Total Bacterial Load (total + bacterial_load)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Microbial colonization patterns predict the outcomes of surgical treatment of intrabony defects

Lisa Heitz-Mayfield
Abstract Aim: To explore the impact of bacterial load and microbial colonization patterns on the clinical outcomes of periodontal surgery at deep intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-two patients with advanced chronic periodontitis and at least one intrabony defect of >3 mm were recruited in 10 centres. Before recruitment, the infection control phase of periodontal therapy was completed. After surgical access and debridement, the regenerative material was applied in the test subjects, and omitted in the controls. At baseline and 1 year following the interventions, clinical attachment levels (CAL), pocket probing depths (PPD), recession (REC), full-mouth plaque scores and full-mouth bleeding scores were assessed. Microbial colonization of the defect-associated pocket was assessed using a DNA,DNA checkerboard analysis. Results: Total bacterial load and counts of red complex bacteria were negatively associated with CAL gains 1 year following treatment. The probability of achieving above median CAL gains (>3 mm) was significantly decreased by higher total bacterial counts, higher red complex and T. forsythensis counts immediately before surgery. Conclusions: Presence of high bacterial load and specific periodontal pathogen complexes in deep periodontal pockets associated with intrabony defects had a significant negative impact on the 1 year outcome of surgical/regenerative treatment. [source]

Immunization of Macaca fascicularis against experimental periodontitis using a vaccine containing cysteine proteases purified from Porphyromonas gingivalis

R. C. Page
Introduction:, Periodontitis is a common infectious disease to which Porphyromonas gingivalis has been closely linked, in which the attachment tissues of the teeth and their alveolar bone housing are destroyed. We conducted a study to determine if immunization using a purified antigen could alter the onset and progression of the disease. Methods:, Using the ligature-induced model of periodontitis in Macaca fascicularis, we immunized five animals with cysteine protease purified from P. gingivalis and used an additional five animals as controls. Alveolar bone loss was measured by digital subtraction radiography. Results:, Immunization induced high titers of specific immunoglobuin G serum antibodies that were opsonic. Total bacterial load, levels of P. gingivalis in subgingival plaque and levels of prostaglandin E2 in gingival crevicular fluid were significantly reduced. Onset and progression of alveolar bone loss was inhibited by approximately 50%. No manifestations of toxicity were observed. Conclusions:, Immunization using a purified protein antigen from P. gingivalis inhibits alveolar bone destruction in a ligature-induced periodontitis model in M. fascicularis. [source]

Faecal coliforms in pond water, sediments and hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus×Oreochromis aureus in Saudi Arabia

Ahmed H Al-Harbi
Abstract Total bacterial load, total coliforms faecal coliforms in pond water, sediment, intestine of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus×Oreochromis aureus and pigeon Columba livia faeces were investigated monthly over a period of 1 year from July 1999 to June 2000. Fish were collected randomly by a cast net. Samples were analysed for coliforms using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Results showed total viable bacterial counts in the pond water, sediment, intestine of tilapia and pigeon faeces ranging from 1.8±0.9×102 to 6.0±1.2×104 cfu mL,1, 3.2±1.2×105 to 2.8±1.5×107 cfu g,1, 8.2±1.6×105 to 9.9±1.5×107 cfu g,11.0±0.4×107to9.7±0.2×109 cfu g,1respectively. The most probable number (MPN) of coliforms and faecal coliforms ranged from 287±12 to ,1600±0 100 mL,1 in pond water; the MPN ranges for sediment, tilapia intestine and pigeon faeces were 257±29 to ,1100±0 g,1, 237±46 to ,1100±0 g,1 and 403±98 to ,1100±0 g,1 respectively. The abundance of normal bacteria coliforms was greater in the warm months than in the cold months. Ground water was free from any sort of coliform organisms, and there were no sources of human faecal matter in the pond. So, it is clear that faecal coliforms from pigeon faeces significantly contaminated (P<0.05) the ponds and tilapia intestines. Escherichia coli was the only coliform organism found in pond water, sediment, intestine of tilapia and pigeon faeces. [source]

Phylogenetic analysis of intestinal bacteria in the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

K. Li
Abstract Aims:, To identify the dominant intestinal bacteria in the Chinese mitten crab, and to investigate the differences in the intestinal bacteria between pond-raised and wild crabs. Methods and Results:, The diversity of intestinal bacteria in the Chinese mitten crabs was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and real-time quantitative PCR. The principal component analysis of DGGE profiles indicated that substantial intersubject variations existed in intestinal bacteria in pond-raised crab. The sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that 90,95% of the phylotypes in the clone libraries were affiliated with Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Some genera were identified as unique in wild crabs and in pond-raised crabs, whereas Bacteroidetes was found to be common in all sampled crab groups. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the abundance of Bacteroides and the total bacterial load were approximately four-to-10 times higher in pond-raised crabs than in wild crabs. A significant portion of the phylotypes shared low similarity with previously sequenced organisms, indicating that the bacteria in the gut of Chinese mitten crabs are yet to be described. Conclusions:, The intestinal bacteria of pond-raised crabs showed higher intersubject variation, total diversity and abundance than that observed in wild crabs. The high proportion of the clones of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in the clone library is an indication that these bacteria may be the dominant population in the gut of the Chinese mitten crab. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This study demonstrated obvious differences in the intestinal bacterial composition of pond-raised crabs and wild crabs. This knowledge will increase our understanding of the effects of aquaculture operations on bacterial community composition in the crab gut and provide necessary data for the development of probiotic products for crab cultivation. [source]

Five-year maintenance follow-up of early-onset periodontitis patients

Joanna J. Kamma
Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological status of patients with early-onset or aggressive periodontitis (EOP) who had received supportive periodontal care (SPC) every 3,6 months for a period of 5 years, following active periodontal treatment. Material & Methods: The study population consisted of 25 individuals with early-onset periodontitis. Clinical examination and recordings of probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were performed at baseline prior to treatment (T0), 3 months following the termination of active periodontal treatment (T1) and annually at the SPC appointments (T2,T3,T4,T5). Microbiological samples were obtained at the 5-year SPC (T5). Subgingival plaque samples for each individual were collected from one deep pocket (>5 mm), based on pretreatment measurements, randomly selected in each quadrant. The levels of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola were determined using oligonucleotide probe hybridization. Results: During the 5-year period, the mean of SPC/patient was 12.7 sessions. A significant improvement was observed in PPD, CAL, gingival bleeding index and suppuration following treatment. However, between T1 and T5, 134 sites in 20 patients deteriorated with a CAL loss of,2 mm. Out of these 134 sites showing disease progression, microbial samples were randomly obtained in 13 sites (9.7%) from 8 patients. Among other factors, smoking and stress were found to have significant predictive value on the future attachment loss. P. gingivalis, T. denticola and total bacterial load were statistically significantly higher in patients who experienced disease progression during the 5-year maintenance period. Conclusions: For most EOP patients, regular SPC was effective in maintaining clinical and microbiological improvements attained after active periodontal therapy. However, a small percentage of sites was identified as progressive in 20 patients. Variables found to be related to periodontal progression were the presence of as well as the high bacterial counts of P. gingivalis, T. denticola and total bacterial load, number of acute episodes, number of teeth lost, smoking and stress. Zusammenfassung Erhaltungstherapie über fünf Jahre bei Patienten mit früh einsetzender Parodontitis (EOP) Ziele: Der Zweck dieser Studie war es, 5 Jahre nach aktiver Parodontalbehandlung den klinischen und mikrobiologischen Zustand von Patienten mit früh einsetzender oder aggressiver Parodontitis (EOP), bei welchen alle 3-6 Monate eine parodontale Erhaltungstherapie (SPC) erfolgte, zu evaluieren. Material & Methoden: Die Studienpopulation bestand aus 25 Individuen mit früh einsetzender Parodontitis. Die klinische Untersuchung und Aufzeichnung der Sondierungstiefe (PPD) sowie des klinischen Attachmentniveaus (CAL) erfolgten bei der Eingangsuntersuchung vor der Behandlung (T0), drei Monate nach Beendigung der aktiven Parodontalbehandlung (T1) und jährlich bei den SPC-Terminen (T2,T3,T4,T5). Die mikrobiologischen Proben wurden bei der 5-Jahres-SPC gewonnen (T5). Für jedes Individuum wurden die subgingivalen Plaqueproben in jedem Quadranten aus einer tiefen Tasche (>5mm) entnommen. Dies geschah randomisiert und auf der Grundlage der Messungen vor der Behandlung. Das Niveau von Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis und Treponema denticola wurden unter Verwendung der Hybridisierung mit Oligonukleotid-Sonden bestimmt. Ergebnisse: Während der 5-jährigen Periode betrug die mittlere Anzahl der SPC-Sitzungen pro Patient 12,7. Nach der Behandlung wurden bei PPD, CAL, Gingiva-Blutungs-Index und der Pusentleerung signifikante Verbesserungen beobachtet. Jedoch haben sich zwischen T1 und T5 bei 20 Patienten 134 Taschen mit einem CAL-Verlust von=2mm verschlechtert. Bei 8 Patienten wurden aus diesen 134 Taschen, mit Progression der Erkrankung, von 13 Taschen (9,7%) randomisiert mikrobiologische Proben entnommen. Innerhalb anderer Faktoren wurde bei Rauchen und Stress ein signifikanter Vorhersagewert für zukünftigen Attachmentverlust vorgefunden. Bei den Patienten, die in der 5-jährigen Erhaltungsperiode eine Progression der Erkrankung erfuhren lagen P. gingivalis, T. denticola und die bakterielle Gesamtbelastung höher. Schlussfolgerungen: Für die meisten EOP-Patienten die regelmäßig an der parodontalen Erhaltungstherapie teilnahmen war diese hinsichtlich der Aufrechterhaltung der nach der aktiven Parodontaltherapie erzielten klinischen und mikrobiologischen Verbesserungen erfolgreich. Jedoch wurde bei 20 Patienten ein geringer Prozentsatz von Taschen als fortschreitend identifiziert. Die Variablen, von denen gefunden wurde, dass sie eine Beziehung zur Progression haben waren: sowohl Vorhandensein von P. gingivalis, T. denticola als auch hohe Bakterienzahl von P. gingivalis, T. denticola und die bakterielle Gesamtbelastung, Anzahl der akuten Episoden, Anzahl verlorener Zähne, Rauchen und Stress. Résumé Suivi en maintenance sur 5 ans de patients atteints de parodontites d'apparition précoce. Objectifs: Cette étude se propose d'évaluer l'état clinique et microbiologique de patients atteints de parodontites d'apparition précoce ou agressive (EOP) qui furent suivis en maintenance (SPC) tous les 3-6 mois pendant une période de 5 ans après un traitement parodontal actif. Matériel & Méthodes: La population étudiée consistait en 25 individus atteints de parodontites d'apparition précoce. L'examen clinique et l'enregistrement des profondeurs de poche (PPD) et du niveau d'attache (CAL) furent réalisés avant le traitement (T0), 3 mois après la fin du traitement actif (T1) et chaque année aux rendez vous de maintenance (T2,T3,T4,T5). Des échantillons microbiologiques furent prélevés lors de la maintenance à 5 ans (T5). La plaque sous-gingivale de chaque patient fut prélevée d'une poche profonde (>5mm), sur la base des examens initiaux, choisis au hasard dans chaque quadrant. Les niveaux d' Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis et Treponema denticola furent déterminés par hybridation par sonde d'oligonucleotides. Résultats: pendant la période d'examination de 5 ans, la moyenne des SPC par patient fut de 12.7 sessions. Une amélioration significative fut observée pour PPD, CAL, l'indice de saignement gingival et la suppuration suite au traitement. Cependant, entre T1 et T5, 134 sites chez 20 patients connurent une détérioration avec une perte d'attache de 2 mm. De ces 134 sites qui présentaient une progression de la maladie, des échantillons microbiologiques furent obtenus aléatoirement dans 13 sites (9.7%) chez 8 patients. Parmi d'autres facteurs, le tabagisme et le stress furent reconnus comme ayant une significative valeur prédictive pour de futures pertes d'attache. P. gingivalis, T. denticola et la charge bactérienne totale étaient de façon statistiquement significatif plus importants chez les patients chez qui la maladie progressait au cours des 5 ans de maintenance. Conclusions: pour la plupart des patients atteints d' EOP, des soins parodontaux de soutien réguliers sont efficaces pour maintenir les améliorations cliniques et microbiologiques obtenus par le traitement actif. Cependant, un petit pourcentage de sites progressait chez 20 patients. Les variables en ralation avec cette progression étaient la présence et aussi un comptage important de P. gingivalis, T. denticola et la charge bactérienne totale, le nombre d'épisodes aigus le nombre de dents perdues le tabagisme et le stress. [source]

Tongue coating and salivary bacterial counts in healthy/gingivitis subjects and periodontitis patients

S. Mantilla Gómez
Abstract Background: The papillary structure of the dorsum of the tongue forms a unique ecological site that provides a large surface area favoring the accumulation of oral debris and microorganisms. These micro-organisms of the tongue may be of influence on the flora of the entire oral cavity. The normal appearance of the dorsum of the tongue is either pinkish or has a thin white coating. For the present study a scoring method was developed to describe the appearance of the dorsum of the tongue in relation to the extent of color and thickness of tongue coating. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the discoloration and coating of the tongue in healthy/gingivitis subjects and periodontitis patients. Furthermore, to determine the relationship between the appearance of the tongue and the bacterial load in salivary samples. Material and Methods: 2 groups of patients were studied, 70 healthy/gingivitis subjects and 56 periodontitis patients. After scoring of the tongue a salivary sample of each patient was taken and analyzed using a phase-contrast microscope. Results: This investigation showed that most discoloration was found on the distal part of the tongue. The mean number of bacteria per ml sample in relation to a pink, white and yellow appearance of the tongue was 948, 855 and 900 (×106) respectively. The mean number of bacteria per ml sample in relation to no, thin and thick coating was 948, 863, and 895 (×106), respectively. Analysis did not reveal a relationship between discoloration, coating thickness and total bacterial load. The mean number of bacteria per ml in healthy/gingivitis subjects was 860 and in periodontitis patients 918 (×106). Conclusion: No relationship between the appearance of the tongue and salivary bacterial load could be detected. There was no difference in bacterial load between the healthy/gingivitis and the periodontitis group within the present study population. Zusammenfassung Hintergrund: Die papilläre Struktur des Zungenrückens bildet eine einheitliche ökologische Oberfläche, die eine große Oberfläche vermittelt, was die Akkumulation von oralem Belag und Mikroorganismen favorisiert. Diese Mikroorganismen der Zunge können die Flora der gesamten Mundhöhle beeinflussen. Die normale Erscheinung des Zungenrückens ist eher pinkfarben oder hat einen dünnen, weißen Belag. Für die vorliegende Studie wurde eine Meßmethode entwickelt, um die Erscheinung des Zungenrückens in Beziehung zum Ausmaß der Farbe und der Dicke des Zungenbelags zu beschrieben. Ziel: Der Zweck der Studie war die Untersuchung der Verfärbung und der Belagbildung auf der Zunge bei gesunden bzw. Gingivitis-Personen und Parodontitis-Patienten. Weiterhin sollte die Beziehung zwischen der Erscheinung der Zunge und dem bakteirellen Gehalt in Speichelproben bestimmt werden. Material und Methoden: 2 Gruppen von Patienten wurden untersucht, 70 gesunde bzw. Gingivitis-personen und 56 Parodontitis-Patienten. Nach der Beurteilung der Zunge wurde von jedem Patienten eine Speichelprobe genommen und mit einem Phasenkontrastmikroskop untersucht. Ergebnisse: Die Ergebnisse zeigten, daß die meiste Verfärbung der Zunge am distalen Teil gefunden wurde. Die mittlere Anzahl der Bakterien pro ml Speichel in Beziehung zu einer pinkfarbigen, weißen und gelben Erscheinung der Zunge was 948, 855 oder 900 (×106). Die mittlere Anzahl der Bakterien pro ml Speichel in Beziehung zu keinem, zu dünnem oder zu dickem Belag war 948, 863 oder 895 (×106). Die Analyse zeigte keine Beziehung zwischen Verfärbung, Belagsdicke und totalem Bakteriengehalt. Die mittlere Anzahl von Bakterien pro ml bei gesunden bzw. Gingivitis-Personen war 860 und bei Parodontitis-Patienten 918 (×106). Zusammenfassung: Es konnte kein Beziehung zwischen der Erscheinung der Zunge und dem bakteriellen Gehalt entdeckt werden. Es gab keine Differenzen im bakteriellen Gehalt zwischen den gesunden bzw. Gingivitis-Personen und den Parodontitis-Patienten innerhalb der vorliegenden Studienpopulation. Résumé Origine: La structure papillaire du dos de la langue forme un site écologique unique qui comporte une large surface favorisant l'accumulation de débris buccaux et de micro-organismes. Ces derniers peuvent avoir une influence sur la flore de l'ensemble de la cavité buccale. L'apparence normale du dos de la langue est rosée ou possède un très fin recouvrement blanc. Une méthode d'échellonnage a été développée afin de décrire l'apparence du dos de la langue en relation avec l'ampleur de la couleur et l'épaisseur du recouvrement de la langue. But: Le but de cette étude a été d'étudier la décoloration et le recouvrement de la langue chez des sujets sains/avec gingivite et parodontite. De plus la relation entre l'apparence de la langue et la charge bactérienne dans les échantillons salivaires a été déterminée. Matériaux et méthodes: 2 groupes de patients ont étéétudiés, 70 sujets sains ou avec gingivite et 56 patients avec parodontite. Après avoir évalué la langue, un échantillon salivaire de chaque patient a été prélevé et analysé en utilisant un microscope à contraste de phase. Résultats: Les résultats ont montré que la plupart de la décoloration était trouvée dans la partie distale de la langue. Le nombre moyen de bactéries par ml d'échantillon en relation avec la couleur rose, blanche ou jaune était respectivement de 948, 855 et 900 (×106). Le nombre moyen de bactéries par ml d'échantillon en relation avec un recouvrement inexistant, fin ou épais était respectivement de 948, 863 et 895 (×106). L'analyse n'a pas mis en évidence une relation entre la décoloration, l'épaisseur de recouvrement et la charge bactérienne totale. Le nombre moyen de bactéries par ml chez des sujets sains/gingivite était de 860 et chez les patients avec parodontite de 918 (×106). Conclusion: Aucune relation entre l'apparence de la langue et la charge bactérienne salivaire n'a donc pûêtre détectée. Il n'y avait aucune différence dans la charge bactérienne entre le groupe sain/gingivite et le groupe parodontite dans la population étudiée. [source]

Effect of six different peri-implantitis disinfection methods on in vivo human oral biofilm

Martin Gosau
Abstract Objective: The aim of this human in vivo pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of six antimicrobial agents on the surface decontamination of an oral biofilm attached to titanium implants. Design: For in vivo biofilm formation, we fixed titanium specimens to individual removable acrylic upper jaw splints (14 specimens in every splint), which were worn by four volunteers overnight for 12 h. The specimens were then treated with different antimicrobial agents for 1 min (Sodium hypochlorite, Hydrogen peroxide 3%, Chlorhexidingluconate 0.2%, Plax, Listerine, citric acid 40%). Afterwards, we quantified the total bacterial load and the viability of adhering bacteria by live or dead cell labelling in combination with fluorescence microscopy. Results: The total bacterial load on the titanium surfaces was significantly higher after incubation in the control solution phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) than after disinfection in sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, Plax, Listerine, and citric acid. Furthermore, a significantly lower ratio between dead and total adhering bacteria (bactericidal effect) was found after incubation in control PBS, Plax mouth rinse, and citric acid than after incubation in sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, and Listerine. Conclusions: All tested antiseptics seem to be able to reduce the total amount of microorganisms accumulating on titanium surfaces. Furthermore, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, and Listerine showed a significant bactericidal effect against adhering bacteria. To cite this article: Gosau M, Hahnel S, Schwarz F, Gerlach T, Reichert TE, Bürgers R. Effect of six different peri-implantitis disinfection methods on in vivo human oral biofilm. Clin. Oral Impl. Res. 21, 2010; 866,872. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01908.x [source]

Predictive value of clinical and microbiological parameters for the treatment outcome of scaling and root planing

P. F. Brochut
Abstract Objectives: To compare the clinical and microbiological outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy after 6 months with data obtained after hygienic phase or 6 weeks after completion of non-surgical therapy, in order to evaluate the value of clinical and microbiological parameters to predict treatment success. Material and Methods: Clinical and microbiological data were available from 271 sites in 10 systemically healthy non-smokers with moderate-to-advanced chronic periodontal disease (24,32 sites per individual). Subgingival plaque samples were tested for the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythensis and Treponema denticola using RNA probes. Results: Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant impact of the number of sites with visible plaque index >1 after hygienic phase on the bleeding tendency of a subject at month 6 (p<0.01). Furthermore, an association could be demonstrated between the number of residual pockets (PD>3 mm) 6 months after therapy and the number of bleeding sites and suppurating sites after hygienic phase (p=0.016). Six weeks after therapy, the mean total bacterial loads had a significant impact on the bleeding tendency of a subject at month 6 (p<0.01). Although the average numbers of sites with persisting P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythensis and T. denticola seemed to be very similar 6 weeks and 6 months after therapy, large variations were noted between subjects, and therefore the microbiological status of a subject at week 6 could not predict the status at month 6. Conclusions: The present study showed a limited potential of microbiological tests, performed after hygienic phase or shortly after non-surgical periodontal therapy, to predict the clinical outcome 6 months later, but confirmed the importance of an establishment of perfect oral hygiene before non-surgical therapy. [source]