Bed Rest (bed + rest)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Coping with Bed Rest

Moving Toward Research-Based Nursing Interventions
First page of article [source]

Influence of concurrent exercise or nutrition countermeasures on thigh and calf muscle size and function during 60 days of bed rest in women

T. A. Trappe
Abstract Aim:, The goal of this investigation was to test specific exercise and nutrition countermeasures to lower limb skeletal muscle volume and strength losses during 60 days of simulated weightlessness (6 head-down-tilt bed rest). Methods:, Twenty-four women underwent bed rest only (BR, n = 8), bed rest and a concurrent exercise training countermeasure (thigh and calf resistance training and aerobic treadmill training; BRE, n = 8), or bed rest and a nutrition countermeasure (a leucine-enriched high protein diet; BRN, n = 8). Results:, Thigh (quadriceps femoris) muscle volume was decreased (P < 0.05) in BR (,21 1%) and BRN (,24 2%), with BRN losing more (P < 0.05) than BR. BRE maintained (P > 0.05) thigh muscle volume. Calf (triceps surae) muscle volume was decreased (P < 0.05) to a similar extent (P > 0.05) in BR (,29 1%) and BRN (,28 1%), and this decrease was attenuated (P < 0.05) in BRE (,8 2%). BR and BRN experienced large (P < 0.05) and similar (P > 0.05) decreases in isometric and dynamic (concentric force, eccentric force, power and work) muscle strength for supine squat (,19 to ,33%) and calf press (,26 to ,46%). BRE maintained (P > 0.05) or increased (P < 0.05) all measures of muscle strength. Conclusion:, The nutrition countermeasure was not effective in offsetting lower limb muscle volume or strength loss, and actually promoted thigh muscle volume loss. The concurrent aerobic and resistance exercise protocol was effective at preventing thigh muscle volume loss, and thigh and calf muscle strength loss. While the exercise protocol offset ,75% of the calf muscle volume loss, modification of this regimen is needed. [source]

Atypical Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension (SIH) With Nonorthostatic Headache

HEADACHE, Issue 2 2007
Doo-Sik Kong MD
Background.,Some patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) often do not demonstrate typical orthostatic headache, which is contrary to the typical SIH syndrome. They usually have an obscure and intermittent headache, regardless of their positional change. Object.,The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical course of atypical SIH that manifests with diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement, but no orthostatic headaches. Methods.,Between January 1997 and December 2005, we observed a total of 6 patients who revealed atypical presentations including nonpostural headaches and normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, despite the diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement seen on their MR images. For a comparison of the clinical features and the disease course, 13 other SIH patients with typical clinical manifestations were selected as a control group. Results.,Cerebrospinal fluid leakage sites were confirmed in only one patient through a variety of diagnostic tools; in contrast, definite focal CSF leakage sites were found in 12 of 13 patients with typical SIH. The 6 atypical SIH patients were treated with conservative treatment, including strict bed rest and intravenous hydration for 2 to 3 weeks. After a mean follow-up of 12 months, their headaches were gradually relieved after 2 to 3 weeks of conservative treatment only. Conclusions.,All SIHs do not necessarily show the typical clinical manifestations. The atypical finding of SIH such as nonorthostatic headache or normal CSF pressure may be the result of a normal physiologic response to the typical SIH as a compensatory reaction. Therefore, when faced with patients showing findings compatible with SIH on the brain MR images, regardless of nonpostural headache, atypical SIH should be suspected. [source]

The use of thrombelastography to determine coagulation status in severe anorexia nervosa: A case series

Jennifer L. Gaudiani MD
Abstract Objective: Hospitalized patients with severe anorexia nervosa (AN) frequently have a complex coagulation profile, with elements of hypocoagulability-thrombocytopenia and elevated international normalized ratio (INR) and elements of hypercoagulability-usually manifested as immobility, which is either due to their marked weakness or from enforced degrees of bed rest to minimize energy expenditure. Hospitalized medical patients have been shown to have appropriate prophylaxis for venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease in only 40% of cases. Method: A simple test that could evaluate the overall coagulation profile of these patients would help guide appropriate VTE prophylaxis. The thrombelastogram is a blood test that evaluates the full dynamic process of hemostasis. Results: The study of patients did not reveal evidence of being hypocoagulable and thus should be considered for VTE prophylaxis. Discussion: We report on three cases of young women with severe AN and weakness, hospitalized for closely monitored refeeding, in whom the thromboelastogram was used to evaluate the coagulation status of the patient and assist in guiding therapy. 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2010 [source]

The clinical effectiveness of length of bed rest for patients recovering from trans-femoral diagnostic cardiac catheterisation

Sek Ying Chair RN MBA PhD
Background, Cardiac catheterisation plays a vital role in the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac conditions. The goal of management of patients after cardiac catheterisation is to reduce the risk of development of any local or prolonged vascular complications, in particular bleeding and haematoma formation at the puncture site. Bed rest and immobilisation of the affected leg are recommended practices to ensure adequate haemostasis at the femoral arterial puncture site and prevent complications. Objectives, The objective of this review was to present the best available evidence for the optimal length of bed rest after trans-femoral diagnostic cardiac catheterisation. The main outcome of interest was the incidence of bleeding and haematoma formation following varying periods of bed rest. Search strategy, We searched the following databases: CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane Library, Current Contents, EBSCO, Web of Science, Embase, British Nursing Index, Controlled clinical trials database, Google Scholar. Reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings were searched. We also contacted key organisations and researchers in the field. Selection criteria, All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the effects of different lengths of bed rest following trans-femoral diagnostic cardiac catheterisation on patient outcomes were considered for inclusion in the review. Data collection and analysis, Eligibility of the trials for inclusion in the review, details of eligible trials and the methodological quality of the trials were assessed independently by two reviewers. Odds ratios (OR) for dichotomous data and a weighted mean difference for continuous data were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where synthesis was inappropriate, trials were considered separately. Main results, Eighteen trials involving a total of 4294 participants were included in the review. One trial included three treatment groups. In seven trials among 747 people there was no significant difference in the incidence of bleeding following six or less than 6 h of bed rest (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.60, 3.64). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the incidence of bleeding following bed rest at other time periods. In eight trials involving 2272 patients there was no significant difference in the incidence of haematoma formation following 6 or less than 6 h of bed rest (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.59, 1.16). Significantly fewer patients randomised to less than 6 h of bed rest complained of back pain. The odds of developing back pain at 4 (OR 24.60; 95% CI 1.29, 469) and 24 h (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.16, 5.23) following coronary catheterisation was significantly higher among patients randomised to 6 compared with 3 h of bed rest. Authors' conclusions, There is evidence of no benefit relating to bleeding and haematoma formation in patients who have more than 3 h of bed rest following trans-femoral diagnostic cardiac catheterisation. However, there is evidence of benefit relating to decreased incidence and severity of back pain and cost-effectiveness following 3 h of bed rest. There is suggestive but inconclusive evidence of a benefit from bed rest for 2 h following trans-femoral cardiac catheterisation. Clinicians should consider a balance between avoiding increased risk of haematoma formation following 2,2.5 h of bed rest and circumventing back pain following more than 4 h of bed rest. [source]

Hypoxia suppresses runx2 independent of modeled microgravity

Christopher Ontiveros
Bone loss is a consequence of skeletal unloading as seen in bed rest and space flight. Unloading decreases oxygenation and osteoblast differentiation/function in bone. Previously we demonstrated that simulation of unloading in vitro, by culturing differentiating mouse osteoblasts in a horizontal rotating wall vessel (RWV), results in suppressed expression of runx2, a master transcriptional regulator of osteoblast differentiation. However, the RWV is able to reproduce in a controlled fashion at least two aspects of disuse that are directly linked, model microgravity and hypoxia. Hypoxia in the RWV is indicated by reduced medium oxygen tension and increased expression of GAPDH and VEGF. To uncouple the role of model microgravity from hypoxia in suppressed runx2 expression, we cultured osteoblasts under modeled microgravity (oxygenated, horizontal RWV rotation), hypoxia (vertical RWV rotation), or both conditions (horizontal RWV rotation). The expression, DNA binding activity and promoter activity of runx2, was suppressed under hypoxic but not normoxic modeled microgravity RWV conditions. Consistent with a role for hypoxia in suppression of runx2, direct exposure to hypoxia alone is sufficient to suppress runx2 expression in osteoblasts grown in standard tissue culture plates. Taken together, our findings indicate that hypoxia associated with skeletal unloading could be major suppressor of runx2 expression leading to suppressed osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The relationship between bed rest and sitting orthostatic intolerance in adults residing in chronic care facilities

Mary T Fox MSc
fox mt, sidani s & brooks d (2010) Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness2, 187,196 The relationship between bed rest and sitting orthostatic intolerance in adults residing in chronic care facilities Aim., To examine the relationship between orthostatic intolerance and bed rest as it was used by/with 65 adults residing in chronic care facilities. Background., The evidence on the relationship between bed rest and orthostatic intolerance has been obtained from aerospace studies conducted in highly controlled laboratory settings, and is regarded as having high internal validity. In the studies, prolonged and continuous bed rest, administered in a horizontal or negative tilt body position, had a major effect on orthostatic intolerance in young adults. However, the applicability of the findings to the conditions of the real world of practice is questionable. Methods., Participants were recruited over the period of April 2005 to August 2006. A naturalistic cohort design was used. The cohorts represented different doses of bed rest that were naturally occurring. Comparisons were made between patients who had no bed rest (comparative dose group, n = 20), two to four days (moderate dose, n = 23) and five to seven days of bed rest (high dose, n = 22) during a one-week monitoring period. Orthostatic intolerance was measured by orthostatic vital signs and a self-report scale. Bed rest dose was measured by the total number of days spent in bed during one week. Results.,Post hoc comparisons, using Bonferroni adjustments, indicated significant differences in adjusted means on self-reported orthostatic intolerance between the comparative and high (CI: ,412, ,085; p < 0001), and the moderate and high (CI: 035, 356, p < 001) bed rest dose cohorts. No group differences were found on orthostatic vital signs. Conclusions., A moderate dose of bed rest with intermittent exposure to upright posture may protect against subjective orthostatic intolerance in patients who are unable to tolerate being out of bed every day. Future research may examine the effects of reducing bed rest days on orthostatic intolerance in individuals with high doses of five to seven days of bed rest. [source]


ABSTRACT Anecdotal evidence suggests that astronauts' perceptions of foods in space flight may differ from their perceptions of the same foods on Earth. Fluid shifts toward the head experienced in space may alter the astronauts' sensitivity to odors and tastes, producing altered perceptions. Our objective was to determine whether head-down bed rest, which produces similar fluid shifts, would produce changes in sensitivity to taste, odor or trigeminal sensations. Six subjects were tested three times prior to bed rest, three times during bed rest and two times after bed rest to determine their threshold sensitivity to the odors isoamylbutyrate and menthone, the tastants sucrose, sodium chloride, citric acid, quinine and monosodium glutamate, and to capsaicin. Thresholds were measured using a modified staircase procedure. Self-reported congestion was also recorded at each test time. Thresholds for monosodium glutamate where slightly higher during bed rest. None of the other thresholds were altered by bed rest. [source]

Measurement of antepartum depressive symptoms during high-risk pregnancy

Judith A. Maloni
Abstract This methodological study was designed to replicate three previous studies of depressive symptoms, compare assessment of antepartum depressive symptoms among high-risk pregnant women using three standardized instruments, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the instruments. The sample consisted of 89 high-risk pregnant women treated with bed rest, of whom 37 remained hospitalized at 4 weeks. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist Revised (MAACL-R) Dysphoria construct, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) Depression scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) across antepartum hospitalization. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity were high. Depressive symptoms were high on admission as measured by all three instruments and significantly decreased across time when measured by the MAACL-R and POMS. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 28:16,26, 2005 [source]

Early mobilization after total knee replacement reduces the incidence of deep venous thrombosis

Sivashankar Chandrasekaran
Abstract Both chemical and mechanical methods of prophylaxis have reduced the incidence of thromboembolic complications following total knee replacement (TKR). Only a few studies have shown that mobilization on the first post-operative day further reduces the incidence of thromboembolic phenomena. We conducted a prospective study to verify not only if early mobilization but also whether the distance mobilized on the first post-operative day after TKR reduced the incidence of thromboembolic complications. The incidence of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were compared in 50 consecutive patients who underwent TKR from July 2006 following a change in the mobilization protocol with 50 consecutive patients who underwent TKR before the protocol was instigated. The mobilization protocol changed from strict bed rest the first post-operative day to mobilization on the first post-operative day. Mobilization was defined as sitting out of bed or walking for at least 15,30 min twice a day. The distance mobilized was accurately recorded by the physiotherapists. All patients underwent duplex scans of both lower limbs on the fourth post-operative day. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of thromboembolic complications in the mobilization group (seven in total) compared with the control group (16 in total) (P= 0.03). Furthermore, in the mobilization group the odds of developing a thromboemobloic complication was significantly reduced the greater the distance the patient mobilized (Chi-squared linear trend = 8.009, P= 0.0047). Early mobilization in the first 24 h after TKR is a cheap and effective way to reduce the incidence of post-operative deep venous thrombosis. [source]

Functional alterations of mesenteric vascular bed, vas deferens and intestinal tracts in a rat hindlimb unloading model of microgravity

G. De Salvatore
Summary 1 Prolonged bed rest or exposure to microgravity may cause several alterations in autonomic nervous system response (ANSR). 2 Hindlimb unloading (HU) rats were used as an animal model of simulated microgravity to investigate ANSR changes. The experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity on the autonomic nervous response of the perfused mesenteric vascular bed (MVB), vas deferens and the colon and duodenum from 2-week HU rats. 3 In MVB preparations of HU rats, the frequency-dependent increases in perfusion pressure with perivascular nerve stimulation (PNS; 8,40 Hz) were inhibited, whereas the noradrenaline (NA) concentration-dependent (1,100 ,m) perfusion pressure increases were potentiated. The latter most probably reflected up-regulation of , -adrenergic receptor function. Relaxant responses of NA-precontracted MVB to PNS (4,30 Hz) or isoprenaline were not different between control and HU preparations, while vasodilation induced by the endothelial agonist ACh was reduced. 4 Transmural stimulation (2,40 Hz) induced frequency-dependent twitches of the vas deferens which were reduced in vas deferens of HU rats, while the sensitivity to NA-induced contraction was significantly increased. 5 In the gastroenteric system of HU rat, direct contractile responses to carbachol or tachykinin as well as relaxant or contractile responses to nervous stimulation appeared unchanged both in the proximal colon rings and in duodenal longitudinal strips. 6 In conclusion, HU treatment affects peripheral tissues in which the main contractile mediators are the adrenergic ones such as resistance vessels and vas deferens, probably by reducing the release of neuromediator. This study validates NA signalling impairment as a widespread process in microgravity, which may most dramatically result in the clinical phenotype of orthostatic intolerance. [source]

Hormonal contraceptives as a risk factor for cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis

M. Saadatnia
This review will focus on recent developments in our understanding of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST), as a side effect of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) use. Case,control studies have shown an increased risk of CVST in women who use COCs, especially third-generation contraceptives that contain gestodene or desogestrel. Several studies have indicated that the combination of COCs and thrombophilia greatly increased the risk of CVST, particularly in women with hyperhomocysteinaemia, factor V Leiden and the prothrombin-gene mutation. Women with thrombophilia who developed CVST while taking oral contraceptives should be definitively advised to stop using COCs. These patients should be considered for preventive therapy with low doses of heparin in prothrombotic situations such as bed rest or pregnancy, and the duration of anticoagulation should be considered on a case-by-case basis. Patients may be considered candidates for chronic treatment with antiplatelet agents. The best and most cost-effective screening method for thrombophilia in women who are planning to conceive is selective screening based on the presence of previous personal or family history of either prior extracerebral or cerebral venous thromboembolism events. [source]