Beet Western Yellows Virus (beet + western_yellows_virus)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A generic RT-PCR assay for the detection of Luteoviridae

A. Chomi
This study, using RT-PCR, is the first comprehensive assessment since 1991 of a generic detection method for the Luteoviridae. Thirteen Luteoviridae species were detected using three separate sets of low-degeneracy generic primers with RT-PCR to amplify 68-, 75- and 129/156-bp regions of the Luteoviridae coat-protein gene. Species detected include all members of the genus Luteovirus [Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) -PAV, BYDV-PAS, BYDV-MAV (129 and/or 156 bp amplicons), Soybean dwarf virus, Bean leafroll virus (68 bp amplicon)] and eight of nine species from the genus Polerovirus [Beet western yellows virus, Beet chlorosis virus, Beet mild yellowing virus, Turnip yellows virus, Potato leafroll virus, Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus, Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (68-bp amplicon) and Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (75-bp amplicon)]. These primers were not able to detect Carrot red leaf virus, Sweet potato leaf speckling virus (both belong to unassigned Luteoviridae) and Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (genus Enamovirus). A synthetic positive control containing all primer sequence priming sites was designed to facilitate this method as a generic tool for use with a variety of host plants. The Luteoviridae primers described in this study present a simple infection-detection tool of benefit to biosecurity authorities in nursery-stock surveillance, disease management or outbreak prevention, and may also be useful in detection of as-yet undiscovered species within the Luteovirus and Polerovirus genera. [source]

Distribution and properties of geographically distinct isolates of sugar beet yellowing viruses

M. Stevens
From a total of 261 yellow sugarbeet leaves collected from 10 countries representing three continents, the incidence and distribution of strains of Beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV), Beet chlorosis virus (BChV) and Beet yellows virus (BYV) were analysed using serological and molecular methods. BMYV was found in all countries except Greece, and more frequently in the northern and western areas of Europe, whereas BYV predominated in Turkey, Spain, Greece, the USA and Chile. BChV, originally found in the USA and the UK in 1989, was identified in France, Spain, the Netherlands and Chile. Nine sugar beet poleroviruses, plus a reference isolate of Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, syn. Beet western yellows virus), were further characterized and compared. Isolates obtained from sugar beet infected this species, but not oilseed rape or lettuce; all isolates except one infected Capsella bursa-pastoris. The coat-protein sequences of these isolates were highly similar, with the consensus sequence representing 89% of nucleotide residues. Within the coat-protein gene, two regions were identified that could represent specific epitopes to which monoclonal antibody BYDV-PAV-IL-1 could bind; this antibody is used to distinguish beet poleroviruses in ELISA. Comparison of the sequences at the 5, end showed that sequence homology existed only between isolates with the same host range. The first sequence data of polerovirus isolates from Chile are presented, showing that the coat protein and the 5, end of their genomes are highly similar to those of BMYV isolates found in Europe. Chilean polerovirus isolates may have been imported from the northern hemisphere in sugar beet breeding material. [source]

First record of Beet western yellows virus, Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus and Faba bean necrotic yellows virus affecting faba bean (Vicia faba) crops in Iraq

No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Effect of sowing date and straw mulch on virus incidence and aphid infestation in organically grown faba beans (Vicia faba)

H. Saucke
Abstract The effect of sowing date on aphid infestation and the incidence of aphid-transmitted viruses were investigated in organically managed, small-scale field experiments with two faba bean cultivars over 3 years (2002,04). As an additional factor, straw mulch was applied in 2 of the 3 years shortly before the start of vector activity in May. Virus incidence was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoelectron microscopy. Aphid flight activity was monitored using standard yellow water traps. Bean colonising aphids were assessed throughout the vegetation period by counting the number of plants infested with Acyrthosiphon pisum, Megoura viciae and Aphis fabae. Pea enation mosaic virus and bean yellow mosaic virus were the most abundant aphid-transmitted viruses, being detected in 22,54% and 9,69%, respectively, of the total number of virus-infected plants analysed per year. Further aphid-transmitted viruses found in faba bean were bean leaf roll virus, beet western yellows virus, clover yellow vein virus (in 2002) and soybean dwarf virus (in 2004). A. pisum was the predominant aphid species colonising faba bean plants. Early sowing compared with late sowing led to a significant reduction of the total virus incidence in faba bean in all 3 years. However, significantly decreased levels of A. pisum colonisation as a result of early sowing were observed only in 1 year and one cultivar. Irrespective of sowing date, straw mulching had no significant effects on virus incidence and aphid colonisation. Compared with late sowing, early sowing significantly increased bean yield in all 3 years and kernel weight in 2 years, whereas straw mulching had no effect on yield. [source]