondary sexual traits in shaping early morphological divergences between four recently separated populations of the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus as well as macroevolutionary divergence patterns across 10 Onthophagus species. We show that resource allocation trade-offs leave a strong signature in morphological divergence patterns both within and between species. Furthermore, our results suggest that genital divergence may, under certain circumstances, occur as a byproduct of evolutionary changes in secondary sexual traits. Given the importance of copulatory organ morphology for reproductive isolation our findings begin to raise the possibility that secondary sexual trait evolution may promote speciation as a byproduct. We discuss the implications of our results on the causes and consequences of resource allocation trade-offs in insects. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2006
    Armin P. Moczek
    Abstract How ecological, developmental and genetic mechanisms interact in the genesis and subsequent diversification of morphological novelties is unknown for the vast majority of traits and organisms. Here we explore the ecological, developmental, and genetic underpinnings of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse: beetle horns. Specifically, we focus on the origin and diversification of a particular horn type, those protruding from the pronotum, in the genus Onthophagus, a particularly speciose and morphologically diverse genus of horned beetles. We begin by documenting immature development of nine Onthophagus species and show that all of these species express pronotal horns in a developmentally transient fashion in at least one or both sexes. Similar to species that retain their horns to adulthood, transient horns grow during late larval development and are clearly visible in pupae. However, unlike species that express horns as adults, transient horns are resorbed during pupal development. In a large number of species this mechanisms allows fully horned pupae to molt into entirely hornless adults. Consequently, far more Onthophagus species appear to possess the ability to develop pronotal horns than is indicated by their adult phenotypes. We use our data to expand a recent phylogeny of the genus Onthophagus to explore how the widespread existence of developmentally transient horns alters our understanding of the origin and dynamics of morphological innovation and diversification in this genus. We find that including transient horn development into the phylogeny dramatically reduces the number of independent origins required to explain extant diversity patters and suggest that pronotal horns may have originated only a few times, or possibly only once, during early Onthophagus evolution. We then propose a new and previously undescribed function for pronotal horns during immature development. We provide histological as well as experimental data that illustrate that pronotal horns are crucial for successful ecdysis of the larval head capsule during the larval-to-pupal molt, and that this molting function appears to be unique to the genus Onthophagus and absent in the other scarabaeine genera. We discuss how this additional function may help explain the existence and maintenance of developmentally transient horns, and how at least some horn types of adult beetles may have evolved as exaptations from pupal structures originally evolved to perform an unrelated function. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2005
    Denson Kelly Mclain
    Abstract In Georgia (USA) the soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Coleoptera; Cantharidae), exhibits clinal variation in the length of the spot on its elytron. This suggests that the viability of phenotypes varies by habitat. Evidence of viability selection comes from within-site changes in the spot length distribution across a breeding season. When males with spots of intermediate length became less frequent, they became disproportionately less likely to mate, consistent with either a loss of vigor among remaining males or female rejection of disfavored phenotypes. Persistent, daily courtship by males provides females with the opportunity to track changes in male phenotype frequency and to exercise choice for phenotypes favored under natural selection. A laboratory experiment in which the frequency of one spot morph (long) or the other (short) was increased from 25% to 75% over a period of 30 days revealed that females possess a flexible preference that leads them to prefer whichever spot type has become more common over time. A haploid genetic model demonstrates that a flexible female preference for the locally favored male phenotype can be selected for when different viability alleles, genetically correlated with the male trait, are favored in different habitats that are linked by gene flow. Thus, migration between different kinds of habitat patches of a metapopulation could maintain the variation in male quality. This variation favors female choice for any trait that is directly or indirectly favored by natural selection. Such choice imparts positive frequency-dependent selection that could rapidly fix traits pleiotropically linked to viability. Rapid fixation would cause differentiation between populations of colonizing species as females exercise choice for mates favored under new ecological conditions. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2003
    Remko Leys
    Abstract Calcrete aquifers in arid inland Australia have recently been found to contain the world's most diverse assemblage of subterranean diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). In this study we test whether the adaptive shift hypothesis (ASH) or the climatic relict hypothesis (CRH) is the most likely mode of evolution for the Australian subterranean diving beetles by using a phylogeny based on two sequenced fragments of mitochondrial genes (CO1 and 16S-tRNA-ND1) and linearized using a relaxed molecular clock method. Most individual calcrete aquifers contain an assemblage of diving beetle species of distantly related lineages and/or a single pair of sister species that significantly differ in size and morphology. Evolutionary transitions from surface to subterranean life took place in a relatively small time frame between nine and four million years ago. Most of the variation in divergence times of the sympatric sister species is explained by the variation in latitude of the localities, which correlates with the onset of aridity from the north to the south and with an aridity maximum in the Early Pliocene (five mya). We conclude that individual calcrete aquifers were colonized by several distantly related diving beetle lineages. Several lines of evidence from molecular clock analyses support the CRH, indicating that all evolutionary transitions took place during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene as a result of aridification. [source]


    Abstract We develop a modular landscape model for the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infestation of a stage-structured forest of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas). Beetle attack dynamics are modeled using response functions and beetle movement using dispersal kernels. This modeling technique yields four model candidates. These models allow discrimination between four broad possibilities at the landscape scale: whether or not beetles are subject to an Allee effect at the landscape scale and whether or not host selection is random or directed. We fit the models with aerial damage survey data to the Sawtooth National Recreation Area using estimating functions, which allows for more rapid and complete parameter determination. We then introduce a novel model selection procedure based on facial recognition technology to compliment traditional nonspatial selection metrics. Together with these we are able to select a best model and draw inferences regarding the behavior of the beetle in outbreak conditions. [source]

    Sensilla on the External Genitalia of the Carabid Beetle, Carabus (Ohomopterus) dehaanii dehaanii Chaudoir (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    Lark KIM
    ABSTRACT Sensilla on the male and female external genitalia of the carabid beetle, Carabus (Ohomopterus) dehaanii dehaanii Chaudoir, were investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The investigation for female genitalia was conducted on the coxites and styli. As a result, 4 types of sensilla were distinguished. In male, a total of 6 types of sensilla were identified on the aedeagus. The external morphology and distribution pattern of each type of the sensilla in both sexes were described. Results are expected to provide a ground work for future research on the phylogenetic study of the genus Carabus and the comparative ultrastructure or behavior in the carabid beetle. [source]

    Purification and Characterization of Acid Phosphatase from the Egg of the Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera)

    Jun Hyuk LEE
    ABSTRACT Acid phosphatase (AP) in the egg of the lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, was purified and characterized. Ammonium sulfate precipitation, CM column and isoelectrofocusing (IEF) were applied to purify an estimated molecular weight of 66 kDa AP. The purity was checked by SDS PAGE, native PAGE and Western blot. AP was detected in the hemolymph of the female and the egg, but not in the male on the blotting. Km of AP for a substrate, p -nitrophenyl phosphate (p -NPP), was 1.64 x 10 -4 M. AP had the optimum enzymatic activity at pH 3.5. In inhibition tests performed with various chemicals, ammonium molybdate suppressed 99% of the enzyme activity of AP even at the concentration of 5 x 10 -4 mM. AP was stable up to 50°C. [source]

    A Behavioral Syndrome in the Adzuki Bean Beetle: Genetic Correlation Among Death Feigning, Activity, and Mating Behavior

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Satoshi Nakayama
    When studying animal behavior, it is often necessary to examine traits as a package, rather than as isolated units. Evidence suggests that individuals behave in a consistent manner across different contexts or over time; that is, behavioral syndromes. We compared locomotor activity levels and mating success between beetles derived from two regimes artificially selected for the duration of death-feigning behavior in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. The two selection regimes comprised strains with higher (L) and lower (S) intensity (frequency and duration) of death-feigning behavior, respectively. We found that S strains had higher activity levels than L strains for both sexes, i.e., there is a negative genetic correlation between death feigning and activity. In addition, we found that S strains had higher mating success than L strains, presumably due to higher activity, in males but not in females. We thus demonstrate that death feigning is genetically correlated to mating behavior in males but not females in this species, suggesting that behavioral correlations may not always reflect in the same way in both sexes. [source]

    Female Choice by Scent Recognition in the Spotted Cucumber Beetle

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Jeremy F. Brodt
    In species that demonstrate female choice, geographically distinct populations can vary in their signal-response behaviors as a result of environmental differences or genetic drift. Observing whether or not females discriminate against males from allopatric populations can establish such signal deviations. Here we compare mating success within and between populations of the spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) collected from Delaware, Tennessee, Missouri, and New Mexico, USA. A no-choice cross-mating experiment was employed to measure female preference for sympatric and allopatric males. While only two of the populations (Tennessee and Missouri) demonstrated statistically significant female preference for sympatric males, this trend was observed in all populations tested. Further, we show that (i) males from Tennessee, Missouri, and New Mexico differ in their scent, (ii) females may use population-specific scents to discriminate among males, and (iii) females whose antennae have been surgically removed are unable to recognize acceptable mates. New Mexico males, which were never accepted by either Tennessee or Missouri females, became acceptable mates when crowded with Tennessee or Missouri males prior to copulation. We infer that male odor may be an important factor in determining cucumber beetle mating success. [source]

    Wyoming Big Sagebrush Density: Effects of Seeding Rates and Grass Competition

    Mary I. Williams
    Abstract The mining industry commonly seeds shrubs and grasses concurrently on coal-mined lands of northeastern Wyoming, but ecological interactions between seeded shrubs and grasses are not well documented. Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle and Young) (Wyoming big sagebrush) is the dominant pre-mining shrub on many Wyoming mine sites. Despite past failures to establish Wyoming big sagebrush, the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, Land Quality Division's rules and regulations require establishment of 1 shrub per m2 on 20% of post-mined land in Wyoming. A study was established at the Belle Ayr Coal Mine south of Gillette, Wyoming to evaluate the effects of sagebrush seeding rates and grass competition on Wyoming big sagebrush seedling density. Three sagebrush seeding rates (1, 2, and 4 kg pure live seed [pls]/ha; 350, 700, and 1,400 pls/m2, respectively) and seven cool-season perennial grass mixture seeding rates (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 14 kg pls/ha; 0, 187, 374, 561, 750, 935, and 1,309 pls/m2, respectively) were applied during winter 1998,1999. Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love (western wheatgrass), Elymus lanceolatus (Scribner & J.G. Smith) Gould (thickspike wheatgrass), and Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners (slender wheatgrass) comprised the grass seed mix (equal seed numbers of each species). Sagebrush seedling density differed among sagebrush seeding rates but not among grass seeding rates. On all sampling dates in 1999 and 2000, sagebrush seedling density differed among sagebrush rates and was greatest at the 4 kg pls/ha sagebrush seeding rate. All sagebrush seeding rates provided densities of at least 1 shrub per m2 after two growing seasons. Grass density and production in 2000 suggest that adequate grass production (75 g/m2) was achieved by seeding at 6 to 8 kg pls/ha. Within these grass seeding rates, four or more sagebrush seedlings per m2 were attained when sagebrush was seeded at 2 to 4 kg pls/ha. Use of these seeding rate combinations in mine reclamation can achieve Wyoming big sagebrush standards and reduce reseeding costs. [source]

    Effects of search experience in a resource-heterogeneous environment on the oviposition decisions of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)

    Abstract 1.,This study investigates how female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, distribute their eggs on various-sized seeds when the size of seed was varied during the egg-laying period. 2.,Beetles were allowed to lay eggs on one of three arrays of 64 adzuki beans (Vigna angularis). Each array contained four size classes of seed, ranging from small (5.0,5.5 mm diameter) to large (6.5,7.0 mm), but differed in how they were distributed within the environment. In the most heterogeneous condition (the 64-patch design), the four sizes were interspersed, while in the least heterogeneous condition (the four-patch design) they were grouped into four separate blocks. Thus, a beetle exploring the 64-patch design would frequently encounter all four seed sizes, whereas a beetle exploring the four-patch design would only rarely encounter a change in bean size. 3.,Beetles experiencing greater seed size heterogeneity were more likely to lay eggs on larger seeds, whereas those in the blocked condition were more likely to oviposit on small seeds. Beetle responses to seed size heterogeneity suggest that the degree of preference for large seeds depends on a female's recent experience. 4.,Female beetles exhibited size discrimination throughout their egg-laying process; however, there was a trade-off between seed size and egg discrimination (i.e. avoiding those seeds already containing developing eggs) in response to the change in fitness gained from either laying on larger seeds or lower egg-load seeds during the egg-laying process. 5.,Our model provides the first evidence that evolving seed size discrimination ability is adaptive for the seed beetle with egg-discrimination ability. [source]

    Resistance and tolerance to herbivory in Salix cordata are affected by different environmental factors

    Kevin P. Macdonald
    Abstract., 1.,Effects of sand burial and nutrients on the ability of sand-dune willow (Salix cordata) to tolerate or resist herbivory by the beetle Altica subplicata were evaluated in field experiments. 2.,To assess tolerance, all combinations of sand burial (none, 50%), nutrients (presence, absence), and beetles (presence, absence) were applied to caged plants and growth responses to herbivory were measured. Sand burial increased plant growth rate, but decreased S. cordata's tolerance to herbivory. Although nutrients increased growth, tolerance to herbivory was unaffected. 3.,To assess resistance, plants were exposed to all combinations of sand burial and nutrients, and then to natural beetle colonisation. The presence of nutrients, but not sand burial, significantly increased the percentage of plants with beetles, for both adults and larvae. This decreased resistance to beetles of plants grown with added nutrients occurred only in the absence of sand burial. 4.,The performance and preference of beetles were examined in laboratory experiments. Larvae developed faster and had increased pupation success on plants with nutrients added. Beetles also showed a marginally significant feeding preference for leaves grown with added nutrients. Thus, S. cordata tolerance to herbivory was affected by sand burial, whereas resistance, preference, and performance were affected by nutrient level. [source]

    Colours and Metallic Sheen in Beetle Shells , A Biomimetic Search for Material Structuring Principles Causing Light Interference,

    T. Lenau
    Abstract Visual aesthetic has always played a vital role for the success of many products. This includes colours and glossiness and metal appearance which is often achieved using surface coatings. Present coating techniques do, however, have limitations. It is difficult to reach very bright and brilliant colours, colours tend to fade over time and many of the materials and coating technologies pollute and have other environmental problems. Beetles in nature have many of the desired properties: They have appealing brilliant colours and some even with metallic appearance. It is noticeable that the colours are long lasting as some of the beetles we have studied at the zoological museum are more than 200 years old and have colours and brightness as if they were still alive. Furthermore, the beetles in nature are part of sustainable ecosystems, which means that they are made from renewable materials that are broken down and recycled when the beetle dies. Beetles also possess another and very attractive property: Their metallic look originates from structures in organic materials which is both electrically and thermal insulating. The industrial perspective is to be able to manufacture products with attractive metallic surfaces that do not feel so cold to touch as their metallic counterparts and that do not represent an electrical shock hazard. [source]

    Consequences for biodiversity of reducing inputs to upland temperate pastures: effects on beetles (Coleoptera) of cessation of nitrogen fertilizer application and reductions in stocking rates of sheep

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 2 2004
    P. Dennis
    Abstract Current policies for upland pasture management in the UK encourage the integration of environmental objectives with livestock production through extensification of grazing systems. This study tested the hypothesis that a greater sward height in the summer would increase the diversity and abundance of grassland beetles (Coleoptera) as has been demonstrated for insects of indigenous grasslands. The hypothesis was tested with an experiment on an upland sheep pasture in mid-Wales. Experimental treatments received different nitrogen fertilizer inputs (0 or 50 kg ha,1), sheep stocking densities (12 or 9 ewes ha,1) and average sward heights in summer were constrained to 3·5 or 5·5 cm by conserving surplus grass for silage in subplots. Five treatments, replicated in three randomized blocks, combined the two stocking densities and two sward heights without nitrogen fertilizer inputs, with the fifth combining the higher stocking density, shortest sward height and the nitrogen fertilizer input. Beetles were sampled with twelve pitfall traps in each of the fifteen plots from June to September in 1993 and 1995. In years 1 (1993) and 3 (1995) of the experiment, more Coleoptera species occurred in the tall sward (an average of nine species in addition to the forty-one species present in the sward with the conventional sward height). Continuously grazed as opposed to ensiled subplots supported more beetle species but fewer individuals. Species composition of ground (Carabidae) and rove (Staphylinidae) beetles varied between treatments more than the arithmetic differences in species number. The experimental results supported the hypothesis but the benefits of taller swards to species diversity were small in the sown pastures of the study compared with indigenous upland grasslands (c. 33% fewer species). Inheritance effects of drainage, fertilizer and lime inputs, and the different species and management of cultivated pastures, may constrain the conservation benefits of altered pasture management compared with indigenous grasslands. [source]

    Aquatic Coleoptera Distribution and Environmental Relationships in a Large Patagonian River

    María Laura Miserendino
    Abstract The benthic coleopteran assemblages of the Chubut River basin were studied in order to assess the main factors affecting species composition and distribution along the upper, middle and lower catchments. A total of 13 sampling sites were selected and sampled seasonally. Eight taxa and 1,601 individuals were collected during the study. Richness was higher in the main channel of Chubut River at the upper basin than at the middle basin. Beetles were completely absent at the lower basin. Mean monthly density per sites varied from 0 to 85 ind m,2. Stethelmis kaszabi had a more restricted distribution whereas Hemiosus dejeanii, Austrelmis sp. and Austrolimnius spp. were more frequent and abundant. Austrelmis sp. appears as the most tolerant species, especially to higher TSS, ammonia, and conductivity values. Luchoelmis cekalovici was absent in stations associated with urban areas. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis shows that conductivity, total suspended solids, wet width, water temperature and pH were the most important variables structuring beetle assemblages. Land use related variables such as NH4, TP, and NO3 were less important but still significant. An increase in TSS affected negatively the coleopteran community; this could be related to both hydrogeological characteristics and agricultural activities (including overgrazing). This is the first approach to the knowledge of the ecological range of distribution of the coleopteran species in Patagonian rivers. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Short-term assessment of dung beetle response to carbosulfan treatment against desert locust in Sudan

    H. Eriksson
    Abstract The beneficial role of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is well known. Potential risks to these beetles from the widespread use of insecticides against the desert locust, a significant plant pest in Africa, the Near East and South West Asia, have not been studied previously. Short-term responses of dung beetles to carbamate carbosulfan (Marshal®, ultra low-volume formulation, 100 g active ingredient ha,1) were assessed during desert locust control operations at five sites within two major biotopes: Acacia tortilis shrubland and cultivated wetland; on the Red Sea Coast of Sudan. The study took place during January,February 2004. At each site, fresh dung from Zebu cows was placed in areas targeted for desert locust control. Dung pats were placed in plots in two areas and left for 24 h, before and after insecticide application. Beetles were extracted by floatation. There was a significant decrease in abundance between the pre- and post-spray period in treated areas for the Scarabaeinae species Onthophagus margaritifer (a dark colour morph). In contrast, it was found that Aphodius lucidus and beetles at the subfamily level of Aphodiinae increased in numbers after insecticide treatment. Mortality and sublethal impacts as well as a repellent effect of the insecticide may explain the decrease in Onthophagus margaritifer, while the increase in Aphodiinae beetles could be an indirect response to lower numbers of Scarabaeinae beetles in competing for the same resource. These organisms and the applied methodology may be useful for environmental monitoring of desert locust control, thus further studies are suggested. The assessment also revealed a marked difference between the two biotopes with high abundance and species richness of dung beetles in A. tortilis shrubland, while these measures were low in the cultivated wetland. Five new species of dung beetles for Sudan were found in this study. [source]

    A practical method for predicting the short-time trend of bivoltine populations of Ips typographus (L.) (Col., Scolytidae)

    M. Faccoli
    Abstract:,Ips typographus is the main spruce pest of European forests. In most areas of the Italian Alps there are two generations per year; overwintering adults fly in May looking for trees suitable for breeding, their offspring emerge in summer, 7,8 weeks after tree colonization, and the adults of the second generation emerge in spring of the following year after overwintering under the bark or in the litter. A long-term population monitoring was carried out in north-east Italy with the aim at developing a prediction model able to estimate the population density of the following year. Between 1996 and 2004, pheromone traps monitored populations of I. typographus annually. Monitoring lasted 4 months (May,August), with replacement of pheromone dispensers after 8 weeks. Insects trapped before dispenser change were called ,spring captures' (May,June), and included both overwintering and re-emerging adults. Beetles caught after dispenser change were called ,summer captures' (July,August), and included the adults of the first generation. The results show a high positive correlation between the ratio of summer and spring captures of one year (Summerx/Springx), and the ratio of total captures of the following year (Yx+1) and those of the current year (Yx) (Yx+1/Yx). Summerx/Springx lower than 0.62 indicate decreasing populations in the following year (Yx+1/Yx <1), whereas Summerx/Springx higher than 0.62 indicate increasing populations (Yx+1/Yx >1). The applicability of the model in the study of I. typographus risk of outbreak and in the forest management is discussed. The prediction of the short-time trend of the population allows assessing its density in the following year, and therefore the risk of outbreak. [source]

    Effects of genotype, elevated CO2 and elevated O3 on aspen phytochemistry and aspen leaf beetle Chrysomela crotchi performance

    Leanne M. Vigue
    1Trembling aspen Populus tremuloides Michaux is an important forest species in the Great Lakes region and displays tremendous genetic variation in foliar chemistry. Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) may also influence phytochemistry and thereby alter the performance of insect herbivores such as the aspen leaf beetle Chrysomela crotchi Brown. 2The present study aimed to relate genetic- and atmospheric-based variation in aspen phytochemistry to C. crotchi performance (larval development time, adult mass, survivorship). The experiment was conducted at the Aspen Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site in northern Wisconsin. Beetles were reared on three aspen genotypes under elevated CO2 and/or O3. Leaves were collected to determine chemical characteristics. 3The foliage exhibited significant variation in nitrogen, condensed tannins and phenolic glycosides among genotypes. CO2 and O3, however, had little effect on phytochemistry. Nonetheless, elevated CO2 decreased beetle performance on one aspen genotype and had inconsistent effects on beetles reared on two other genotypes. Elevated O3 decreased beetle performance, especially for beetles reared on an O3 -sensitive genotype. Regression analyses indicated that phenolic glycosides and nitrogen explain a substantial amount (27,45%) of the variation in herbivore performance. 4By contrast to the negative effects that are typically observed with generalist herbivores, aspen leaf beetles appear to benefit from phenolic glycosides, chemical components that are largely genetically-determined in aspen. The results obtained in the present study indicate that host genetic variation and atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases will be important factors in the performance of specialist herbivores, such as C. crotchi, in future climates. [source]

    Attraction of ambrosia and bark beetles to coast live oaks infected by Phytophthora ramorum

    Brice A. McPherson
    Abstract 1,Sudden oak death is caused by the apparently introduced oomycete, Phytophthora ramorum. We investigated the role of bark and ambrosia beetles in disease progression in coast live oaks Quercus agrifolia. 2,In two Marin County, California sites, 80 trees were inoculated in July 2002 with P. ramorum and 40 were wounded without inoculation. Half of the trees in each group were sprayed with the insecticide permethrin [cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl ester] to prevent ambrosia and bark beetle attacks, and then were sprayed twice per year thereafter. After each treatment, sticky traps were placed on only the permethrin-treated trees. Beetles were collected periodically in 2003. 3,Inoculated trees accounted for 95% of all beetles trapped. The ambrosia beetles Monarthrum scutellare and Xyleborinus saxeseni and the western oak bark beetle Pseudopityophthorus pubipennis were the most abundant of the seven species trapped. 4,Permethrin treatment delayed initiation of beetle attacks and significantly reduced the mean number of attacks per tree. Beetles did not attack any wounded or noncankered inoculated trees. 5,Trees with larger cankers trapped more beetles early in the disease. Once permethrin lost effectiveness, the number of beetle entrance tunnels was a more reliable predictor of subsequent trap catch than was canker size. 6,Beetles were initially attracted to P. ramorum cankers in response to kairomones generated in the host-pathogen interaction. After beetles attacked the permethrin-treated trees, aggregation pheromones most probably were the principal factor in beetle colonization behaviour. [source]

    Effects of browsing and grazing on cyclic succession in nutrient-limited ecosystems

    Jan Bokdam
    van der Meijden (1990) Abstract. This paper deals with browsing and grazing as forces driving cyclic succession. Between 1989 and 1994 reciprocal transitions between the dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris and the grass Deschampsia flexuosa were monitored in permanent plots in a cattle grazed grass-rich Dutch heathland on podsolic soils in which tree encroachment was prevented. Heather beetles killed Calluna in four of the nine plots during 1991/1992. The monitoring revealed reciprocal transitions and cycles between Calluna and Deschampsia on a subplot scale. Beetles and cattle had additional and complementary effects on the two competing species. Defoliation by beetles and trampling by cattle-killed Calluna and favoured grass invasion. Grazing and gap creation by cattle in Deschampsia favoured the establishment and recovery of Calluna. Analysis of the causal mechanisms suggests that indirect, resource-mediated herbivory effects may be as important for the replacement processes as direct effects of defoliation and trampling. Herbivory created differential light and nutrient levels in Calluna and Deschampsia gaps. Grazing and browsing improved the resource-capturing abilities of Calluna and its resistance to herbivory and abiotic disturbances. The emerged Calluna-Deschampsia cycle and its driving forces are summarized in a conceptual triangular resource-mediated successional grazing cycle (RSGC) model, a limit cycle involving herbivore-plant-plant resource interactions. It offers a deterministic equilibrium model as alternative for stochastic transitions between the meta-stable states with dominance of Calluna and Deschampsia respectively. The validity range of the RSGC model and its management implications are briefly discussed. [source]

    Using scissors to quantify hardness of insects: do bats select for size or hardness?

    JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    P. W. Freeman
    Abstract Scissors are used to determine the hardness of fresh insects of different size and taxa. Our results indicate a strong relationship between the size of an insect and its hardness, which can be expressed as log(Fmax)=0.65 × log(V)+,. Fmax is the maximal force needed to cut the insect and is our measure of insect hardness. V is the volume of the insect and , is a constant that can be derived for different insect taxa. The value of 0.65 was found as an average of beetle and moth samples, and this number appears consistent across insect taxa. We found that beetles averaged about 3.2 times harder than moths of the same size. Beetles were also more variable in hardness than moths, with the softest beetles about equal in hardness to an average moth of the same size. Using our data on insect hardness coupled with data on the diets of bats and their bite forces from the literature, we attempt to determine whether the upper size limit of insects taken by a bat is limited by the insect's dimensions or its hardness. Our results indicate that both these factors may be important. [source]

    Cowpea weevil flights to a point source of female sex pheromone: analyses of flight tracks at three wind speeds

    L. P. S. Kuenen
    Abstract., Two-day-old male cowpea weevils, Callosobruchus maculatus, fly upwind to a point source of female sex pheromone at three wind speeds. All beetles initiating flight along the pheromone plume make contact with the pheromone source. Analysis of digitized flight tracks indicates that C. maculatus males respond similarly to moths tested at several wind speeds. Beetles' mean net upwind speeds and speeds along their track are similar (P > 0.05) across wind speeds, whereas airspeeds increase (P < 0.01) with increasing wind speed. Beetles adjust their course angles to fly more directly upwind in higher wind speeds, whereas track angles are almost identical at each wind speed. The zigzag flight paths are generally narrow compared with most moth flight tracks and interturn distances are similar (P > 0.05) at the wind speeds employed. The frequency of these counterturns across the wind line is almost constant regardless of wind speed, and there is little variation between individuals. The upwind flight tracks are more directly upwind than those typically seen for male moths flying upwind toward sex pheromone sources. Male moths typically produce a bimodal distribution of track angles to the left and right of the windline, whereas C. maculatus males' track angles are centred about 0°. Preliminary examination of two other beetle species indicates that they fly upwind in a similar fashion. [source]

    Caladium bicolor (Araceae) and Cyclocephala celata (Coleoptera, Dynastinae): A Well-Established Pollination System in the Northern Atlantic Rainforest of Pernambuco, Brazil

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    A. C. D. Maia
    Abstract: Flowering, pollination ecology, and floral thermogenesis of Caladium bicolor were studied in the Atlantic Rainforest of Pernambuco, NE Brazil. Inflorescences of this species are adapted to the characteristic pollination syndrome performed by Cyclocephalini beetles. They bear nutritious rewards inside well-developed floral chambers and exhibit a thermogenic cycle which is synchronized to the activity period of visiting beetles. Heating intervals of the spadix were observed during consecutive evenings corresponding to the beginning of the female and male phases of anthesis. Highest temperatures were recorded during the longer-lasting female phase. An intense sweet odour was volatized on both evenings. Beetles of a single species, Cyclocephala celata, were attracted to odoriferous inflorescences of C. bicolor and are reported for the first time as Araceae visitors. All the inflorescences visited by C. celata developed into infructescences, whereas unvisited inflorescences showed no fruit development. Findings of previous studies in the Amazon basin of Surinam indicated that Cyclocephala rustica is a likely pollinator of C. bicolor. This leads to the assumption that locally abundant Cyclocephalini species are involved in the pollination of this species. [source]

    The Restoration of Phytophagous Beetles in Species-Rich Chalk Grasslands

    Ben A. Woodcock
    This study focuses on the restoration of chalk grasslands over a 6-year period and tests the efficacy of two management practices, hay spreading and soil disturbance, in promoting this process for phytophagous beetles. Restoration success for the beetles, measured as similarity to target species,rich chalk grassland, was not found to be influenced by either management practice. In contrast, restoration success for the plants did increase in response to hay spreading management. Although the presence of suitable host plants was considered to dictate the earliest point at which phytophagous beetles could successfully colonized, few beetle species colonized as soon as their host plants became established. Morphological characteristics and feeding habits of 27 phytophagous beetle species were therefore tested to identify factors that limited their colonization and persistence. The lag time between host plant establishment and colonization was greatest for flightless beetles. Beetles with foliage-feeding larvae both colonized at slower rates than seed-, stem-, or root-feeding species and persisted within the swards for shorter periods. Although the use of hay spreading may benefit plant communities during chalk grassland restoration, it did not directly benefit phytophagous beetles. Without techniques for overcoming colonization limitation for invertebrate taxa, short-term success of restoration may be limited to the plants only. [source]

    A comparison of litter beetle assemblages (Coleoptera) in mature and recently clearfelled Eucalyptus obliqua forest

    Susan C Baker
    Abstract, This study compares litter-dwelling beetles in mature wet eucalypt forest with those in young forest regenerated following clearfelling. The aims of the study were to determine the extent to which these forest ages support differing litter beetle assemblages, and to identify species characteristic of each age. Beetles were collected with pitfall traps in a spatially replicated study design to avoid confounding forest age and site differences. Three transects of traps were located in each of mature and young forest stands at four study sites. Beetle abundance was greatest in young forest, and young and mature forest supported distinctly different beetle assemblages. Of 37 commonly collected species, an indicator species analysis found 9 species characteristic of young logging regeneration, and 7 species characteristic of mature unlogged forest. These species could be useful in other Tasmanian studies concerning forest management impacts. Only two significant indicator species were carabids, suggesting that focusing only on carabids as indicators of forest management may be undesirable. [source]

    Dung Beetle Assemblages and Seasonality in Primary Forest and Forest Fragments on Agricultural Landscapes in Budongo, Uganda

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 4 2009
    Philip Nyeko
    ABSTRACT Very little is known about the diversity of arthropods in the fast-disappearing fragments of natural forests in sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated: (1) the influence of forest fragment characteristics on dung beetle species richness, composition, abundance, and diversity; and (2) the relationship between dung beetle assemblages and rainfall pattern. Beetles were sampled through 12 mo using dung baited pitfall traps. A total of 18,073 dung beetles belonging to three subfamilies and 45 species were captured. The subfamily Scarabaeinae was the most abundant (99%) and species rich (89%). Fast-burying tunnellers (paracoprids) were the most dominant functional group. Catharsius sesostris, Copris nepos, and Heliocopris punctiventris were the three most abundant species, and had the highest contributions to dissimilarities between forests. With few exceptions, dung beetle abundance, species richness, and diversity were generally higher in larger forest fragments (100,150 ha) than in smaller ones (10,50 ha) and the nature reserve (1042 ha). Forest fragment size had a highly significant positive relationship with beetle abundance, but only when the nature reserve is excluded in the analysis. Dung beetle abundance and species richness showed direct weak relationships with litter depth (positive) and groundcover (negative) but not tree density, tree species richness, and fragment isolation distance. Dung beetle abundance and species richness were strongly correlated with monthly changes in rainfall. Results of this study indicate that forest fragments on agricultural lands in the Budongo landscape, especially medium-sized (100,150 ha) ones, represent important conservation areas for dung beetles. [source]

    Seasonality of a Diverse Beetle Assemblage Inhabiting Lowland Tropical Rain Forest in Australia

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2009
    Peter S. Grimbacher
    ABSTRACT One of the least understood aspects of insect diversity in tropical rain forests is the temporal structuring, or seasonality, of communities. We collected 29,986 beetles of 1473 species over a 4-yr period (45 monthly samples), with the aim to document the temporal dynamics of a trophically diverse beetle assemblage from lowland tropical rain forest at Cape Tribulation, Australia. Malaise and flight interception traps were used to sample adult beetles at five locations at both ground and canopy levels. Beetles were caught throughout the year, but individual species were patchy in their temporal distribution, with the 124 more abundant species on average being present only 56 percent of the time. Climatic variables (precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation) were poorly correlated with adult beetle abundance, possibly because: (1) seasonality of total beetle abundance was slight; (2) the peak activity period (September,November) did not correspond to any climatic maxima or minima; or (3) responses were nonlinear owing to the existence of thresholds or developmental time-lags. Our results do not concur with the majority of tropical insect seasonality studies suggesting a wet season peak of insect activity, perhaps because there is no uniform pattern of insect seasonally for the humid tropics. Herbivores showed low seasonality and individual species' peaks were less temporally aggregated compared to nonherbivores. Canopy-caught and larger beetles (> 5 mm) showed greater seasonality and peaked later in the year compared to smaller or ground-caught beetles. Thus seasonality of adult beetles varied according to the traits of feeding ecology, body size, and habitat strata. [source]

    The Effect of Dung and Dispersal on Postdispersal Seed Predation of Attalea phalerata (Arecaceae) by Bruchid Beetles,

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 6 2006
    Rodrigo S. Rios
    ABSTRACT Low postdispersal mortality of palm seeds in tapir dung is hypothesized to result from the mechanical barrier provided by dung against bruchid infestation and/or from the distance to adult palms at which seeds are dispersed. We tested these hypotheses by distributing endocarps of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. in experimental dung piles in Beni, Bolivia. Predation rates were significantly lower for seeds covered by dung than for exposed or partially covered seeds, but did not differ between seeds placed below and 50 m away from palms. Thus, dung, not short-distance dispersal, protects seeds against bruchid beetles, and may ultimately promote survival of palm seeds. RESÚMEN La baja mortalidad post dispersión de las semillas de la palmera Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. encontrada en heces de tapir puede ser el resultado de la barrera mecánica que brinda la materia fecal contra la infestación por brúquidos y/o de la distancia a la que son dispersadas las semillas. Pusimos a prueba estas hipótesis distribuyendo endocarpos de A. phalerata en pilas fecales experimentales en el Beni, Bolivia. Las tasas de depredación fueron significativamente menores en semillas completamente cubiertas por materia fecal que en semillas limpias o parcialmente recubiertas, pero no variaron entre semillas debajo y a 50 m de las palmeras madre. Por lo tanto, las heces y no la dispersión de corta distancia protegen a las semillas de brúquidos, promoviendo así la sobrevivencia de semillas. [source]

    Influence of Forest Type and Tree Species on Canopy-Dwelling Beetles in Budongo Forest, Uganda,

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2000
    Thomas Wagner
    ABSTRACT Beetles were collected on 64 trees of four species (Cynometra alexandri C. H. Wright, Rinorea beniemis (Welwitsch ex Olivier) Kuntze, Teclea nobilis Delile, and Trichilia rubescens Olivier) in Budongo Forest, Uganda, using an insecticidal fogging technique. Selected tree species were abundant, taxonomically not closely related, and different in the shape of leaves, growth form, and size, with heights between 7 and 35 m. Trees were fogged in an old primary forest stand, in an area of secondary forest where selective logging was performed, and in a swamp forest. Eight conspecific trees per forest type were fogged. A total of 29,736 beetles were collected from all trees that could be assigned to 1433 (morpho)-species; 41.6 percent were singletons and 89.6 percent of species were found with less than ten individuals. Abundant beetle taxa included Latridiidae (N= 4093), Chrysomelidae (3952), Staphylinidae (2931), Apioninae (2621), and Curculionidae (2457). Most species-rich groups were Staphylinidae (N= 196 spp.), Curculionidae (189), and Chrysomelidae (148). Abundance increased in the order: primary < secondary < swamp forest. Due to the relatively high dominance of some species in the secondary forest, species richness increased in the order: secondary < primary < swamp forest. Beta diversity measures and factor analysis showed distinct differences among forest types but higher similarity of beetle communities on different tree species within one forest type. The taxonomic distribution of beetles in the secondary forest was more heterogeneous than in the primary forest. Analyses of the data revealed low host specificity even for phytophagous beetles, underlining the importance of habitat structure and chance effects on the spatial distribution of beetles in the canopy of Budongo Forest. [source]