Training System (training + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Learning intravenous cannulation: a comparison of the conventional method and the CathSim Intravenous Training System

,,Intravenous cannulation is a nursing procedure carried out in some clinical units that may induce trauma and discomfort. Nurses should be well prepared before practising the procedure with clients. ,,Conventionally, a plastic arm was used for practice but, with innovative developments in technology, a computer program called the CathSim Intravenous Training System (CathSim ITS) is available for this purpose. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of learning using a plastic arm with the CathSim ITS. ,,Twenty-eight nurses were divided into two groups and randomly assigned to the two different methods: plastic arm (control group) or CathSim ITS (experimental group). Both groups were provided with 1 hour of theory input and 2 hours of nursing laboratory work. ,,When the nurses felt ready to practise on clients, their performances were assessed by researchers with an intravenous cannulation qualification using a validated checklist. Prior to the assessment, trait and state anxiety levels were measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Hong Kong Chinese adaptation) to check whether anxiety would affect the performance. Following the assessment, a semi-structured interview was conducted to reveal any knowledge acquired through using the selected method. ,,Both the control and CathSim ITS groups demonstrated a high success rate, scoring 100% and 92.86%, respectively, with their first client. ,,The semi-structured interviews revealed that the CathSim ITS group appreciated several features of their assigned method. However, there is room for further development. [source]

Publishing trends in otorhinolaryngology from January 1997 to December 1999 in the UK

G S. Sandhu
In the last 10 years there have been many changes in otorhinolaryngology training and academic resources. The Calman reforms were introduced to our speciality in July 1996 and the last decade has also seen the number of professorial chairs in the UK rise from two to 12. One would therefore expect an increase in academic output, in terms of published works, despite the impediments generated by the Calman Training System. A search of eight leading English language otorhinolaryngology journals was carried out from January 1997 to December 1999 looking for articles with British authors. The results were compared with similar research carried out 10 years ago. There has been no major growth in the output of otorhinolaryngological publications from the UK in the last 10 years. [source]

Generation of a virtual reality-based automotive driving training system for CAD education

Janus Liang
Abstract Designing and constructing a virtual reality-based system is useful for educating students about scenario planning, geometric modeling and computer graphics. In particular, students are exposed to the practical issues surrounding topics such as geometric modeling, rendering, collision detection, model animation and graphical design. Meanwhile, building an application system provides students exposure to the real-world side of software engineering that they are typically shielded from in the traditional computer class. This study is a description of the experiences with instructing "Computer-aided Industrial design" and "OOP," two introductory classes that focus on designing and generating the VR based system possible in the course of a semester and then "VR System," an advanced course in the next semester. This study emphasizes the continuing evolution in the training and educational needs of students of CAD-systems. This study breaks down an automobile driving training system into different components that are suitable for individual student projects and discusses the use of modern graphical design tools such as 3ds MAX for artistic design in this system. The conclusion of this study proposes a rough schedule for developing a VR based system during the course of a semester and an overview is given of a concept of a virtual reality-based design and constructing system that is being developed. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 17: 148,166, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae20178 [source]

Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Effects Involving an Expert System Designed as a Learning Tool for Internal Control Assessment*

Mary Jane Lenard
ABSTRACT The assessment of internal control is a consideration in all financial statement audits, as stressed by the Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 78. According to this statement, "the auditor should obtain an understanding of internal control sufficient to plan the audit" (Accounting Standards Board, 1995, p. 1). Therefore, an accounting student will progress through the auditing course with the responsibility of learning how and why internal controls are assessed. Research in expert systems applied to auditing has shown that there is strong support for the constructive dialogue used in expert systems as a means of encouraging their use in decision making (Eining, Jones, & Loebbecke, 1997). The purpose of this study is to provide the student or novice auditor with a method for developing a more comprehensive understanding of internal controls and the use of internal controls in audit planning. The results of the study reinforce previous findings that novices do better when an expert system applies analogies along with declarative explanations, and clarifies the length of time in which the use of active learning in a training system can provide an improvement to declarative knowledge, but procedural knowledge must be acquired over a longer time frame. [source]

An examination of the relationship between dyslexia and offending in young people and the implications for the training system

DYSLEXIA, Issue 2 2001
Jane Kirk
Abstract A screening study was undertaken which involved 50 young offenders, serving sentences of various lengths, all from the largest young offenders' institution in Scotland. All 50 were screened for dyslexia and a number received a more detailed follow-up assessment. The results of the screening showed that 25 of the young offenders (50%) were dyslexic to some degree. This finding has implications for professionals, particularly in respect of follow-up assessment and support, and for politicians in relation to issues such as school experience, prison education and staff training. These issues are discussed here in relation to the background and results of the study. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Reforming the training system in France

Philippe Méhaut
ABSTRACT The French system of continuing vocational training was set up in 1970 by an intersectoral collective agreement that was then followed by legislation. More than 30 years on, the economic and social context has changed and the system now faces new challenges. In 2001 and again in 2003 the social partners embarked upon new negotiations in a bid to redesign the system. Analysis of the negotiation process and of its outcomes, reveals, both, the, persistence, of, societal, characteristics, and, the, emergence, of significant innovations, particularly in the individualisation of training. This dual trend is explained by the characteristics of the actors involved as well as by the weakness of the state. [source]

Vocational education and training and employer engagement: an industry-led sectoral system in the Netherlands

Johnny Sung
The overall objective of this paper is to determine, through a qualitative case study of the Dutch sectoral training system, factors associated with successful employer engagement. As well as examining the key features of the Dutch approach to vocational education and training (VET), the article makes a number of specific arguments: (1) employer ,buy-in' is crucial to the success of the sectoral approach to VET; (2) simply establishing a system of sector-based training bodies (e.g. skills councils) does not guarantee effective employer engagement; and (3) to make sectoral training work, especially in countries where a ,supply-led' system dominates, a fundamental reform is required in areas such as funding, qualification structure, leadership and system support. [source]

Evaluating Corporate Training and Development: An Indian Experience

P. S. Yadapadithaya
The central purpose of this article is to report on the current practices of evaluating training and development programs in the Indian corporate sector. The data were collected from written questionnaires mailed to 252 respondent companies,127 private, 99 public, and 26 multinational corporations (MNCs). The results and discussions are based on the major drivers and key result areas of training and development; purposes, levels, instruments, timing, and designs of evaluation; serious limitations of the training system; and finally the major challenges currently faced by the Indian corporate sector in strengthening the training and development function. [source]

The Second Generation in Germany: Between School and Labor Market,

Susanne Worbs
The German "mode of integration" after World War II has been to include migrants and their offspring into general societal institutions. This can be stated despite differences between federal states in some aspects of migrant integration (e.g., the educational sector). Migrant children normally attend the same schools and classes as their German age peers, they participate in the dual system of vocational training, and there are only a few limitations in labor market access. The second generation in Germany consists mainly of children of the "guestworkers" recruited in southern and southeastern European countries from the 1950s onwards. It is not easy to obtain information about their numbers and their socioeconomic position, as most statistical data distinguish only between foreigners and Germans. The achieved integration status of the second generation varies between areas: obvious problems in the educational system go along with considerable progress in the vocational training system and in the labor market. Children of Turkish migrants are the most disadvantaged group among the second generation. [source]

Skills shortages are not always what they seem: migration and the Irish software industry

James Wickham
This paper argues that the skills shortage in the Irish software industry is socially produced by a range of domestic factors, especially the education and training system. It also contends that immigration reinforces rather than resolves skills shortages. [source]

Networked interactive video for group training,

John Eary
The National Computing Centre (NCC) has developed an interactive video training system for the Scottish Police College to help train police supervisory officers in crowd control at major spectator events, such as football matches. This approach involves technology-enhanced training in a group-learning environment, and may have significant impact on management training methods. [source]

Survival and Decline of the Apprenticeship System in the Australian and UK Construction Industries

Phillip Toner
The preservation of the apprenticeship system in the Australian construction industry contrasts with its decline in Britain over the last three decades. This decline is conventionally ascribed to changes in industrial structure, specifically a decline in the role of the public sector, intensification of subcontracting and growth of self-employment. Given that the Australian construction industry has undergone similar structural changes to those in the United Kingdom, this difference in outcome requires explanation. This article suggests that the contrasting outcomes are the result of institutional differences in the organization of the training system, employers and labour between the two countries. These institutional differences are, however, diminishing as arrangements for training and industrial relations in Australia are increasingly fashioned in the likeness of the United Kingdom. [source]

Inter-Firm Training Co-ordination in Britain

Howard Gospel
This paper examines employer co-operation in the provision of training. Such collective action has a long history in Britain, but has varied over time in extent and strength. It exists in a strong form in the German-speaking countries, where employers' organizations and chambers of commerce are a fundamental part of the training system. On the basis of new data, we argue that this form of training is important in the UK and has a positive effect on the quantity and quality of training. Case studies are presented on several examples of collective action , a local chamber of commerce, an industry-wide employers' organization, a group training association, a network of firms in a large company's supply chain and a local consortium of big employers. Although such forms of organization have much to commend them, in the UK coverage is uneven and stability is fragile. [source]

Computer-assisted training system for pars plana vitrectomy

Jost B. Jonas
Abstract. Purpose:,To evaluate whether microsurgical steps in vitreoretinal surgery can be taught by a computer-assisted training system. Methods:,This prospective, randomized experimental study included 14 ophthalmic residents and medical students who were completely inexperienced in microsurgery. They were randomized into two groups. The study group underwent training programmes in a computer-assisted training system for simulation of pars plana vitrectomy. The control group did not participate in any in vitro training. In the second phase of the study, participants of both groups performed a pars plana vitrectomy in three pig eyes, which included picking a metallic foreign body from the retinal surface. Results:,The amount of retinal detachment and the number of retinal defects at the end of the vitrectomies were smaller, the time needed to remove the foreign body was shorter, the number of retinal lesions associated with the foreign body removal was lower, and the mark given was better in the trained study group than in the untrained group. The relatively small number of study participants did not allow the differences between the study and control groups to reach the 5% level of error probability. Conclusions:,In an animal model, training by a computer-based medical work station for simulation of pars plana vitrectomy showed better outcome measures for trained study participants compared with untrained study participants. Future studies may show whether further refinements of such training programmes will result in statistically significantly better results in surgical outcome parameters. [source]

Adaptive interaction in a 3D product structure browsing system for maintenance training

Wei Dong
The traditional maintenance training method with a physical model of the product is costly and inconvenient. Computer-aided instruction (CAI) technology along with multimedia can provide much help in the training but provides limited interaction between the user and the system. In this article, a 3D model-based product structure browsing system for maintenance training, CAMT, is developed for complex products adopting desktop virtual reality technology. To improve training performance, the interaction between the trainee and the CAMT system is enhanced by adaptive change of the zoom level, mouse sensitivity, and rotation origin. Details about the implementation of adaptive interaction are discussed. Experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of this adaptive interaction. Seventy participants were arranged randomly into two groups assigned to perform product structure learning tasks using software with or without adaptive interaction functions. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between the groups in task time, operation convenience, and learning satisfaction. Most participants preferred to use the system with adaptive interaction. It may be concluded that using adaptive interaction with maintenance training systems can significantly improve the usability of the systems and the efficiency of interactive learning. Although adaptive interaction has obvious advantages, our experiment also suggested that it is not a good idea to provide only the adaptive interaction mode. It is better to set adaptive interaction as the default mode but also to provide the possibility for a user to switch to a mode without adaptive interaction because a static view scope is also helpful to learn the 3D structure of a complex product. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Determinants of participation and nonparticipation in job-related education and training in Shenzhen, China

Jin Xiao
In the fast-growing market-oriented economy of Shenzhen, China, most employees have continued to participate in job-related education and training. We argue that as firms have acquired autonomy in their operations and individuals have gained the right to pursue their personal occupational aspirations, non,state-sponsored education and training systems for the working population have developed to respond to the demands from firms, as well as individuals. With survey data from 3,475 employees in seventy-six firms from Shenzhen, this study uses a multinomial model to examine patterns in employee participation in job-related education and training. There are basically four options open to employees: taking part in education and training provided by a firm to its own employees, enrolling in education and training offered by institutions outside the firm, availing themselves of both options simultaneously, or not participating. Our findings suggest that these four groups of employees vary in terms of their cultural and symbolic attributes, their individual socioeconomic attributes in relation to their workplace, and the economic attributes of their firm. [source]

Direct and indirect methods to simulate the actual evapotranspiration of an irrigated overhead table grape vineyard under Mediterranean conditions

Gianfranco Rana
Abstract Two methods, indirect and direct, for simulating the actual evapotranspiration (E) were applied to an irrigated overhead table grape vineyard during summer, situated in the Mediterranean region (south Italy), over two successive years. The first method, indirect but more practical, uses the crop coefficient (Kc) approach and requires determination of the reference evapotranspiration E0 (FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) method). This method underestimated on average by 17% the daily values of the actual evapotranspiration E. The analysis in this paper shows that the values of Kc for the table grapes determined by the FAO method seem to not be valid in our experimental conditions. Similar conclusions can be found in the literature for the table grape cultivated under different experimental conditions and using different training systems. The second method, is a direct method for estimating the evapotranspiration. It requires development of a model for the overhead table grape vineyard E, following the Penman,Monteith one-step approach, and using standard meteorological variables as inputs for the determination of the canopy resistance. This method, which needs a particularly simple calibration, provided a better simulation of the hourly and daily evapotranspiration than the indirect method. In additon, the standard error of the daily values for the direct method ( ± 0 · 41 mm) was about 50% lower than that obtained for the indirect method, also when the indirect method used a locally calibrated coefficient Kc instead of a generic Kc. Both, for practical application and theoretical issues, the advantages and disadvantages linked to the use of each tested method are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Graphic and haptic modelling of the oesophagus for VR-based medical simulation

Changmok Choi
Abstract Background Medical simulators with vision and haptic feedback have been applied to many medical procedures in recent years, due to their safe and repetitive nature for training. Among the many technical components of the simulators, realistic and interactive organ modelling stands out as a key issue for judging the fidelity of the simulation. This paper describes the modelling of an oesophagus for a real-time laparoscopic surgical simulator. Methods For realistic simulation, organ deformation and tissue cutting in the oesophagus are implemented with geometric organ models segmented from the Visible Human Dataset. The tissue mechanical parameters were obtained from in vivo animal experiments and integrated with graphic and haptic devices into the laparoscopic surgical simulation system inside an abdominal mannequin. Results This platform can be used to demonstrate deformation and incision of the oesophagus by surgical instruments, where the user can haptically interact with the virtual soft tissues and simultaneously see the corresponding organ deformation on the visual display. Conclusions Current laparoscopic surgical training has been transformed from the traditional apprenticeship model to simulation-based methods. The outcome of the model could replace conventional training systems and could be useful in effectively transferring surgical skills to novice surgeons. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Schools as Socialisation Contexts: Understanding the Impact of School Climate Factors on Students' Sense of School Belonging

Zeynep Cemalcilar
Education is a top priority of the European Union (EU). The EU Education Council has declared that to be the world leader in terms of the quality of education and training systems by 2010, fundamental transformations in education should be carried out in each country according to its national context and traditions. As a candidate country, Turkey shares this common objective. Yet, the mean school attainment and net education enrollment rates in Turkey are still behind the EU averages. The education literature indicates students' sense of school belonging as an important predictor of school attainment. This study aims to identify the policy manipulable social aspects of schools that can be instrumental in increasing students' sense of school belonging in a sample of 799 middle school students attending public schools in Istanbul, Turkey. The conceptual model posits that students' satisfaction with both the social relationships in the school and the school environment has consequences for their sense of school belonging. The results of the structural equation model analysis revealed a plausible model. Satisfaction with social relationships emerged as a stronger predictor of sense of school belonging than satisfaction with the school environment. Further comparisons of the same conceptual model for schools with low and high socioeconomic conditions yielded different associations among the study variables. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the education system in Turkey and other less affluent societies with similar social, cultural, and economic conditions. L'éducation est une priorité majeure de l'Union Européenne (UE). Le Conseil de l'Education de l'UE a déclaré que pour devenir le leader mondial de la qualité de l'éducation et de la formation en 2010, il fallait opérer des réformes d'importance dans le système d'éducation de chacun des pays dans le respect de leurs traditions et de leur contexte national. En tant que candidate pour intégrer l'Union, la Turquie partage cet objectif commun. Pourtant, les performances scolaires moyennes et le taux de scolarisation sont en Turquie toujours en-dessous des moyennes européennes. La littérature concernée montre que la conviction de l'élève d'être intégréà l'école est un prédicteur important de ses résultats scolaires. Cette étude cherche à définir les possibilités d'action politique sur les variables sociales scolaires susceptibles d'améliorer le sentiment d'appartenance à l'école, cela sur un échantillon de 799 élèves de collège fréquentant des établissements publics d'Istanbul. Le modèle pose que la satisfaction des élèves relative aux relations sociales à l'école et à l'environnement scolaire est en relation avec leur sentiment d'intégration à l'établissement. Les résultats de l'analyse en modèle d'équation structurale fournissent une structure plausible. La satisfaction liée aux relations sociales ressort comme un prédicteur du sentiment d'appartenance plus puissant que la satisfaction relative à l'environnement scolaire. Des manipulations complémentaires de ce même modèle à partir de conditions socio-économiques élevées ou basses débouchèrent sur de nouvelles associations entre les différentes variables. Ces résultats sont évalués sur la base de leur pertinence pour le système scolaire turque et celui d'autres pays moins prospères présentant des conditions économiques, sociales et culturelles analogues. [source]

Current trends of laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer in Japan

T Etoh
Abstract Laparoscopic gastrectomy with lymph node dissection, such as laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG), is widely accepted for the treatment of early gastric cancer with a risk of lymph node metastasis. In Japan, a nationwide survey conducted by the Japan Society of Endoscopic Surgery has shown that the number of laparoscopic gastrectomies is gradually increasing. So far, the following advantages of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of gastric cancer have been well documented: favorable clinical course after operation, pulmonary function and immune response. A retrospective multicenter study in Japan has shown that the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic gastrectomy are beneficial and that the long-term outcomes are the same as those for open surgery. Recently, the Gastric Cancer Surgical Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group conducted a multi-institutional, phase II trial (JCOG0703) to evaluate the safety of LADG for clinical stage I gastric cancer. In the future, laparoscopic surgeons will need to design and implement education and training systems for standard laparoscopic procedures, evaluate clinical outcomes through multicenter randomized controlled trials and clarify the oncological aspects of laparoscopic surgery in basic studies. [source]