Total Carotenoid Content (total + carotenoid_content)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Influence of growth stage and postharvest storage on ascorbic acid and carotenoid content and visual quality of baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 3 2006
Sara M Bergquist
Abstract To investigate the variations in quality with growth stage and postharvest storage, spinach was sown on three occasions. For each occasion, the spinach was harvested at three growth stages at 6-day intervals. The second stage corresponded to a growth period used for baby spinach by commercial growers. After harvest, the leaves were stored in polypropylene bags at 2 C or 10 C. The highest ascorbic acid content in fresh material was found at stage I. During storage, the ascorbic acid content decreased considerably and the dehydroascorbic acid/vitamin C ratio increased. Storage at 2 C gave a smaller reduction in ascorbic acid content than storage at 10 C. Total carotenoid content increased or remained stable during storage. Lutein was the major carotenoid, making up about 39% of the total carotenoid content, followed by violaxanthin, ,-carotene and neoxanthin. Visual quality decreased during storage in most cases, and was correlated to initial ascorbic acid and dry matter contents. The initial AA content might therefore be used as a parameter for predicting the shelf-life of baby spinach. The results also indicate that by harvesting baby spinach a few days earlier than the current commercial stage of harvest the postharvest visual quality and nutritional quality may be improved. Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Characteristics of pigment composition and colour value by the difference of harvesting times in Korean red pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum, L.)

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
Suna Kim
Summary The main pigments of Capsicum annuum cv. Hanbando and Dabotop in dried red fruits were capsanthin, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene. Total carotenoid contents were twice as high at the fourth harvest compared with the second harvest in both varieties. The ratios of capsanthin to yellow fraction were above 1.0 in Hanbando and below 1.0 in Dabotop. Zeaxanthin content at the third harvest was about three times higher than at the second harvest in Dabotop. ASTA colour values harvested in the second, third and fourth weeks were 114, 152 and 178 in Hanbando and 115, 137 and 140 in Dabotop. Hue value of Hanbando was below 1.0 at all harvests and that of Dabotop was above 1.0 at the second and fourth harvests. The comparison of the C* values of two varieties revealed that Hanbando had the most vivid redness at the fourth harvest, whereas Dabotop was most vivid at the second harvest. [source]


Changes in total carotenoid content at different stages of traditional processing of yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 12 2009
Busie Maziya-Dixon
Abstract The changes in content of total carotenoid at each stage of processing cassava storage roots were investigated with three improved yellow-fleshed cassava varieties (TMS 94/0006, TMS 01/1235 and TMS 01/1371) grown in 2005/2006 in a randomised complete block design with two replications at Ibadan, Nigeria. When the cassava roots were grated to a mash, results obtained indicate that there was a significant reduction in total carotenoid content for all the genotypes. The reduction was highest for TMS 01/1235 (1.20 ,g g,1), intermediate for TMS 01/1371 (0.78 ,g g,1) and least for TMS 94/0006 (0.35 ,g g,1). In most cases, we observed higher total carotenoid concentration, especially when the intermediate step involved pressing to remove excess water, and during roasting compared with the initial concentration in the raw cassava storage roots. In conclusion, grating, drying and cooking to a paste resulted in reduction of total carotenoid content, while roasting and pressing resulted in higher carotenoid concentration. A change in total carotenoid content during processing depends on variety, processing method, especially unit operation and the initial total carotenoid content of the variety. [source]


Study of the bio-production of carotenoids by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636) using pre-treated agro-industrial substrates

JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 9 2008
Eunice Valduga
Abstract BACKGROUND: The increasing industrial demand for carotenoids has aroused interest in their bio-production, and the need to reduce production costs has encouraged the use of low cost industrial substrates, such as agro-industrial residues. Thus the objective of this research was the bio-production of carotenoids by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor using agro-industrial substrates (corn steep liquor and sugarcane molasses), pre-treated with acids (sulphuric and phosphoric). RESULTS: Bio-production was carried out in an orbital shaker using a 10% (v/v) inoculum, incubation at 25 C, and agitation at 180 rpm for 120 h in a non-illuminated environment. The carotenoids were recovered using liquid N2 combined with dimethylsulphoxide for cell rupture, and an acetone/methanol mixture (7:3 v/v) for extraction. CONCLUSION: The complete second-order design allowed for optimisation of the carotenoid concentration obtained from industrial substrates pre-treated with acids (sulphuric and phosphoric), obtaining a total carotenoid content of 541.5 g L,1 using 10 g L,1 sugarcane molasses, 5 g L,1 corn steep liquor and 5 g L,1 yeast hydrolysate at 25 C, with agitation at 180 rpm and an initial pH of 4.0. Copyright 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


PHOTOINHIBITION IN RED ALGAL SPECIES WITH DIFFERENT CAROTENOID PROFILES,

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Nadine Schubert
Members of the Rhodophyta present different carotenoid profiles. In a majority of the species, lutein constitutes >50% of the total carotenoid content, while in other species, it is replaced by zeaxanthin or antheraxanthin. Given that carotenoids have specific roles in photoprotection, different carotenoid profiles of red algae species could be related to their capacity to cope with photoinhibitory stress. Therefore, in the present work, the sensitivity to light stress of red algal species with different carotenoid profiles was investigated. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis induced by high-light stress and the subsequent recovery in dim-light conditions was measured using maximal PSII quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm). The degree of decrease and recovery of Fv/Fm and their respective kinetics were related to the carotenoid profile of the species. Although no relationship between sensitivity to high-light stress and the carotenoid profile was observed, there were clear carotenoid profile-related differences in the decrease and recovery kinetics. In species with zeaxanthin or antheraxanthin as the major carotenoid, Fv/Fm reduction and recovery was principally associated with slowly activated and relaxed processes. In contrast, in species with lutein as the major carotenoid, rapidly activated processes appear to play a major role in the down-regulation of photosynthesis during light-stress conditions. In these species, the repair of D1 is also important during light-stress conditions. This finding could imply differential expression of mechanisms involved in photoprotection in red algae that seems to be related to the carotenoid profile of the species. [source]


Influence of growth stage and postharvest storage on ascorbic acid and carotenoid content and visual quality of baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 3 2006
Sara M Bergquist
Abstract To investigate the variations in quality with growth stage and postharvest storage, spinach was sown on three occasions. For each occasion, the spinach was harvested at three growth stages at 6-day intervals. The second stage corresponded to a growth period used for baby spinach by commercial growers. After harvest, the leaves were stored in polypropylene bags at 2 C or 10 C. The highest ascorbic acid content in fresh material was found at stage I. During storage, the ascorbic acid content decreased considerably and the dehydroascorbic acid/vitamin C ratio increased. Storage at 2 C gave a smaller reduction in ascorbic acid content than storage at 10 C. Total carotenoid content increased or remained stable during storage. Lutein was the major carotenoid, making up about 39% of the total carotenoid content, followed by violaxanthin, ,-carotene and neoxanthin. Visual quality decreased during storage in most cases, and was correlated to initial ascorbic acid and dry matter contents. The initial AA content might therefore be used as a parameter for predicting the shelf-life of baby spinach. The results also indicate that by harvesting baby spinach a few days earlier than the current commercial stage of harvest the postharvest visual quality and nutritional quality may be improved. Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Carotenoid Content and Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Carrot Chips Deep-Fried in Different Oils at Several Temperatures

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 9 2001
A. Sulaeman
ABSTRACT: The influence of deep-frying using different oils and temperatures on carotenoid content and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of carrot chips was investigated. Sliced carrots were steam-blanched, cooled, soaked in 0.2% sodium metabisulfite, and deep-fried in canola, palm, or partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO) at 165, 175, or 185 C. Frying temperature, but not oil, significantly (P < 0.05) affected the ,-carotene, ,-carotene, and total carotenoid contents. Oil type significantly (P < 0.05) influenced all color values. Increasing temperature lowered the redness value, which correlated with decreased carotenoid content, color darkening, and decreased hardness value. Trained panelists detected no differences among oil types in crispness, sweetness, odor, and acceptability. The best carrot-chip product was that fried in PHSO at 165 C. [source]