Total Length (total + length)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Total Length

  • cm total length
  • mean total length

  • Selected Abstracts

    Reproduction of the ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus pfeili (Ratzeburg) (Col., Scolytidae), on semi-artificial diet

    T. Mizuno
    Unmated females produced only male offspring, while broods that originated from fertilized females had strongly female-biased sex ratios. Thus, the reproductive process of X. pfeili is arrhenotokous parthenogenesis. Oviposition took place over a long time, as eggs were present in the tunnels throughout the experiments (up to 40 days after inoculation). Total length of a gallery system and number of offspring per tube were positively correlated. Pupation and eclosion of males were later than those of some females. In the case of two males (offspring in pupal and/or adult stages) in the same gallery system, most of the males coexisted in the condition of both different stages and different branch tunnels. These results imply that a mother beetle of X. pfeili determines the number of her eggs in response to the size of each branch tunnel (= amount of ambrosia fungus), and produces at least one male egg in the tunnel after laying some female eggs. [source]

    Population biology of the red gurnard (Aspitrigla cuculus L.; Triglidae) in the inshore waters of Eastern Anglesey and Northwest Wales

    A. L. Marriott
    Summary ICES has identified red gurnard Aspitrigla cuculus (L.) as a potential commercial species and recommended that monitoring programmes should be conducted to derive information on biological parameters for stock assessment purposes. In this paper, data on the population biology of red gurnard in the coastal waters of Northwest Wales and Eastern Anglesey are presented. Total length (TL) of fish sampled ranged from 15.4 to 35.0 cm (males) and 10.5 to 43.1 cm (females), with the majority of females between 20 and 30 cm TL (70.0%) and males between 20 and 30 cm TL (71.0%). TL/weight (W) relations were similar between immature and mature individuals for both sexes and between both sexes (all maturity stages combined), producing a combined data equation W = 0.005 TL3.19. Age of fish ranged from 1 to 7 years and 1 to 6 years, respectively, for females and males, with the majority of females age 3 (37%) and the majority of males age 2 (49%). The age structures of female and male red gurnards were significantly different, with the older age classes consisting predominantly of female fish. Both males and females exhibited similar asymptotic growth patterns; the combined von Bertalanffy growth function was . Instantaneous rates of total mortality were calculated as 1.13 year,1 for males and 0.98 year,1 for females. The size (L50) and age at first maturity (A50) were estimated to be 26.3 cm TL and 3.6 years for males, 28.1 cm TL and 3.5 years for females and 25.6 cm TL and 3.7 years for both sexes combined. [source]

    Stocking density-dependent growth and survival of Asian sun catfish, Horabagrus brachysoma (Gunther 1861) larvae

    S. K. Sahoo
    Summary The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the growth and survival of Horabagrus brachysoma larvae at different stocking densities (3, 7, 13, 20, 27 and 33 larvae L,1) during their hatchery phase. Total length and wet weight of the larvae consistently decreased (P < 0.05) at the end of 14 and 28 days of rearing as the density increased. The specific growth rate was significantly (P < 0.05) highest at three larvae L,1 compared to the other five densities. The percent weight gain and survival of larvae was also highest at lowest density. The observation corroborates that catfish larvae can be reared at low densities in stagnant water conditions. Considering the value of larval growth, survival and overall weight gain, the stocking density of seven larvae L,1 has been identified as the maximum for larval rearing of H. brachysoma under hatchery conditions. [source]

    Comparison of mesenteric and tissue fat content in relation to sexual cycle of the sardine, Sardina pilchardus (Walb., 1792), in the eastern Middle Adriatic fishery grounds (Croatia)

    B. Musta
    Summary The study objective was to analyse Sardina pilchardus (Walb., 1792) for mesenteric fat, which is easier to evaluate than the muscle lipid, for comparisons thereof with the sexual cycle and condition of the examined specimens. Fat reserves, moisture and the sexual cycle of sardines were studied from monthly random samples of purse seine catches from March 2004 to February 2005. A total of 1209 specimens were collected (668 males; 541 females). Total length and mass ranged from 13.0 to 19.0 cm and from 16.7 to 51.5 g, respectively. Lipid analyses in muscle tissues were done using the Soxhlet method. An inverse relation between fat content and the sexual cycle was established. Greatest fat quantities were observed in August (72%) during the gonadal resting phase; lowest values were noted in winter, and in spring during the spawning period peak. Moisture content and sexual cycle were positively correlated (r = 0.7913). Total lipids in sardine tissues were higher in females than in males; however, the moisture content was higher in males than in females. [source]

    Growth and mortality of the brushtooth lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis) in Iskenderun Bay (eastern Mediterranean Sea) using length frequency analysis

    G. Gökçe
    Summary The growth and mortality of brushtooth lizardfish Saurida undosquamis (Richardson, 1848) in Iskenderun Bay (eastern Mediterranean Sea) were investigated based on length frequency data using the fisat software. Total length of the sampled 4711 fish ranged from 6.0 to 39.0 cm. The von Bertalanffy growth function estimates were L, = 42.00 cm, k = 0.51 year -1, t0 = ,0.29 years. Total mortality rate (Z) was computed as 1.76 year -1 and the exploitation ratio was 0.51, indicating that the brushtooth lizardfish stock is on the verge being overfished. [source]

    Basic characteristics of the population dynamic and state of exploitation of Moroccan white seabream Diplodus sargus cadenati (Sparidae) in the Canarian archipelago

    J. G. Pajuelo
    Summary Moroccan white seabream Diplodus sargus cadenati (n = 603) were caught off the Canary Islands from April 2000 to March 2001. Total length ranged from 46 to 404 mm. The subspecies was characterized as being dygynous with partial protandry. Overall ratio of males to females was 1 : 2.9. The reproductive season extended from December to May, with a peak in spawning activity in January,February. Fifty per cent maturity was reached at 201 mm total length in males and 216 mm in females. The length,weight relationship for all individuals was described by the following parameters: a = 0.000023, and b = 2.96, when length is given in millimeters and weight in grams. Fish of 0,12 years in age were found. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for the entire population were: L, = 467 mm, k = 0.143 year,1 and t0 = ,2.14 year. Growth parameters differed between males and females. For all fish, instantaneous rates of mortality were Z = 0.68 year,1, M = 0.31 ± 0.6 year,1 and F = 0.37 ± 0.6 year,1; the exploitation ratio was E = 0.54 ± 0.9. Length at first capture for all individuals was 173 mm. The stock exploited above is an assumed optimum. [source]

    Effect of wave exposure dynamics on gut content mass and growth of young-of-the-year fishes in the littoral zone of lakes

    S. Stoll
    Total length, body mass and gut content mass of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch Perca fluviatilis, dace Leuciscus leuciscus and bleak Alburnus alburnus were recorded over the summer of 2006 at three littoral sites at Upper Lake Constance. In P. fluviatilis and L. leuciscus, gut content mass correlated positively with wave-induced energy flux (EF) of the respective site and sampling day, while no correlation of gut content mass with EF was found in A. alburnus. It was assumed that benthivorous P. fluviatilis and L. leuciscus profited from suspended or uncovered benthic food items generated by wave action at sites and periods with high EF. Alburnus alburnus, in contrast, feeding mainly on zooplankton in upper parts of the water column, could not profit from increased EF. In P. fluviatilis, increased gut content mass during periods of high EF resulted in higher growth rates. For L. leuciscus, no real growth rates in local fish populations could be determined, as individuals were less sedentary, and when increased growth occurred at sites during the periods of high EF, migration of fish levelled out the resulting size differences within few days. The results of this study show that dynamic habitat variables affect site profitability in the littoral zone of lakes, especially in benthivorous fishes. Therefore, dynamic habitat variables should be considered in addition to fixed habitat properties in analyses of habitat choice of fishes in the littoral zone of lakes. [source]

    Embryo developmental events and the egg case of the Aleutian skate Bathyraja aleutica (Gilbert) and the Alaska skate Bathyraja parmifera (Bean)

    G. R. Hoff
    Embryo development events were correlated with egg-case changes for the Aleutian skate Bathyraja aleutica and the Alaska skate Bathyraja parmifera. Yolk absorption underwent two phases: that of steady absorption during early development and that of rapid yolk absorption during the final development stages. Total length (LT) for 50% of the pre-hatching embryos egg-case jelly disappearance was 92·04 mm (range 81,102 mm) and 99·36 mm (range 81,100 mm) for B. aleutica and B. parmifera, respectively, allowing the inner chamber to open to seawater flow. The tail filament underwent three phases of growth: rapid elongation during early development (<100 mm embryo LT), stasis of tail filament length during the remainder of embryo development and rapid absorption soon after hatching. Complete tail filament development coincided with the disappearance of egg-case jelly. Clasper buds first developed at embryos >70 mm LT for both species and the sex ratio was 1:1 well before hatching. Egg cases that were devoid of an ova or developing embryo were c. 5·0 and 6·5% of the egg cases examined for B. aleutica and B. parmifera, respectively. Measurements showed that egg cases containing only egg jelly were smaller in both width and length than those possessing an ova. Embryo stages were punctuated with distinct events that correlated with egg case changes controlling the internal environment of the developing embryo. [source]

    Ultrastructure of the Spermatozoa of the Yangtze Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis)

    H. Y. Li
    Summary Semen sample was collected from two captive adult Yangtze finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) during physical examination. One individual was aged about 9 years with body length 143 cm (total length) and body weight 46.1 kg in 2003. The age of the other was unknown and its body length was 147 cm and body weight was 43 kg in 2004. Ultrastructure of their spermatozoa was examined using scanning and transmission electron microscope. The sperm concentration was 4.17 × 109 spermatozoa per ml by the cytometer. The approximate dimensions of the spermatozoa were as follows: head length, 3.366 ± 0.140 ,m (mean ± SE, n = 15); head width, 1.896 ± 0.099 ,m (n = 15); and neck length, 1.004 ± 0.074 ,m (n = 10). The tail included midpiece, principal piece and terminal piece. The length of the midpiece was 1.882 ± 0.077 ,m (n = 9). There is no apparent boundary between the principal piece and the terminal piece, so the length of the principal piece and the terminal piece was 44.612 ± 3.485 ,m (n = 5). Total length of the spermatozoa was 53.314 ± 4.580 ,m (n = 10). The acrosome covered approximately 45.8% of the anterior portion of the head. [source]

    Enzyme and acid treatment of fish meal for incorporation into formulated microbound diets for barramundi (Lates calcarifer) larvae

    Abstract This study reports on two experiments in which the use of enzyme- and acid-treated fish meal were evaluated for incorporation into formulated microbound diets for barramundi (Lates calcarifer) larvae. In the first experiment, partially hydrolysed fish meal was used to determine whether partial hydrolysis increased the dietary value of fish meal used in microbound diets fed to L. calcarifer larvae. Total length and dry weight at the end of the experiment were both higher for larvae fed diets containing untreated fish meal than those fed diets containing any level of hydrolysate. Larval survival ranged from 15.8% to 47.2% but there were no significant differences between treatments (Fig. 3; P > 0.05). Carcass pepsin levels of larvae fed diets containing untreated fish meal were significantly higher than pepsin levels of larvae fed all other diets (P < 0.05). The second experiment determined the effects of incorporating graded levels of denatured fish meal (DF) into microbound diets for L. calcarifer larvae. Acid treatment increased the digestibility of fish meal approximately twofold when compared with intact fish meal. Larvae fed diets containing 45% DF had significantly higher total length and dry weight at the end of the growth trial than those fed a diet containing only intact fish meal. Larval survival ranged from 30.2% to 58.2%, with no significant differences between treatments. Whole homogenate pepsin levels were significantly affected by the level of dietary DF inclusion with larvae fed diets containing a greater proportion of intact fish meal containing higher pepsin levels. There was a significant correlation between dietary DF inclusion level and decreasing pepsin level (r2 = 0.569, P < 0.01); however, larval pepsin level did not correlate to either dry weight or total length (Pearson correlation, P > 0.05). The results of this study are a valuable contribution to our understanding of factors influencing the utilization of ingredients in microbound diets developed for marine fish larvae and will facilitate development of more effective formulated foods for them. Figure 3. ,Mean (±SE) survival of barramundi larvae fed experimental diets containing fish meal hydrolysed for varying period (7.5,60 min), from 14 to 28 days after hatching. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05). [source]

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and environment on root development in soil

    D. Atkinson
    Summary The production of fine roots is one of the principal means by which carbon, fixed during photosynthesis, enters the soil, and quantifying the production for particular combinations of environmental and biotic factors is important for predicting the sequestration of carbon in the soils of grassland ecosystems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can have a major effect on the production of roots, and we studied how colonization by AMF affects the lifespan of roots. Twenty per cent of control roots of Trifolium repens survived for longer than 42 days whereas 37% survived that long in AMF-colonized plants. The overall survival of the roots of Lolium perenne was less than in T. repens: around 10% of roots survived beyond 42 days and this was not affected by AMF colonization. Previous studies have shown that lifespans of roots can be affected by temperature. We tested the hypothesis that these observations are linked to a change in the morphology of the root system caused by temperature and also by AMF. We found that inoculation with AMF in a microcosm study using Plantago lanceolata grown at various temperatures, with and without AMF, showed no clear effect of AMF on branching patterns. Temperature had a significant effect on total lengths, numbers and branching rates of some higher orders of roots. Total lengths of both secondary and tertiary roots grown at 27°C were about double those of plants grown at 15°C. Colonization by AMF tended to reduce this effect. Evidently the effect of colonization by AMF on root lifespan depends on the species. Increased branching, and thus a greater proportion of ephemeral roots, was responsible for shortening the lives of the roots at increased temperature, which suggests a strong link between lifespan and morphology. [source]


    Karen Evans
    Abstract One hundred and fifteen sperm whales (97 female, 15 male, 3 unknown sex) were involved in three mass stranding events during the month of February 1998 along the west and northwest coastlines of Tasmania, Australia. Sixty-six of these whales stranded at Ocean Beach, Strahan; 35 at Greens Beach, Marrawah; and 11 at Black River Beach, Stanley. The remaining whales stranded singly along the coastline. Three mass strandings of this species in such close temporal proximity have not been reported in this area before, and this is the first time that data have been comprehensively collected from complete or near-complete groups of sperm whales from Tasmanian waters. Adult females dominated the three stranding groups. Total lengths ranged from 417 to 1,200 cm and ages ranged from 0.75 to 64 yr. Four females were lactating and four fetuses were found amongst the groups. Stomach contents were dominated by pelagic cephalopods. [source]

    A Wavelet-Based Approach to Identifying Structural Modal Parameters from Seismic Response and Free Vibration Data

    C. S. Huang
    The wavelet transform with orthonormal wavelets is applied to the measured acceleration responses of a structural system, and to reconstruct the discrete equations of motion in various wavelet subspaces. The accuracy of this procedure is numerically confirmed; the effects of mother wavelet functions and noise on the ability to accurately estimate the dynamic characteristics are also investigated. The feasibility of the present procedure to elucidate real structures is demonstrated through processing the measured responses of steel frames in shaking table tests and the free vibration responses of a five-span arch bridge with a total length of 440 m. [source]

    Microtubule displacements at the tips of living flagella

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 3 2002
    Geraint G. Vernon
    Abstract We have observed that the flagellar axoneme of the Chinese hamster spermatozoon undergoes periodic changes in length at the same frequency as the flagellar beat. The amplitude of the length oscillation recorded at the tip is maximally about 0.5 ,m or 0.2% of the total length. In some favourable cells, it was possible to see the opposing "halves" of the axoneme moving at the tip in a reciprocating manner and 180° out-of-phase. This behaviour, when analysed quantitatively, is broadly consistent with predictions made from the sliding-doublet theory of ciliary and flagellar motility and thus it constitutes an additional verification of the theory, for the first time in a living cell. However, on close examination, there is a partial mismatch between the timing of the length oscillation and the phase of the beat cycle. We deduce from this that there is some sliding at the base of the flagellum, sliding that is accommodated by elastic compression of the connecting piece. Micrographic evidence for such compression is presented. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 52:151,160, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A new articulated hybodontoid from Late Permian of northwestern China

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2009
    N.-Z. Wang
    Abstract A new genus and species of hybodontoid elasmobranchs, Gansuselache tungshengi, is described on the basis of an articulated skeleton from the Fangshankou Formation (Late Permian) of the Mazongshan Mountain of Gansu Province, northwestern China. All dermal skeletons including dorsal fin-spines, cephalic spines, dermal denticles and one tooth are well preserved in their natural position. It is a shark of about 490 mm total length with a fusiform body. The braincase has large, downturned postorbital processes and otic capsules, no postorbital articulation, long palatoquadrate and large triangular Meckel's cartilage. It bears two dorsal fins and two pairs of heteromorphic cephalic spines. The tooth is of low-crowned, multicuspid type; the elongate tooth crown has stout crown shoulder and well-developed, rounded labial peg; the cusp and cusplets are moderately tumid, and have a few strong and curved folds; the tooth root is higher on the labial face than the lingual face. The dermal denticle is placoid scale-like, with its crown surface ornamented with some parallel ridges. Gansuselache, the first articulated hybodontiform from Asia, also represents the first complete hybodontiform from the Permian. [source]

    Morphometry and sexual dimorphism of the coastal spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata graffmani, from Bahía de Banderas, Mexico

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2004
    Laura Sanvicente-Añorve
    Abstract External measurements and size differences between the sexes were examined in the coastal spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata graffmani, in Bahía de Banderas, on the Mexican Pacific coast. The dolphins were collected by local fishermen and 29 external characteristics were measured by members of the Marine Mammals Laboratory, University of Mexico. The length of each characteristic with respect to total length was analysed through adjustment of the data to a power equation. A stepwise discriminant analysis was applied to the absolute values and to those expressed as proportions to analyse the differences between the sexes. Results indicate that growth in these dolphins is generally negatively allometric, and most of the characteristics measured were, in both absolute and proportional terms, greater in male dolphins than in female dolphins. As found in many species of odontocetes, the discriminant analysis showed that the main differences between the sexes for this coastal subspecies include the relative positions of the umbilicus, the genital aperture and the anus. The morphometric data provided by this study, corresponding to 29 specimens of S. a. graffmani collected in a restricted locality of the Mexican Pacific coast, are particularly interesting to studies documenting latitudinal morphological differences in the coastal spotted dolphin. [source]

    Barchan-shaped ripple marks in a wave flume

    Noritaka Endo
    Abstract Barchans, isolated crescent-shaped bedforms, are believed to be formed under almost unidirectional wind or water ,ows and limited sand supply. The formation of barchan morphologies under the action of purely oscillatory wave motion has not yet been fully investigated. The present study attempted to form barchan topography in a wave ,ume and to compare this with barchans in the ,eld. Barchan morphologies of ripple size, called the barchan ripples, were generated from a ,at bed by the action of waves. The horn width, the distance between horn tips, of the barchan ripples increased linearly with an increase in the total length, the overall length projected on the centre line of the barchan, with a coef,cient common to barchan dunes in deserts. The ratio of horn length to horn width of the barchan ripples was smaller than that of barchan dunes, but similar to that of subaqueous barchans in the ,eld. The longer the wave period was, the larger the ratio of the body length to horn width became. Most subaqueous barchans formed under waves (in the laboratory) and unidirectional ,ows (in the ,eld) had blunter horns than subaerial barchans. The shape of the barchan ripples changed with wave period. The outer rim became rounder with increasing wave period. The relationship between the base area and the height of barchan morphologies seems to be linear, with a constant coef,cient for the scale from ripples to dunes. The barchan ripples showed a linear relationship between the height and the horn width, similar to that for barchan dunes. The migration speed of the barchan ripples was proportional to the cube of the ,ow velocity and was inversely proportional to height. The same relation with a different value of the coef,cient was obtained for barchan dunes. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A comparative analysis of the habitat of the extinct aurochs and other prehistoric mammals in Britain

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2008
    Stephen J. G. Hall
    The present study tests the hypothesis that the habitat of the globally extinct aurochs Bos primigenius was primarily riverine flat-lands. Landscape features in Britain were analyzed for sites with Late Pleistocene and postglacial finds of aurochs (n=188), and, for comparison, wolf (101), brown bear (96), red deer (73), beaver (68), roe deer (46) and moose (23). Find sites were defined as Ordnance Survey 1 km map squares containing 1 or more finds. For each, spot height above sea level, heights of contour lines, flatness of terrain, total length of watercourses, and presence of woods, rock and water features were noted. Comparisons of find sites among species (Kruskal-Wallis test) show significant differences that accord with knowledge of present-day habitat preferences at the landscape level. Considering the species separately each find site was then compared with a randomly selected control map square within 10 km. Compared with their respective control squares, find sites of beaver have, today, a stronger association with presence of lakes; those of brown bear and wolf with presence of cliffs and rock outcrops; and those of aurochs with absence of woodland and with lower elevation and greater flatness. The concordance of these findings with the present-day habitats of the extant species suggests valid inferences can be made about the habitat preference of the extinct aurochs. On this basis the aurochs appears, as hypothesized, to have selected low-lying, flat ground, which (indicated by its present-day use for purposes other than woodland) was relatively fertile. [source]

    Influence of hatch duration and individual daily growth rates on size structure of age-0 smallmouth bass cohorts in two glacial lakes

    Q. E. Phelps
    Abstract,,, We assessed hatch dates and daily growth rates of age-0 smallmouth bass from two glacial lakes over a 3-year period. Hatching durations (19,27 days among years) of smallmouth bass occurred from late May until late June. Mean daily growth rate of age-0 smallmouth bass ranged from 0.56 to 1.56 mm·day,1. Correlation analysis indicated that hatch date had little effect on daily growth rates. Hatch date was significant in explaining variation in total length (TL) of age-0 smallmouth bass at time of capture in only three of six cases and hatch date never explained >50% of the variation in bass length. Daily growth rate significantly explained variation in smallmouth bass TL at time of capture in all six models, accounting for 31,86% of the variability in bass length. Our findings suggest that size structure of age-0 cohorts in some populations may be more strongly regulated by variation in individual daily growth rate than by hatch timing. [source]

    Juvenile growth of two tilapia species in lakes Naivasha and Baringo, Kenya

    J. R. Britton
    Abstract,,, Tilapia species in East African lakes often form the basis of commercial fisheries, with information on their population biology assisting their management. This study utilised otolith microstructure, with validation by modal progression analysis, to provide growth data for two tilapia species in two Kenyan lakes for the first time. Otolith microstructure revealed the growth rate of Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis, a sub-species endemic to Lake Baringo, was fast compared with populations of Oreochromis niloticus; mean daily growth rates were >0.50 mm·d,1 in fish between 12 and 53 mm total length. Growth of Oreochromis leucostictus in Lake Naivasha was also relatively fast when compared with the growth rates of other tilapia species, with mean daily growth rates of approximately 0.35,0.48 mm·d,1 in fish between 10 and 56 mm total length. Growth rates of both species were well described by the Gompertz model and were corroborated by modal progression analysis that revealed similar daily growth rates in modes of young-of-the-year fish. [source]

    Distribution, zoogeography and biology of the Murchison River hardyhead (Craterocephalus cuneiceps Whitley, 1944), an atherinid endemic to the Indian Ocean (Pilbara) Drainage Division of Western Australia

    M. G. Allen
    Abstract , The Murchison River hardyhead (Craterocephalus cuneiceps) is endemic to the extremely arid Indian Ocean (Pilbara) Drainage Division of Western Australia, where it is found in the Greenough, Hutt, Murchison, Wooramel, Gascoyne and DeGrey rivers, but is absent from numerous rivers within its range. The most likely explanation for the disjunct contemporary distribution is that C. cuneiceps has simply never inhabited the rivers from which it is conspicuously absent (e.g. Ashburton and Fortescue). Biogeographical, geological and palaeoclimatic evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. In the Murchison River, breeding was extremely protracted with recruitment occurring throughout the year. The largest female and male specimens captured were 96 mm total length (TL; 7.73 g) and 86 mm TL (5.57 g), respectively. Sex ratio was 1.09 females:1 male. Batch fecundity ranged from 46 to 454 (mean 167.5 ± 25.7 SE). Estimates for the length at which 50 and 95% of females first spawned were 36.4 and 44.3 mm TL, respectively. Craterocephalus cuneiceps is essentially a detritivore, but also feeds on aquatic invertebrates. Rainfall in the Murchison River catchment is unpredictable and pH, salinity and temperature are variable. A specialised diet, small size and young age at maturity and protracted spawning period, coupled with serial spawning and high fecundity, allows the numerical dominance of this species in competitive, harsh, arid and unpredictable desert environments. Resumen 1. Craterocephalus cuneiceps es una especie endémica de las cuencas del Océano Indico (i.e., Pilbara) de Australia Occidental. Se encuentra en los ríos Greenough, Hutt, Murchison, Wooramel, Gascoyne y DeGrey pero está ausente en numerosos ríos dentro de su área de distribución. La explicación más probable para esta distribución separada en la actualidad es que C. cuneiceps no ha habitado nunca los ríos en los que está ausente tales como los ríos Ashburton y Fortescue. Presentamos evidencia bio-geográfica, geológica y paleo-climática para soportar esta hipótesis. 2. En el río Murchison, la reproducción es extremadamente prolongada con reclutamiento a lo largo de todo el año. Los mayores machos y hembras capturados alcanzaron 96 mm LT (7.73 g) y 86 mm LT (5.57 g), respectivamente. La proporción de sexos fue 1.09 hembras: 1 macho. La fecundidad varió entre 46 y 454 (media 167.5 ± 25.7 SE) y la longitudes a la que el 50 y el 95% de las hembras se reproducen por primera vez alcanzaron 36.4 y 44.3 mm LT, respectivamente. 3. C. cuneiceps es esencialmente detritívoro pero también se alimenta de invertebrados acuáticos. La lluvia sobre la cuenca del río Murchison es impredecible y el pH, la salinidad y la temperatura son variables. Una dieta especializada, pequeño tamaño, una edad joven en la madurez, y un período reproductivo prolongado, ademos de una freza seriada y alta fecundidad, permiten la dominancia numérica de la especie en ambientes competitivos, duros, áridos e impredecibles. [source]

    Size-related differences in diel activity of two species of juvenile eel (Anguilla) in a laboratory stream

    G. J. Glova
    Abstract , The diel activity of three size groups (small=<100 mm; medium=100,199 mm; large=200,299 mm total length) of juvenile shortfinned ("shortfin") eels (Anguilla australis) and longfinned ("longfin") eels (A. dieffenbachii) was tested in a laboratory flow tank over a 48-h period during summer. All size groups of both species were nocturnally active, with the eels hiding in the substratum during the day and coming out on top of the cobbles from dusk to dawn, to feed. During the foraging period, the numbers and activity of all sizes of longfins visible were greater than those seen of shortfins, with the differences being more pronounced for small and medium eels. The activity of all eels consisted mostly of foraging by crawling, searching and probing for prey among the cobbles. Rate of activity increased with size of eel for both species. Small eels of either species did more swimming than eels of the larger sizes, whereas large eels were observed more frequently with only their head out of the substrate than were the smaller individuals. Feeding of small eels within the interstitial spaces of the streambed may explain their significantly lower activity on top of the substrate at night. The significantly lower rate of activity recorded for shortfins than longfins of all sizes may be due partly to their ability to feed within the interstices of the stream bed, and (or) longer time to recover from handling and habituate to the test environment., [source]

    Determination of iodide in samples with complex matrices by hyphenation of capillary isotachophoresis and zone electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 20 2007
    Pavla Pant
    Abstract A method has been developed for the determination of iodide in mineral water, seawater, cooking salt, serum, and urine based on hyphenation of capillary ITP and zone electrophoresis. A commercially available instrumentation for capillary ITP with column-switching system was used. ITP served for removal of chloride present in the analyzed samples in a ratio of 106,107:1 to iodide, zone electrophoresis was used for evaluation. Isotachophoretic separation proceeded in a capillary made of fluorinated ethylene,propylene copolymer of 0.8,mm id and 90,mm total length to the bifurcation point filled with a leading electrolyte (LE) composed of 8,mM HCl,+,16,mM ,-alanine (,-Ala),+,10% PVP,+,2.86,mM N2H4×2HCl, pH,3.2; and a terminating electrolyte composed of 8,mM H3PO4,+,16,mM ,-Ala,+,10% PVP,+,5,mM N2H4, pH,3.85 for all the matrices except seawater. For ITP of seawater the LE consisted of 50,mM HCl,+,100,mM ,-Ala,+,10% PVP +,2.86,mM N2H4×2HCl, pH,3.52. Distance of conductivity detector from the injection point and bifurcation point was 52 and 38,mm, respectively. Zone electrophoresis was performed in a capillary made of fused silica of 0.3,mm id and 160,mm total length filled with LE from isotachophoretic step. LODs reached for all matrices were 2,3×10,8,M concentration (2.5,4,,g/L) enabled monitoring of iodide in all analyzed samples with RSD 0.4,9.3%. Estimated concentrations of iodide in individual matrices were 10,6,10,8,M. [source]

    Capillary electrophoretic chiral separation of hydroxychloroquine and its metabolites in the microsomal fraction of liver homogenates

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 5-6 2006
    Carmem Dickow Cardoso
    Abstract A rapid, selective, and low-cost chiral capillary electrophoretic method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and its three chiral metabolites: desethylchloroquine (DCQ), desethylhydroxychloroquine (DHCQ), and bisdesethylchloroquine (BDCQ) in the microsomal fraction of liver homogenates. After liquid,liquid extraction using toluene as extracting solvent, the drug and metabolites were resolved on a fused-silica capillary (50,,m ID, 50,cm total length, and 42,cm effective length), using 100,mmol/L of Tris/phosphate buffer, pH,9.0 containing 1% w/v sulfated-,-CD and 30,mg/mL hydroxypropyl-,-CD. Detection was carried out at 220,nm. The extraction procedure was efficient in removing endogenous interferents, and low values (,15%) for CVs and deviation from theoretical values were demonstrated for both within-day and between-day assays. The quantitation limit was 125,ng/mL with linear response over the 125,2000,ng/mL of concentration range for all metabolites. After validation, the method was used for an in vitro metabolism study of HCQ. The major HCQ metabolite formed by microsomal enzymes was (,)-(R)-DHCQ. [source]

    Method development and validation for the analysis of didanosine using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 21 2005
    Swapna Mallampati
    Abstract A selective MEKC method was developed for the analysis of didanosine in bulk samples. Successful separation of didanosine from 13 of its potential impurities, derived from the various synthetic preparation procedures, was achieved. As CZE gave poor separation selectivity, MEKC was preferable. The use of EKC allowed achievement of the separation in a significantly shorter time than conventional HPLC. An anionic long-chain surfactant, lithium dodecyl sulfate (LiDS), was used as the pseudostationary phase and sodium tetraborate buffer as the aqueous phase. In order to obtain the optimal conditions and to test the method robustness, a central composite response surface modeling experiment was performed. The optimized electrophoretic conditions include the use of an uncoated fused-silica capillary with a total length of 40,cm and an ID of 50,,m, a BGE containing 40,mM sodium tetraborate and 110,mM LiDS at pH,8.0, an applied voltage of 18.0,kV, and the capillary temperature maintained at 15°C. The method was found to be robust. The parameters for validation such as linearity, precision, and sensitivity are also reported. Three commercial bulk samples were analyzed with this system. [source]

    Simultaneous detection of S -adenosylmethionine and S -adenosylhomocysteine in mouse and rat tissues by capillary electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 7-8 2003
    Eric O. Uthus
    Abstract A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of S -adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S -adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in rat liver and kidney and mouse liver is described. The method can also be used to determine SAM in whole blood. The method provides rapid (approximately 16 min sample to sample) resolution of both compounds in perchloric extracts of tissues. Separation was performed by using an uncoated 50 ,m ID capillary with 60 cm total length (50 cm to the detector window). Samples were separated at 22.5 kV and the separation running buffer was 200 mM glycine pH 1.8 (with HCl). The method compares favorably to HPLC methods (r,2 = 0.994 for SAM, r,2 = 0.998 for SAH) and has a mass detection limit of about 10 fmol for both SAM and SAH at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The method is linear over ranges of 1,100 ,M SAM and 1,250 ,M SAH. This method can be used to determine tissue concentrations of SAM and SAH, two metabolites that can provide insight into many biological processes. [source]

    Labial Gland and Its Protein Patterns of Hydropsychid Caddisfly (Hydropsyche kozhantschikovi Martynov: Trichoptera)

    Sang-Chan PARK
    ABSTRACT There is a pair of labial gland of hydropsychid caddisfly (Hydropsyche kozhantschikovi Martynov) larva. It is in ,Z' formation in the body and the total length is about 20 mm. Hydropsychid caddishfly larvae that were raised under the lab conditions were able to form a nest-spining by connecting the small grains of sand provided. By repeatedly treating the extracted labial gland with methanol/D.W., the cell layer was removed. Accordingly, only the matrix within the labial gland that did not dissolve in water was obtained. The matrix inside the methanol/D.W. treated labial gland was dissolved with 5% acetic acid. Then the results of an acidic electrophoresis with a number of conditions indicated that 5% acetic acid/ 5 M urea/ 8% PAGE was the most effective. Moreover, the result of 2-D PAGE on the labial gland of these hydropsychid caddisfly larva, the number of proteins in the labial gland including the cell layer was about 350 and the number of proteins in the labial gland treated with methanol/D.W. was about 80, showing a substantially small number of proteins. [source]

    Utility of a juvenile fathead minnow screening assay for detecting (anti-)estrogenic substances

    Grace H. Panter
    Abstract The European Chemical Industry's aquatic research program for endocrine disrupters includes the development of an in vivo juvenile fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) screening assay.Working within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD, Paris, France) tiered approach to endocrine disrupter evaluation in fish, the juvenile fish screening protocol was adapted from the OECD test guideline 204. Six chemicals, with different (anti-)estrogenic potencies, were used to develop the in vivo juvenile fish screening protocol: diethylstilbestrol, 17,-ethynylestradiol, genistein, methoxychlor, 4- tert -pentylphenol, and ZM189,154 (a novel pharmaceutical antiestrogen). Mixed-sex juvenile fathead minnows were exposed to individual chemicals (with chemical analyzes) and sampled after 4, 7, 14, and 21 d of exposure. Wet weight, total length, condition factor, and whole-body homogenate concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG) were determined. Estrogens and antiestrogens were detected in this screen by virtue of the VTG response (an elevation or suppression, respectively) after 14 d. The study showed that the use of VTG concentrations in mixed-sex juvenile fish provides a sensitive and robust assay for the detection of both estrogenic and antiestrogenic chemicals, with widely divergent potencies. [source]

    Ontogeny of Acoustic and Feeding Behaviour in the Grey Gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    M. Clara P. Amorim
    Although sound production in teleost fish is often associated with territorial behaviour, little is known of fish acoustic behaviour in other agonistic contexts such as competitive feeding and how it changes during ontogeny. The grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus, frequently emits knock and grunt sounds during competitive feeding and seems to adopt both contest and scramble tactics under defensible resource conditions. Here we examine, for the first time, the effect of fish size on sound production and agonistic behaviour during competitive feeding. We have made sound (alone) and video (synchronized image and sound) recordings of grey gurnards during competitive feeding interactions. Experimental fish ranged from small juveniles to large adults and were grouped in four size classes: 10,15, 15,20, 25,30 and 30,40 cm in total length. We show that, in this species, both sound production and feeding behaviour change with fish size. Sound production rate decreased in larger fish. Sound duration, pulse duration and the number of pulses increased whereas the peak frequency decreased with fish size, in both sound types (knocks and grunts). Interaction rate and the frequency of agonistic behaviour decreased with increasing fish size during competitive feeding sessions. The proportion of feeding interactions accompanied by sound production was similar in all size classes. However, the proportion of interactions accompanied by knocks (less aggressive sounds) and by grunts (more aggressive) increased and decreased with fish size, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that smaller grey gurnards compete for food by contest tactics whereas larger specimens predominantly scramble for food, probably because body size gives an advantage in locating, capturing and handling prey. We further suggest that sounds emitted during feeding may potentially give information on the motivation and ability of the individual to compete for food resources. [source]

    Convergence of excitatory and inhibitory inputs onto CCK-containing basket cells in the CA1 area of the rat hippocampus

    Ferenc Mátyás
    Abstract The number and distribution of excitatory and inhibitory inputs affect the integrative properties of neurons. These parameters have been studied recently for several hippocampal neuron populations. Besides parvalbumin- (PV) containing cells that include basket and axo-axonic cells, cholecystokinin (CCK)-containing interneurons also form a basket cell population with several properties distinct from PV cells. Here, at the light microscopic level, we reconstructed the entire dendritic tree of CCK-immunoreactive (IR) basket cells to describe their geometry, the total length and laminar distribution of their dendrites. This was followed by an electron microscopic analysis of serial ultrathin sections immunostained against ,-aminobutyric acid, to estimate the density of excitatory and inhibitory synapses on their somata, axon initial segments and different subclasses of dendrites. The dendritic tree of CCK-IR basket cells has an average length of 6300 µm and penetrates all layers. At the electron microscopic level, CCK basket cells receive dendritic inputs with a density of 80,230 per 100 µm. The ratio of inhibitory inputs is relatively high (35%) and increases towards the soma (83%). The total numbers of excitatory and inhibitory synapses converging onto CCK-IR cells are ,,8200. Comparison of the two, neurochemically distinct basket cells reveals that CCK-containing basket cells receive much less synaptic input than PV cells; however, the relative weight of inhibition is higher on CCK cells. Additional differences in their anatomical and physiological properties predict that CCK basket cells are under a more diverse, elaborate control than PV basket cells, and thus the function of the two populations must be different. [source]