Total Carotenoids (total + carotenoid)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Total Carotenoids

  • total carotenoid content

  • Selected Abstracts


    Changes in total carotenoid content at different stages of traditional processing of yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 12 2009
    Busie Maziya-Dixon
    Abstract The changes in content of total carotenoid at each stage of processing cassava storage roots were investigated with three improved yellow-fleshed cassava varieties (TMS 94/0006, TMS 01/1235 and TMS 01/1371) grown in 2005/2006 in a randomised complete block design with two replications at Ibadan, Nigeria. When the cassava roots were grated to a mash, results obtained indicate that there was a significant reduction in total carotenoid content for all the genotypes. The reduction was highest for TMS 01/1235 (1.20 ,g g,1), intermediate for TMS 01/1371 (0.78 ,g g,1) and least for TMS 94/0006 (0.35 ,g g,1). In most cases, we observed higher total carotenoid concentration, especially when the intermediate step involved pressing to remove excess water, and during roasting compared with the initial concentration in the raw cassava storage roots. In conclusion, grating, drying and cooking to a paste resulted in reduction of total carotenoid content, while roasting and pressing resulted in higher carotenoid concentration. A change in total carotenoid content during processing depends on variety, processing method, especially unit operation and the initial total carotenoid content of the variety. [source]


    Effect of drying and storage on the degradation of total carotenoids in orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 4 2010
    Aurélie Bechoff
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) can be used to tackle vitamin A deficiency, a major public health problem in most developing countries. In East Africa, common ways of using sweetpotato include drying and subsequent storage. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of drying and storage on the total carotenoid retention (as an estimate of provitamin A retention) from OFSP. RESULTS: Losses of total carotenoid during drying were generally low (15% or less). Total carotenoid retention in OFSP was not dependent on the type of dryer (solar or sun). Sweetpotato cultivar (Ejumula, Kakamega, SPK004/1, SPK004/1/1, SPK004/6 or SPK004/6/6) had a significant effect on retention in drying (P < 0.05). High percentage losses of total carotenoids were, however, correlated with high moisture content and high carotenoid content in fresh sweetpotato roots. After 4 months' storage at room temperature in Uganda, losses of total carotenoid in dried sweetpotato chips were high (about 70%) and this was not dependent on the use of opaque or transparent packaging. CONCLUSION: Losses of carotenoids during storage were considered to be more of a nutritional constraint to the utilisation of dried sweetpotato than losses occurring during drying. The relationship between characteristics of the cultivars and losses of carotenoids during drying should be taken into account in selection of cultivars for processing. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Influence of agricultural practices on the quality of sweet pepper fruits as affected by the maturity stage

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 11 2007
    Antonio José Pérez-López
    Abstract Background: Peppers are popular vegetables because of their colour, taste and nutritional value. The levels of vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolic compounds in peppers and other vegetables depend on several factors, including cultivar, agricultural practice and maturity stage. Results: In this study the effects of maturation and type of agricultural practice (organic or conventional) on the ascorbic acid, total carotenoid and total phenolic contents and colour parameters of sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum cv. Almuden) grown in a controlled greenhouse were determined. Levels of vitamin C, phenolic compounds and carotenoids increased during ripening, with red sweet peppers having higher contents of these bioactive compounds. Moreover, peppers grown under organic culture had higher vitamin C, phenolic and carotenoid levels than those grown under conventional culture. With respect to colour parameters, organic red peppers had higher values of L*, a*, b*, C* and Hab than conventional red peppers, giving them a higher intensity of red colour. Conclusion: Thus organic farming had a positive effect on the nutritional content of peppers, increasing the vitamin C activity and the level of phenolic compounds, both implicated in the antioxidant activity of vegetables, and the content of carotenoids, implicated in the colour variance observed in pepper fruits. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Does female nuptial coloration reflect egg carotenoids and clutch quality in the Two-Spotted Goby (Gobiusculus flavescens, Gobiidae)?

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    P. A. SVENSSON
    Summary 1Carotenoid-based ornamentation has often been suggested to signal mate quality, and species with such ornaments have frequently been used in studies of sexual selection. 2Female Gobiusculus flavescens (Two-Spotted Goby) develop colourful orange bellies during the breeding season. Belly coloration varies among mature females, and previous work has shown that nest-holding males prefer females with more colourful bellies. Because males invest heavily in offspring during incubation, the evolution of this preference can be explained if colourful females provide males with eggs of higher quality. 3We tested this hypothesis by allowing males to spawn with ,colourful' and ,drab' females and comparing parameters including egg carotenoid concentration, clutch size, hatchability and larval viability between groups. We also investigated relationships between egg carotenoid concentration and clutch quality parameters. 4Eggs from colourful females had significantly higher concentrations of total carotenoids than drab females, and photographically quantified belly coloration was a good predictor of egg carotenoid concentration. 5Colourful females produced slightly larger clutches, but female belly coloration was not related to any measure of clutch quality. In addition, there were no significant relationships between egg carotenoids and clutch quality. Females with high levels of egg carotenoids spawned slightly earlier, however, possibly because they were more ready to spawn or because of male mate choice. 6Our results call into question the generality of a causal link between egg carotenoids and offspring quality. [source]


    Carotenoids/vitamin C and smoking-related bladder cancer

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 3 2004
    J. Esteban Castelao
    Abstract Previous epidemiological studies of fruit and vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results, especially with respect to the role of cigarette smoking as a possible modifier of the diet-bladder cancer association. A population-based case-control study was conducted in nonAsians of Los Angeles, California, which included 1,592 bladder cancer patients and an equal number of neighborhood controls matched to the index cases by sex, date of birth (within 5 years) and race between January 1, 1987 and April 30, 1996. Information on smoking, medical and medication history, and intake frequencies of food groups rich in preformed nitrosamines, vitamins A and C and various carotenoids, were collected through in-person, structured interviews. Beginning in January 1992, all case patients and their matched control subjects were asked for a blood sample donation at the end of the in-person interviews for measurements of 3- and 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP) hemoglobin adducts, and glutathione S -transferases M1/T1/P1 (GSTM1/T1/P1) and N -acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) genotypes. Seven hundred seventy-one (74%) case patients and 775 (79%) control subjects consented to the blood donation requests. In addition, all case patients and matched control subjects were asked to donate an overnight urine specimen following caffeine consumption for measurements of cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and N -acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) phenotypes. Urine specimens were collected from 724 (69%) case patients and 689 (70%) control subjects. After adjustment for nondietary risk factors including cigarette smoking, there were strong inverse associations between bladder cancer risk and intake of dark-green vegetables [p value for linear trend (p) = 0.01], yellow-orange vegetables (p = 0.01), citrus fruits/juices (p = 0.002) and tomato products (p = 0.03). In terms of nutrients, bladder cancer risk was inversely associated with intake of both total carotenoids (p = 0.004) and vitamin C (p = 0.02). There was a close correlation (r = 0.58, p = 0.0001) between intakes of total carotenoids and vitamin C in study subjects. When both nutrients were included in a multivariate logistic regression model, only total carotenoids exhibited a residual effect that was of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.07 and p = 0.40 for total carotenoids and vitamin C, respectively). Cigarette smoking was a strong modifier of the observed dietary effects; these protective effects were confined largely to ever smokers and were stronger in current than ex-smokers. Smokers showed a statistically significant or borderline statistically significant decrease in 3- and 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP)-hemoglobin adduct level with increasing intake of carotenoids (p = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively). The protective effect of carotenoids on bladder cancer seemed to be influenced by NAT1 genotype, NAT2 phenotype and CYP1A2 phenotype; the association was mainly confined to subjects possessing the putative NAT1 -rapid, NAT2-rapid and CYP1A2-rapid genotype/phenotype. The carotenoid-bladder cancer association was not affected by the GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Biochemical changes in cut vs. intact lamb's lettuce (Valerianella olitoria) leaves during storage

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Antonio Ferrante
    Summary Consumers are oriented towards fresh-cut vegetables that provide phytonutrients useful for preventing stress-related diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate the cut operations on the quality changes of lamb's lettuce (Valerianella olitoria L.) cv. Trofy during storage at 4 °C for 8 days. Results showed that chlorophyll and carotenoids reduction was observed after 8 days of storage. In both treatments, total carotenoids after 8 days decreased from 20 to 16 mg g,1 FW. Free and total phenols increased with storage in both treatments. Total phenols were 23% higher in control (32 ,mol g,1 FW) compared to cut leaves (25 ,mol g,1 FW) after 8 days of storage. Anthocyanins increased after 8 days and reached 30 mg 100 g,1 FW without significant difference between treatments. Ascorbic acid (AsA) and dehydroascorbic (DHA) acid increased in cut leaves compared to control. After 1 day AsA concentration was 3 300 nmol g,1 FW in cut leaves, while in control leaves was 1 500 nmol g,1 FW. Analogously AsA + DHA was higher in cut leaves, 4 100 nmol g,1 FW, while in control leaves the mean was 3 000 nmol g,1 FW. After 5 days of storage the values of AsA returned to initial values, while AsA + DHA were lower. [source]


    Peroxidase activity, chlorophylls and antioxidant profile of two leaf vegetables (Solanum nigrum L. and Amaranthus cruentus L.) under six pretreatment methods before cooking

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Odunayo Clement Adebooye
    Summary The study evaluated the effects of six pretreatment methods before cooking on the peroxidase activity, chlorophyll and antioxidant profile of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Solanum nigrum L. The six pretreatments methods used were chopped only (raw sample) (coded M1); chopped and dried at 50 °C for 5 h (coded M2); chopped and squeezed in water (at room temperature) (coded M3); chopped and soaked in warm water (approximately 60 °C), then cooled and squeezed (coded M4); chopped and soaked in salt-treated water (approximately 20 g NaCl per litre of water) for 15 min, then squeezed (coded M5) and chopped and soaked in boiling water (100 °C), then cooled and squeezed (coded M6). The main effect of vegetable type and the main effect of pretreatment methods have significant effects (P 0.05) on the parameters measured, while the interaction of vegetable type and pretreatment methods have no significant effect on the parameters measured. Statistical analyses (P 0.05) showed that chlorophyll a and b occur in ratio 3:1 in the two vegetables, irrespective of the pretreatment imposed. Peroxidase activity test showed that A. cruentus, irrespective of the pretreatment imposed showed, no peroxidase activity, while S. nigrum showed high peroxidase activity for all the pretreatments except for M6. Results showed that there was a significantly (P 0.05) higher content of carotenoids in A. cruentus when compared with S. nigrum, while the total phenolics, total flavonoids and total tannins contents were higher in S. nigrum when compared with A. cruentus, irrespective of the pretreatment method used. For the two vegetables, the percentage losses in total carotenoids, phenolics, flavonoids and total tannins at M6 when compared with M1 were 53.3,60.5%, 55.6,57.1%, 62.4,63.6% and 66.1,73.5%, respectively. There was a sharp drop in the carotenoids, phenolics, flavonoids and tannins contents of the two vegetables at M4 and M6, with both treatments having closely similar values for each parameter. [source]


    The use of colloidal gas aphrons as novel downstream processing for the recovery of astaxanthin from cells of Phaffia rhodozyma

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Maria Dermiki
    Abstract BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in obtaining natural products with bioactive properties, using fermentation technology. However, the downstream processing consisting of multiple steps can be complicated, leading to increase in the final cost of the product. Therefore there is a need for integrated, cost-effective and scalable separation processes. RESULTS: The present study investigates the use of colloidal gas aphrons (CGA), which are surfactant-stabilized microbubbles, as a novel method for downstream processing. More particularly, their application for the recovery of astaxanthin from the cells of Phaffia rhodozyma is explored. Research carried out with standard solutions of astaxanthin and CGA generated from the cationic surfactant hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) showed that up to 90% recovery can be achieved under optimum conditions, i.e., pH 11 with NaOH 0.2 mol L,1. In the case of the cells' suspension from the fermentation broth, three different approaches were investigated: (a) the conventional integrated approach where CGA were applied directly; (b) CGA were applied to the clarified suspension of cells; and finally (c) the in situ approach, where CGA are generated within the clarified suspension of cells. Interestingly, in the case of the whole suspension (approach a) highest recoveries (78%) were achieved under the same conditions found to be optimal for the standard solutions. In addition, up to 97% recovery of total carotenoids could be achieved from the clarified suspension after pretreatment with NaOH. This pretreatment led to maximum cell disruption as well as optimum conditioning for subsequent CGA separation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the potential of CGA for the recovery of bioactive components from complex feedstock. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    GENETIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIATION IN PIGMENT COMPOSITION OF EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE) AND THE POTENTIAL USE OF ITS PIGMENT RATIOS AS A QUANTITATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL MARKER

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Willem Stolte
    Genetic variation of pigment composition was studied in 16 different strains of Emiliania huxleyi (Lohm.) Hay et Mohler in batch culture. Distinct strain-dependent differences were found in the ratios of fucoxanthin, 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, and 19,-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, hampering the use of these individual pigments as a taxonomic marker at the species level. The molar ratio of total carotenoids to chl a, however, was constant for all strains tested. In addition, the pigment composition of one axenic strain (L) of E. huxleyi at different growth rates in light-, nitrate-, and phosphate-limited continuous cultures was analyzed quantitatively. The pigments fucoxanthin and 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin correlated closely under all conditions. From steady-state rate calculations, it is hypothesized that 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin is synthesized from fucoxanthin, with light as a modulating factor. The net rate of synthesis of diatoxanthin depended both on the concentration of diadinoxanthin (its partner in the xanthophyll cycle) and on light, illustrating its photoprotective function in the xanthophyll cycle. In axenic strain L, the ratio of total fucoxanthins to chl a correlated strongly with photon flux density and can potentially be used to assess the physiological status with respect to irradiance in field populations. In multispecific bloom situations, the ratio of diadinoxanthin plus diatoxanthin to total fucoxanthins could be used as an alternative indicator for the light-dependent physiological state of E. huxleyi, provided that no other chromophytes are present. Application of these correlations to mesocosm data from the literature has so far provided no evidence that E. huxleyi blooms form only at inhibiting light levels, as previously suggested. [source]


    Effect of drying and storage on the degradation of total carotenoids in orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 4 2010
    Aurélie Bechoff
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) can be used to tackle vitamin A deficiency, a major public health problem in most developing countries. In East Africa, common ways of using sweetpotato include drying and subsequent storage. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of drying and storage on the total carotenoid retention (as an estimate of provitamin A retention) from OFSP. RESULTS: Losses of total carotenoid during drying were generally low (15% or less). Total carotenoid retention in OFSP was not dependent on the type of dryer (solar or sun). Sweetpotato cultivar (Ejumula, Kakamega, SPK004/1, SPK004/1/1, SPK004/6 or SPK004/6/6) had a significant effect on retention in drying (P < 0.05). High percentage losses of total carotenoids were, however, correlated with high moisture content and high carotenoid content in fresh sweetpotato roots. After 4 months' storage at room temperature in Uganda, losses of total carotenoid in dried sweetpotato chips were high (about 70%) and this was not dependent on the use of opaque or transparent packaging. CONCLUSION: Losses of carotenoids during storage were considered to be more of a nutritional constraint to the utilisation of dried sweetpotato than losses occurring during drying. The relationship between characteristics of the cultivars and losses of carotenoids during drying should be taken into account in selection of cultivars for processing. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Antioxidant compounds in green and red peppers as affected by irrigation frequency, salinity and nutrient solution composition

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 8 2009
    Alicia Marín
    Abstract BACKGROUND: There is a need to encourage more sustainable agricultural practices, reducing inputs of water and fertilisers while minimising any negative impact on fruit quality. The effect of irrigation frequency, salinity and potassium and calcium fertilisation on the content of bioactive compounds and quality attributes of green and red peppers grown with and without substrate was evaluated. RESULTS: Low irrigation frequency and salinity improved the quality attributes (dry matter, soluble solids content and titratable acidity) of pepper. Low irrigation frequency increased vitamin C content by 23% in green peppers, while in red fruits it was not affected. In contrast, total carotenoids and provitamin A only increased in red fruits by 30% and 15%, respectively, as a consequence of low irrigation frequency. When the effect of potassium and calcium doses was investigated, it was shown that a high proportion of potassium increased the vitamin C, provitamin A and total phenolic content of red and green peppers, whereas pepper grown at low calcium doses, presented the highest content in carotenoids and provitamin A. CONCLUSION: Low irrigation frequency and fertilisation with high potassium and low calcium doses improved pepper quality increasing the content of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Contents of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, minerals and total glucosinolates in leafy brassica pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. chinensis) as affected by season and variety

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 5 2009
    Peter Hanson
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. chinensis) is economically and nutritionally important in East and Southeast Asia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of season and variety on its phytonutrient content (carotenoids, minerals, ascorbic acid and total glucosinolates). RESULTS: Thirty-five varieties were evaluated in one dry season and one wet season field trial at AVRDC,The World Vegetable Center, Taiwan. Mean carotenoid content was about 36% greater in the dry season than in the wet season trial. In contrast, ascorbic acid and total glucosinolate contents were 48 and 72% higher respectively in the wet season than in the dry season trial. Dry matter, calcium and iron contents were also 69, 69 and 21% greater respectively in the wet season than in the dry season trial. Significant differences among entries were found for most phytonutrients; the ranges of variety means were fourfold for total carotenoids, fivefold for iron and total glucosinolates and twofold for calcium. CONCLUSION: Season strongly influences the phytonutrient content of pakchoi grown in the tropics. Significant differences among entries were found for all phytonutrients, and there is potential to increase levels of individual phytonutrients through plant breeding. However, breeding would need to target varieties for either the dry or the wet season. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Pre- or post-harvest applications of putrescine and low temperature storage affect fruit ripening and quality of ,Angelino' plum

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 10 2008
    Ahmad S Khan
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Plum has a very short storage life. The role of pre- or post-harvest applications of putrescine (PUT) and low temperature storage on fruit ripening and quality was investigated in plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Angelino). RESULTS: Pre- or post-harvest PUT treatments [(0.1, 1.0 or 2.0 mmol L,1) + 0.01% Tween-20 as a surfactant] delayed and suppressed the climacteric ethylene production and respiration rate irrespective of the method used to apply PUT. PUT-treated fruit following low temperature storage (0 ± 1 °C; 90 ± 5% RH), at the ripe stage exhibited higher fruit firmness and titratable acidity (TA), while soluble solids content (SSC), levels of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and total antioxidants were lower than in untreated fruit. Fruit both sprayed with PUT and stored in low temperature for 6 weeks, at the ripe stage showed reduced respiration rate, delayed changes in the SSC:TA ratio and levels of total carotenoids compared to post-harvest PUT application. CONCLUSION: Pre-harvest application of 2.0 mmol L,1 PUT 1 week before the anticipated commercial harvest was more effective in delaying plum fruit ripening and can be used to extend the storage (0 ± 1 °C) life of plums for up to 6 weeks with minimum losses in fruit quality. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Impact of high-pressure and traditional thermal processing of tomato purée on carotenoids, vitamin C and antioxidant activity

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 2 2006
    Concepción Sánchez-Moreno
    Abstract Bioactive compounds (carotenoids and vitamin C) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH,) scavenging activity [50% depletion of initial DPPH, radical (EC50) and antiradical efficiency (AE)], in aqueous (AQ) and organic (OR) fractions, were measured in tomato purée subjected to high-pressure (HP) (400 MPa/25 °C/15 min), low pasteurisation (LPT) (70 °C/30 s), high pasteurisation (HPT) (90 °C/1 min), freezing (F) (,38 °C/15 min), and HPT plus F (HPT + F). In addition, physical and physicochemical parameters were evaluated. CIELab uniform colour space parameters (lightness, L*; green-red tonality, a*; and blue-yellow tonality, b*) were significantly higher both in the untreated and in the HP tomato purée than in the rest of the samples. Individual and total carotenoids, and provitamin A carotenoids, were significantly higher in HP tomato purée than in the untreated and other treated tomato purées. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C were significantly lower in HP, LPT, HPT, and HPT + F tomato purées than in the untreated and F purées. In the AQ fractions, we found an inverse significant correlation between both ascorbic acid and total vitamin C and EC50AQ; and a positive significant correlation with AEAQ. In the OR fractions, a significant correlation was found between EC50OR and AEOR parameters and lycopene and total carotenoids. Total scavenging activity (AQ + OR fractions) in HP tomato purée was similar to that in LPT, HPT, and HPT + F purées. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Carotenoids in pungent and non-pungent peppers at various developmental stages grown in the field and glasshouse,

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 6 2002
    M Russo
    Abstract Carotenoids in edible portions of plants can provide health benefits to humans. How growing conditions affect levels of carotenoids in pepper fruits as they mature is not well known. Five cvs of bell pepper (Bell Captain, Melody, North Star, Ranger, Red Beauty) and five cvs of pungent-type peppers (Anaheim, Ancho, Cayenne, Pimento, Red Cherry) were grown in a glasshouse and in the field. Fruits were harvested at the green, turning (50% green) and mature red stages and analysed for levels of the carotenoids ,-cryptoxanthin, ,-carotene, ,-carotene, capsanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin and totals of these carotenoids. Levels of provitamin A: retinol equivalents (RE) were derived from levels of ,-cryptoxanthin, ,-carotene and ,-carotene. Levels of most carotenoids and RE were significantly higher in glasshouse-grown plants, and most were higher in fruits at the red stage. Fruits of Ancho type had the most ,-cryptoxanthin, ,-carotene, ,-carotene, total carotenoids and RE, while fruits of Red Cherry type had the most capsanthin and zeaxanthin, and fruits of Bell Captain had the most lutein. Interactions of the main effects variables, ie location of production (field vs glasshouse), stage of development and cultivar, indicated differences in patterns of carotenoid levels and RE. The data indicated that growing conditions influenced carotenoid levels. The more consistent and protected conditions in the glasshouse may have caused carotenoid levels to be increased, especially at the red stage. Published in 2002 for SCI by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd [source]


    Antioxidant nutritional quality of tomato

    MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 5 2007
    Luigi Frusciante
    Abstract Regular consumption of tomatoes has been associated with decreased risk of chronic degenerative diseases. Epidemiological findings confirm the observed health effects are due to the presence of different antioxidant molecules such as carotenoids, particularly lycopene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and phenol compounds, particularly flavonoids. In this work, eight components contributing to the healthy quality of tomato (i. e. lycopene, ,-carotene, other carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamins C and E, dry residue) were studied in the framework of breeding programs aiming to develop nutritional superior genotypes. Twelve tomato advanced breeding lines and six open pollinated cultivars were grown in strictly controlled conditions and analysed for their content of antioxidants. Among the 18 genotypes analysed, 10 showed a high level of total carotenoids, 6 high level of ,-carotene, 9 high lycopene levels, 15 high flavonoids and 2 relevant concentration of vitamin E. Based on such data and on a literature survey on tomato composition, an index, called index of antioxidant nutritional quality (IQUAN), was proposed as a tool to address the breeding programs in selecting tomato genotypes with antioxidant nutritional qualities. [source]


    Effects of cage netting colour and density on the skin pigmentation and stress response of Australian snapper Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 13 2008
    Ben J Doolan
    Abstract The unnaturally dark pigmentation of cultured Australian snapper Pagrus auratus can be improved through dietary astaxanthin supplementation and by holding fish in tanks with a white background. The practical application of these laboratory-based findings was examined with two experiments to establish if the advantages of transferring fish to light coloured tanks before harvest could be achieved on-farm using white cages and to determine the effects of fish density on skin colour. For the first experiment, snapper (mean TL=29.7 cm) were transferred from a commercial snapper sea cage to black or white netted cages and fed diets supplemented with unesterified astaxanthin (supplied as Lucantin® Pink, BASF) at 0 or 39 mg kg,1 for 42 days. Skin colour was measured using the CIE (black,white), (green,red), (blue,yellow) colour scale. Snapper held in white netting cages became significantly lighter (higher ) than snapper held in black cages; however, values were not as high as previous laboratory-based studies in which snapper were held in white plastic-lined cages. Snapper fed astaxanthin displayed significantly greater and values, and total carotenoid concentrations after 42 days. In addition, total carotenoids were higher in fish from black than white cages. The second experiment was designed to investigate whether density reduced the improvements in skin colour achieved by holding fish in white coloured cages and whether cage colour affected stress. Snapper (mean weight=435 g) were acclimated to black cages and fed 39 mg kg,1 astaxanthin for 44 days before transferring to black or white plastic-lined cages at 14 (low), 29 (mid) or 45 (high) kg m,3 for 7 days after which time skin colour, plasma cortisol and plasma glucose concentrations were measured. Skin lightness () was greater in snapper transferred to white plastic-lined cages with the lightest coloured fish obtained from the lowest density after 7 days. Density had no effect on plasma cortisol or glucose levels after 7 days, although plasma cortisol was elevated in snapper from black cages. For improved skin colouration we recommend feeding unesterified astaxanthin at 39 mg kg,1 for approximately 6 weeks and transferring snapper to white plastic-lined cages or similar at low densities for short periods before harvest rather than producing fish in white netting sea cages subject to biofouling. [source]