Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Total

  • au total
  • colgate total
  • combined total
  • estimated total
  • high total
  • in total
  • lower total
  • mean total
  • median total
  • plasma total
  • population total
  • precipitation total
  • result a total
  • serum total
  • sum total

  • Terms modified by Total

  • total PAH
  • total abdominal hysterectomy
  • total above-ground biomass
  • total aboveground biomass
  • total absence
  • total abstinence
  • total abundance
  • total acid
  • total acidity
  • total activity
  • total adiponectin
  • total aerobic bacteria
  • total aerobic count
  • total agreement
  • total alcohol
  • total alcohol consumption
  • total aldehyde
  • total alkaline phosphatase
  • total alkalinity
  • total alkaloid
  • total allowable catch
  • total amino acids
  • total ammonia nitrogen
  • total amount
  • total analysis time
  • total angular momentum
  • total annual cost
  • total anthocyanin
  • total antioxidant
  • total antioxidant activity
  • total antioxidant capacity
  • total antioxidant status
  • total antioxidative status
  • total aortic arch replacement
  • total arch replacement
  • total area
  • total arsenic
  • total artificial heart
  • total asset
  • total bacteria
  • total bacterial community
  • total bacterial count
  • total bacterial load
  • total basal area
  • total benefit
  • total bilirubin
  • total bilirubin level
  • total biomass
  • total birth cohort
  • total blood loss
  • total blood volume
  • total bmd
  • total body
  • total body bmd
  • total body clearance
  • total body fat
  • total body irradiation
  • total body length
  • total body sodium
  • total body surface area
  • total body water
  • total body weight
  • total bone area
  • total brain
  • total brain volume
  • total burden
  • total c
  • total calcium
  • total calory
  • total carbohydrate
  • total carbon
  • total carotenoid
  • total carotenoid content
  • total case
  • total catch
  • total cell
  • total cell count
  • total cell number
  • total cellular protein
  • total charge
  • total chemical synthesis
  • total cholesterol
  • total cholesterol concentration
  • total cholesterol level
  • total choline
  • total chromium
  • total clearance
  • total cohort
  • total coliform
  • total compensation
  • total component
  • total concentration
  • total consumption
  • total content
  • total contribution
  • total conversion
  • total coronary occlusion
  • total correlation
  • total cortisol metabolite
  • total cost
  • total count
  • total cover
  • total creatine
  • total cross-sectional area
  • total current
  • total daily dose
  • total daily insulin dose
  • total de
  • total death
  • total degradation
  • total density
  • total dietary fiber
  • total direct cost
  • total direct medical cost
  • total distance
  • total diversity
  • total dna
  • total dna probe count
  • total dose
  • total drug concentration
  • total dry mass
  • total dry matter
  • total duration
  • total effect
  • total effects
  • total elimination
  • total emission
  • total energy
  • total energy calculation
  • total energy consumption
  • total energy expenditure
  • total energy intake
  • total eradication
  • total evapotranspiration
  • total evidence
  • total evidence analysis
  • total excision
  • total expenditure
  • total experience
  • total exposure
  • total extract
  • total factor productivity
  • total factor productivity growth
  • total fat
  • total fat content
  • total fatty acid
  • total fe
  • total field
  • total flap loss
  • total flavonoid
  • total flow
  • total fluid intake
  • total fluoride intake
  • total flux
  • total flux density
  • total follow-up
  • total food intake
  • total free amino acids
  • total fruit
  • total fundoplication
  • total gastrectomy
  • total genetic diversity
  • total genetic variation
  • total genomic dna
  • total glutathione
  • total group
  • total haemoglobin
  • total hardness
  • total healthcare cost
  • total hepatectomy
  • total hip
  • total hip arthroplasty
  • total hip bmd
  • total hip prosthesis
  • total hip replacement
  • total homocysteine
  • total homocysteine concentration
  • total hospital cost
  • total hour
  • total hysterectomy
  • total iga
  • total ige
  • total ige level
  • total igg
  • total igg level
  • total immunoglobulin
  • total immunoglobulin e
  • total impact
  • total incidence
  • total income
  • total inhibition
  • total insulin secretion
  • total intake
  • total intensity
  • total internal reflection
  • total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy
  • total intravenous anaesthesia
  • total intravenous anesthesia
  • total ipss
  • total iron
  • total iron binding capacity
  • total iron-binding capacity
  • total joint arthroplasty
  • total joint replacement
  • total knee
  • total knee arthroplasty
  • total knee replacement
  • total lack
  • total lagrangian formulation
  • total laparoscopic hysterectomy
  • total laryngectomy
  • total laryngectomy patient
  • total leaf area
  • total length
  • total leucocyte
  • total leukocyte count
  • total level
  • total lipid
  • total lipid content
  • total load
  • total los
  • total loss
  • total luminosity
  • total lung capacity
  • total lymphocyte
  • total lymphocyte count
  • total mass
  • total maximum daily load
  • total mesorectal excision
  • total metal concentration
  • total metal content
  • total mixed ration
  • total mood disturbance
  • total mortality
  • total mortality rate
  • total n
  • total n=
  • total neuron
  • total nitrogen
  • total nitrogen content
  • total number
  • total occlusion
  • total oil
  • total organic carbon
  • total organic carbon content
  • total output
  • total oxidant status
  • total oxidation
  • total p
  • total pancreatectomy
  • total parathyroidectomy
  • total parenteral nutrition
  • total patient
  • total percentage
  • total period
  • total peripheral resistance
  • total peroxide
  • total phenol
  • total phenol content
  • total phenolic
  • total phenolic compound
  • total phenolic concentration
  • total phenolic content
  • total phenotypic variance
  • total phenotypic variation
  • total phosphorus
  • total plant biomass
  • total plasma concentration
  • total plasma homocysteine
  • total plasma protein
  • total plate count
  • total polar compound
  • total polyphenol
  • total pool
  • total population
  • total population size
  • total porosity
  • total power
  • total power input
  • total precipitation
  • total pressure
  • total prevalence
  • total problem
  • total production
  • total production cost
  • total prostate-specific antigen
  • total protein
  • total protein concentration
  • total protein content
  • total protein expression
  • total protein extract
  • total protein level
  • total psa
  • total quality management
  • total quantity
  • total radiation dose
  • total radioactivity
  • total rainfall
  • total range
  • total rate
  • total recovery
  • total reducing sugar
  • total reflectance
  • total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
  • total reflectance spectroscopy
  • total reflection
  • total reflection infrared spectroscopy
  • total removal
  • total replacement
  • total resection
  • total residue
  • total resolution
  • total response rate
  • total return
  • total revenue
  • total richness
  • total risk
  • total rna
  • total rna isolated
  • total root length
  • total run time
  • total runoff
  • total sales
  • total sample
  • total sample size
  • total scale
  • total scale score
  • total score
  • total seedling density
  • total serum bilirubin
  • total serum cholesterol
  • total serum ige
  • total serum ige level
  • total serum protein
  • total set
  • total size
  • total sleep time
  • total soil loss
  • total solid
  • total solid content
  • total soluble protein
  • total soluble solid
  • total soluble sugar
  • total species richness
  • total sperm count
  • total spin
  • total splenectomy
  • total spontaneous resolution
  • total station
  • total strain
  • total study population
  • total sugar
  • total sugar content
  • total superoxide dismutase
  • total suppression
  • total surface area
  • total survival
  • total symptom
  • total symptom score
  • total synthesis
  • total synthesis time
  • total system
  • total tau
  • total testosterone
  • total testosterone level
  • total thickness
  • total thiol
  • total thyroidectomy
  • total thyroxine
  • total time
  • total titratable acidity
  • total tract digestibility
  • total triglyceride
  • total turnover number
  • total value
  • total variability
  • total variance
  • total variation
  • total vascular area
  • total vascular resistance
  • total vegetable
  • total viable count
  • total visit
  • total volatile
  • total volatile base
  • total volatile base nitrogen
  • total volatile basic nitrogen
  • total volatile fatty acid
  • total volume
  • total war
  • total water
  • total weight
  • total welfare
  • total white blood cell
  • total yield

  • Selected Abstracts

    Total nucleated cell differential for blood and bone marrow using a single tube in a five-color flow cytometer,,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 2 2008
    Sven Björnsson
    Abstract Background: Flow cytometry allows the use of several antibodies in addition to light scatter, and most flow cytometers will provide at least seven measurements on each cell passing through the laser beam. A skilled microscopist will classify at least 14 cell classes in bone marrow or blood. Our goal was to use the seven parameters available in our flow cytometer to provide a reliable differential count using only one tube. Methods: Peripheral blood samples were analyzed on the Beckman Coulter LH750 cell counter, and the flagging and messages from the cell counter were used to select normal or pathological samples. Samples without flags (N = 50), with >2% erythroblasts (N = 80), or with "Blast" or "Verify diff" flags (N = 54) were investigated. We used a lyse-no-wash method to ensure minimal loss of fragile cells with live gating on DRAQ5-positive cells to acquire only nucleated cells. The FL-1 to FL-4 channels were used for the antibodies CD36-FITC, CD203-PE, CD138-PE, CD45-ECD, CD16-Pcy5, and CD56-Pcy5. FL-5 was used for the DNA-stain DRAQ5. Results: Using live gate acquisition on DRAQ5, we were able to classify total nucleated cells into 10 classes. We were unable to identify megakaryocytes, but platelets could be studied by rerunning the sample after dilution and gating on DRAQ5-negative CD36-posive events. Validation against digitized microscopy and cell counter showed linear correlations within each cell class with correlation coefficients that seem reasonable for cellular classification. The lowest correlation was found for basophil granulocytes. Flow cytometry detected twice as many immature neutrophils compared to microscopy. Conclusions: We have designed a one-tube immunophenotyping panel for classification of total nucleated cells and platelets in blood or bone marrow. The seven parameters available in one single tube in our cytometer seem to be enough for reliable differential count even in difficult pathological samples. The analytical imprecision of the flow cytometer differential was much lower than that obtained with microscopy or cell counter differentials. © 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society. [source]

    Susceptibility of isolated myofibrils to in vitro glutathionylation: Potential relevance to muscle functions,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 2 2010
    Chiara Passarelli
    Abstract In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism of glutathionylation on isolated human cardiac myofibrils using several pro-glutathionylating agents. Total glutathionylated proteins appeared significantly enhanced with all the pro-oxidants used. The increase was completely reversed by the addition of a reducing agent, demonstrating that glutathione binding occurs by a disulfide and that the process is reversible. A sensitive target of glutathionylation was ,-actin, showing a different reactivity to the several pro-glutathionylating agents by ELISA. Noteworthy, myosin although highly sensitive to the in vitro glutathionylation does not represent the primary glutathionylation target in isolated myofibrils. Light scattering measurements of the glutathionylated ,-actin showed a slower polymerisation compared to the non-glutathionylated protein and force development was depressed after glutathionylation, when the myofibrils were mounted in a force recording apparatus. Interestingly, confocal laser scanning microscopy of cardiac cryosections indicated, for the first time, the constitutive glutathionylation of ,-cardiac actin in human heart. Due to the critical location of ,-actin in the contractile machinery and to its susceptibility to the oxidative modifications, glutathionylation may represent a mechanism for modulating sarcomere assembly and muscle functionality under patho-physiological conditions in vivo. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ethnic differences in plantar pressures in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
    M. P. Solano
    Abstract Aims To compare plantar foot pressures between Caucasian and Hispanic diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) without a history of foot ulceration and between Caucasian and Hispanic non-diabetic individuals. Methods Forty-four Hispanic diabetic patients with PN (HDPN), 35 Caucasian diabetic patients with PN (CDPN), 41 non-diabetic Hispanic subjects and 33 non-diabetic Caucasian subjects participated. Total and regional peak plantar pressures (PPs) and pressure time integrals (PTIs) were assessed using the EMED-SF-4 plantar pressure system. Results Hispanic diabetic patients with PN had significantly lower peak PP than Caucasian diabetic patients with PN in the entire foot (552.4 ± 227.9 vs. 810.1 ± 274.6 kPa; P < 0.001), forefoot (464.1 ± 222.6 vs. 699.6 ± 323.1 kPa; P < 0.001), hindfoot (296.3.4 + 101.8 vs. 398.1 + 178.3 kPa; P < 0.01) and at the fifth metatarsal head (MTH5; 204.3 ± 143.2 vs. 388.2 ± 273.9 kPa; P < 0.001). The PTI in the entire foot, forefoot and MTH5 were also lower in HDPN than in CDPN. The ethnic differences between the diabetic groups with PN for the entire foot, forefoot and MTH5 remained significant after adjusting for the effect of age, gender, weight and duration of diabetes. There were no significant differences in peak PP and PTI among non-diabetic individuals, except for a lower peak PP at the MTH5 in Hispanic compared with Caucasian subjects. Conclusions Despite a well-known higher incidence of foot complications in diabetic Hispanic subjects, dynamic plantar pressures are lower in Hispanic diabetic patients with PN when compared with their Caucasian counterparts, suggesting that differences in other risk factors exist between these two ethnic groups. [source]

    Concentrated flow erosion rates reduced through biological geotextiles

    T. Smets
    Abstract Soil erosion by concentrated flow can cause serious environmental damage. Erosion-control geotextiles have considerable potential for reducing concentrated flow erosion. However, limited data are available on the erosion-reducing potential of geotextiles. In this study, the effectiveness of three biological geotextiles in reducing soil losses during concentrated flow is investigated. Hereto, runoff was simulated in a concentrated flow flume, filled with an erodible sandy loam on three slope gradients (13·5, 27·0 and 41·5%). Treatments included three biological geotextiles (borassus, buriti and bamboo) and one bare soil surface. Darcy,Weisbach friction coefficients ranged from 0·01 to 2·84. The highest values are observed for borassus covered soil surfaces, followed by buriti, bamboo and bare soil, respectively. The friction coefficients are linearly correlated with geotextile thickness. For the specific experimental conditions of this study, borassus geotextiles reduced soil detachment rate on average to 56%, buriti geotextiles to 59% and bamboo geotextiles to 66% of the soil detachment rate for bare soil surfaces. Total flow shear stress was the hydraulic parameter best predicting soil detachment rate for bare and geotextile covered surfaces (R2 = 0·75,0·84, p <0·001, n = 12,15). The highest resistance against soil detachment was observed for the borassus covered soil surfaces, followed by buriti, bamboo and bare soil surfaces, respectively. Overall, biological geotextiles are less effective in controlling concentrated flow erosion compared with interrill erosion. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Electronically monitored cowpea aphid feeding behavior on resistant and susceptible lupins

    Geoffrey W. Zehnder
    Abstract The feeding behavior of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) was examined on seedlings of narrow leafed lupin, Lupinus angustifolius L., and yellow lupin, L. luteus L., using electronic monitoring of insect feeding behavior (EMIF). Aphid feeding behavior was first compared between resistant (cv. Kalya) and susceptible (cv. Tallerack) varieties of narrow-leafed lupin. Aphids spent significantly more time in non- penetration and stylet pathway activities, and significantly less time in the sieve element phase on Kalya than on Tallerack, suggesting that feeding deterrence is an important component of aphid resistance in Kalya. Aphid feeding on a susceptible yellow lupin variety (cv. Wodjil) was then compared with that on two resistant lines, one (Teo) with high and the other (94D024-1) with low seed alkaloid content. There were no consistent differences in aphid feeding behavior between Wodjil and Teo. Total, mean and percentage sieve element phase times were significantly lower, and total and percentage times in non-phloem phase were greater on 94D024-1 than on Wodjil, suggesting the possibility of phloem-based deterrence in 94D024-1. [source]

    Analysis of glutathione endpoints for measuring copper stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardth

    Tasha L. Stoiber
    Abstract Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant nonprotein thiol in eukaryotic cells and it protects cells by functioning as an antioxidant and a metal-binding ligand. Because glutathione readily undergoes oxidation-reduction reactions to combat oxidative stress, intracellular ratios of the reduced (GSH) to the oxidized (GSSG) forms of glutathione may serve as an important biomarker of exposure and effect of trace metals in eukaryotic cells. We compared sensitivity of glutathione ratios in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to the traditional endpoints of cell growth rates and chlorophyll a following exposure to Cu for periods of 6 and 24 h. A response of the GSH:GSSG ratio to Cu concentration was observed at Cu levels of 40 and 80 nM after exposure for both 6 and 24 h. The concentration of total GSH at 24 h was roughly half the value at 6 h after exposure to either 40 or 80 nM Cu. A response for cell growth rate was observed only at 24 h, whereby the average specific growth rate decreased from about 1.1 to 0.4 d,1. The total Cu concentrations eliciting a cell response of 50%, effect concentrations (EC50s), after 24 h of exposure were similar (49.2, 49.8, and 38.2 nM Cu) and not significantly different for GSH:GSSG ratio, GSH levels, and specific growth, respectively. Total cell-associated Cu concentrations after exposure for 24 h were calculated from the EC50 endpoints and ranged from 13.3 to 17.0 fg/cell. Overall, thiol ratios were indicative of toxicity resulting from exposure to Cu, but precision may be greater for the cell growth rate endpoints. [source]

    Congener-specific toxicokinetics of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in black-eared kites (Milvus migrans): Cytochrome P4501A,dependent hepatic sequestration

    Akira Kubota
    Abstract Concentrations of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), were determined in black-eared kites (BEKs; Milvus migrans) collected from the Kanto district in Japan. Total 2,3,7,8-tetra-CDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) were in the range of 99 to 3,800 pg/g lipid weight in the liver and 42 to 760 pg/g lipid weight in the pectoral muscle. Three congeners, including PCB 126, 2,3,4,7,8-penta-CDF, and 1,2,3,7,8-penta-CDD, made a greater contribution to total TEQs in both tissues. Levels of ethoxy-resorufin- O -deethylase activity and a cross-reactive protein with anti-rat cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) polyclonal antibodies showed no significant correlation with hepatic TEQs. This may be attributed to low sensitivity and insufficient TEQ levels to cause CYP1A induction, high metabolic potential of a series of congeners, and influence of CYP1A inducers other than DRCs. Most of the PCDD/Fs and non- ortho Co-PCBs exhibited a total TEQ- and CYP1A-dependent increase in the liver to muscle concentration ratios, implying their concentration-dependent hepatic sequestration in which CYP1A was involved. Comparison of the toxicokinetics in avian species revealed that BEKs possibly have higher potentials than common cormorants for metabolizing and sequestering certain congeners in the liver in terms of hepatic concentration profiles and liver:muscle concentration ratios, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the toxicokinetics of DRCs is congener-, tissue-, and species-specific as well as concentration-dependent. Therefore, CYP1A expression is one of the critical factors that determine the toxicokinetics in wild avian species. [source]

    Soil microbial activity along an arctic-alpine altitudinal gradient from a seasonal perspective

    U. C. M. Löffler
    Summary The knowledge on dynamics of soil microbial activity and its correlation to climate and vegetation is still poor but essential for predicting climatic changes scenarios. Seasonal dynamics of soil microbial activity and cell counts were studied along an arctic-alpine altitudinal gradient. The gradient comprised 12 ridges from 1000 to 1600 m altitude. Soil samples were collected during March, May, July and September 2005. The effect of temperature, snow depth and vegetation, all of which changed with altitude, on soil microbial activity and bacterial cell counts was analysed. The potential activities of phosphatase and chitinase were determined using fluorescent 4-methylumbelliferyl labelled analogues. Total and live bacterial cell counts were determined by live-dead-staining. We detected marked differences in soil microbial variables along the altitudinal gradient, forming three major clusters: a low alpine belt, a middle alpine belt, and an intermediate transition zone. Our results demonstrated that more frequent occurrence of shrubs and bryophytes would also increase microbial activity. Furthermore, we detected a clear relation (R2 = 0.6; P < 0.02) between high soil temperatures and greater soil microbial activity during summer. As higher temperatures are predicted to promote shrubs and higher humidity to promote bryophytes we expect microbial activity in dry heath tundra soils will increase with anticipated warmer, and in the case of Scandinavia, more humid climates. We did not find winter microbial activity to be less at snow-free sites than at sites covered by snow up to depths of 30 cm; hence, possible future decreases in snow depth will not result in reduced winter microbial activity. We demonstrate that shrubs support winter microbial activity not only by trapping snow but also directly by increasing the amount of organic carbon. [source]

    Total and soluble fluorine concentrations in relation to properties of soils in New Zealand

    P. Loganathan
    Summary Soil fluorine (F) concentrations continue to increase in agricultural soils receiving regular applications of phosphatic fertilizer. Continued accumulation of soil F poses a risk to grazing ruminants and may pose a future risk to groundwater quality. This paper examines the range of total F (Ft) concentrations and forms of soluble F species and their relationship to selected soil properties in New Zealand agricultural soils. The Ft and soluble F (soil F extracted with water (Fwater) and 0.01 m KCl (FKCl)) concentrations in 27 soil samples (0,75 mm depth) taken from predominantly pasture sites in the North and South Islands of New Zealand were much less than those reported in the literature for sites contaminated with F from industry. The Ft concentrations ranged from 212 to 617 µg F g,1 soil. The F-toxicity risk to grazing animals in farms at these sites through soil ingestion is small at present, but farms with very large Ft concentrations (i.e. > 500 µg F g,1) need to adopt suitable grazing and fertilizer management practices to avoid future F-toxicity risk. The Ft concentration had very strong positive correlations with both total soil P and total soil Cd concentrations, reflecting the link between P fertilizer use and F accumulation in the soils. It also had significant positive correlations with organic matter and amorphous Al oxides contents, indicating that F is strongly bound to Al polymers adsorbed to organic matter and amorphous Al oxides. The Fwater and FKCl concentrations and free F, ion concentrations in water (F,water) and 0.01 m KCl (F,KCl) extracts were generally two and three orders of magnitude, respectively, less than the Ft concentrations and were much less than the concentrations considered phytotoxic. The Fwater and FKCl concentrations were positively related to soil organic matter content and negatively related to soil pH. Regression models relating Fwater and FKCl concentrations to soil organic matter content and soil pH suggest that F can be very soluble in extremely acidic soils (pH(water) < 4.9) with large organic matter contents and therefore F potentially may contaminate groundwater if these soils are also coarse-textured and the water table is shallow. [source]

    New Beverage for Cardiovascular Health, Proposal Based on Oriental and Occidental Food Culture from a World-Wide Epidemiological Study

    Emilio Hideyuki Moriguchi
    Objectives: To investigate whether combined isoflavones and antioxidants in oriental and occidental drinks reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in high-risk Japanese immigrants living in Brazil. Materials and methods: From among over 100 Japanese immigrants thirty-seven females aged 45,60 years in Porto Alegre, Brazil, were randomized after informed consent into two groups to drink 200 ml of whole soy cell juice (S) containing 7.5 g soy protein and 10 mg of isoflavones (aglycone) in peach juice or placebo peach juice (P) with 80 Kcal for 12 weeks. Health survey including 24-hour urine (24 U) examination were carried out before the randomization and after the double blind placebo controlled intervention study. Results: Both weight and body mass index (BMI) were significantly (p < 0.05, 0.01) decreased from the baseline only in the S group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from the baseline in the S group with elevated 24 U isoflavone excretion (>10 µmol), and there was a significant (p < 0.05) inter-group difference between the S and P groups after intervention. Total and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (C) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the S group from the baseline and there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the S and P groups after intervention. HbA1c and atherogenic index (non-high density lipoprotein (HDL)-C/HDL-C) were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in both groups. Conclusions: Soy isoflavones combined with fruit antioxidants, the combination of which might potentiate local nitric oxide (NO) affect, decreased SBP, total cholesterol and LDL-C. Peach juice itself improved blood glucose levels and the atherogenic index of the high-risk Japanese population in Brazil. [source]

    Above- and below-ground responses of C3,C4 species mixtures to elevated CO2 and soil water availability

    Abstract We evaluated the influences of CO2[Control, , 370 µmol mol,1; 200 µmol mol,1 above ambient applied by free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)] and soil water (Wet, Dry) on above- and below-ground responses of C3 (cotton, Gossypium hirsutum) and C4 (sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) plants in monocultures and two density mixtures. In monocultures, CO2 enrichment increased height, leaf area, above-ground biomass and reproductive output of cotton, but not sorghum, and was independent of soil water treatment. In mixtures, cotton, but not sorghum, above-ground biomass and height were generally reduced compared to monocultures, across both CO2 and soil water treatments. Density did not affect individual plant responses of either cotton or sorghum across the other treatments. Total (cotton + sorghum) leaf area and above-ground biomass in low-density mixtures were similar between CO2 treatments, but increased by 17,21% with FACE in high-density mixtures, due to a 121% enhancement of cotton leaf area and a 276% increase in biomass under the FACE treatment. Total root biomass in the upper 1.2 m of the soil was not influenced by CO2 or by soil water in monoculture or mixtures; however, under dry conditions we observed significantly more roots at lower soil depths (> 45 cm). Sorghum roots comprised 81,85% of the total roots in the low-density mixture and 58,73% in the high-density mixture. CO2 -enrichment partly offset negative effects of interspecific competition on cotton in both low- and high-density mixtures by increasing above-ground biomass, with a greater relative increase in the high-density mixture. As a consequence, CO2 -enrichment increased total above-ground yield of the mixture at high density. Individual plant responses to CO2 enrichment in global change models that evaluate mixed plant communities should be adjusted to incorporate feedbacks for interspecific competition. Future field studies in natural ecosystems should address the role that a CO2 -mediated increase in C3 growth may have on subsequent vegetation change. [source]

    Above-ground forest biomass is not consistently related to wood density in tropical forests

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    James C. Stegen
    ABSTRACT Aim, It is increasingly accepted that the mean wood density of trees within a forest is tightly coupled to above-ground forest biomass. It is unknown, however, if a positive relationship between forest biomass and mean community wood density is a general phenomenon across forests. Understanding spatial variation in biomass as a function of wood density both within and among forests is important for predicting changes in stored carbon in response to global change, and here we evaluated the generality of a positive biomass,wood density relationship within and among six tropical forests. Location, Costa Rica, Panama, Puerto Rico and Ecuador. Methods, Individual stem data, including diameter at breast height and spatial position, for six forest dynamics plots were merged with an extensive wood density database. Individual stem biomass values were calculated from these data using published statistical models. Total above ground biomass, total basal area and mean community wood density were also quantified across a range of subcommunity plot sizes within each forest. Results, Among forests, biomass did not vary with mean community wood density. The relationship between subcommunity biomass and mean wood density within a forest varied from negative to null to positive depending on the size of subcommunities and forest identity. The direction of correlation was determined by the associated total basal area,mean wood density correlation, the slope of which increased strongly with whole forest mean wood density. Main conclusions, There is no general relationship between forest biomass and wood density, and in some forests, stored carbon is highest where wood density is lowest. Our results suggest that declining wood density, due to global change, will result in decreased or increased stored carbon in forests with high or low mean wood density, respectively. [source]

    Effect of application form of nitrogen on oxalate accumulation and mineral uptake by napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum)

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 3 2010
    Mohammad Mijanur Rahman
    Abstract Oxalate occurs naturally in forage species, but excess levels of soluble oxalate adversely affect their nutritional quality as animal feed. Although induction of oxalate in plants has been associated with nitrate application, relatively little is known about oxalate in forage grasses. In the present study, we investigated oxalate accumulation and mineral uptake by napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum, cv. dwarf-late) cultured in complete nutrient solution containing either solely nitrate or mainly ammonium as the main form of nitrogen. Total (shoot and root) yield of plants did not differ significantly between the nitrate and ammonium treatments. By contrast, the nitrogen form significantly affected oxalate accumulation and mineral uptake by plants. Nitrate application resulted in higher concentrations of soluble and insoluble oxalates in the shoot and soluble oxalate in the root than ammonium application. Nitrate application also resulted in higher concentrations of sodium and calcium in the shoot, and higher concentrations of sodium, calcium and magnesium in the root than ammonium application. The results suggest that the application of nitrate fertilizer as the sole source of nitrogen should be avoided in the cultivation of oxalate-rich forages, though further studies are needed under field conditions. [source]

    Sampling Strategies for Volatile Organic Compounds at Three Karst Springs in Tennessee

    Shannon D. Williams
    The influence of different sampling strategies on characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and estimating VOC loads was evaluated at three karst springs in Tennessee. During a 6-month period, water samples for VOC analyses were collected weekly at all three springs and as frequently as every 20 min during storms at the two springs with variable water quality conditions. Total 6-month loads for selected VOCs were calculated, and VOC data were systematically subsampled to simulate and evaluate several potential sampling strategies. Results from the study indicate that sampling strategies for karst springs need to be developed on a site-specific basis. The use of fixed sampling intervals (as infrequently as quarterly or semiannually) produced accurate concentration and load estimates at one of the springs; however, additional sampling was needed to detect storm-related changes at a second spring located in a similar hydrogeologic setting. Continuous discharge data and high-frequency or flow-controlled sampling were needed at the third spring, which had the most variable flow and water quality conditions. The lack of continuous discharge data at the third spring would substantially affect load calculations, and the use of fixed sampling intervals would affect load calculations and the ability to detect pulses of high contaminant concentrations that might exceed toxicity levels for aquatic organisms. [source]

    Ten-year study of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients in a single center

    J.A. Park
    Background:,The incidence of infection in patients on chronic hemodialysis in higher than that of the general population. Infection is known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The vascular access is important for hemodialysis, but infection through this route is the most common source of bacteremia and can be lethal to the patients. Despite the high morbidity and mortality of bacteremia in patients on chronic hemodialysis, the clinical characteristics of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients is rarely reported yet in Korea. Methods:,We included 696 hemodialysis patients from January 1993 to December 2003 at Uijongbu St. Mary's Hospital. We investigated incidence, source, causative organisms, clinical manifestations, complication, and mortality of bacteremia. We compared clinical factors, morbidity, and mortality between arteriovenous fistula and central venous catheter groups. Results:,Total 52 cases of bacteremia occurred in 43 patients. The major source of infection was vascular access (48%). Staphylococcus aureus was most common organism isolated. Major complications were septic shock (9.6%), pneumonia (9.6%), infective endocarditis (3.8%), and aortic pseudoaneurysm (1.9%). Nine patients died from septic shock (n = 4), aspiration pneumonia (n = 2), hypoxic brain injury (n = 1), gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 1), and rupture of aortic pseudoaneurysm. The central venous catheter group (n = 22) had higher incidences of vascular access as a source of infection (81.8% vs 23.3%, p < 0.001) and staphylococcus as a causative organism (77.2% vs 50.0%, p = 0.042) than the arteriovenous group. Conclusion:, This data shows that bacteremia causes high incidence of fatal complications and mortality. Therefore, careful management of vascular access as well as early detection of bacteremia is an important factor for the prevention of infection and proper antibiotic therapy should be started early. [source]

    Mutation spectrum of Meckel syndrome genes: one group of syndromes or several distinct groups?,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 8 2009
    Jonna Tallila
    Abstract Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a lethal malformation syndrome that belongs to the group of disorders that are associated with primary cilia dysfunction. Total of five genes are known to be involved in the molecular background of MKS. Here we have systematically analyzed all these genes in a total of 29 MKS families. Seven of the families were Finnish and the rest originated from elsewhere in Europe. We found 12 novel mutations in 13 families. Mutations in the MKS genes are also found in other syndromes and it seems reasonable to assume that there is a correlation between the syndromes and the mutations. To obtain some supportive information, we collected all the previously published mutations in the genes to see whether the different syndromes are dictated by the nature of the mutations. Based on this study, mutations play a role in the clinical phenotype, given that the same allelic combination of mutations has never been reported in two clinically distinct syndromes. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Measurements of transpiration in four tropical rainforest types of north Queensland, Australia

    David McJannet
    Abstract Transpiration of four different rainforest types in north Queensland, Australia, was determined using the heat pulse technique for periods ranging between 391 and 657 days. Despite the complexity of the natural rainforest systems being studied, the relationship between sample tree size and daily water use was found to be strong, thus providing a robust means by which to scale transpiration from individual trees to the entire forest stand. Transpiration was shown to be dependent on solar radiation and atmospheric demand for moisture with little evidence of limitation by soil moisture supply. Total stand transpiration was controlled by forest characteristics such as stem density, size distribution and sapwood area. Annual transpiration for each of the four sites ranged between 353 mm for cloud forest and 591 mm for montane rainforest. In comparison with the international literature, transpiration from Australian rainforests is low; the reasons for this could be related to a combination of differences in forest structure, climatic conditions, canopy wetness duration and tree physiology. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Snow-distribution and melt modelling for glaciers in Zackenberg river drainage basin, north-eastern Greenland

    Sebastian H. Mernild
    Abstract A physically based snow-evolution modelling system (SnowModel) that includes four sub-models: MicroMet, EnBal, SnowPack, and SnowTran-3D, was used to simulate eight full-year evolutions of snow accumulation, distribution, sublimation, and surface melt from glaciers in the Zackenberg river drainage basin, in north-east Greenland. Meteorological observations from two meteorological stations were used as model inputs, and spatial snow depth observations, snow melt depletion curves from photographic time lapse, and a satellite image were used for model testing of snow and melt simulations, which differ from previous SnowModel tests methods used on Greenland glaciers. Modelled test-period-average end-of-winter snow water equivalent (SWE) depth for the depletion area differs by a maximum of 14 mm w.eq., or ,6%, more than the observed, and modelled test-period-average snow cover extent differs by a maximum of 5%, or 0·8 km2, less than the observed. Furthermore, comparison with a satellite image indicated a 7% discrepancy between observed and modelled snow cover extent for the entire drainage basin. About 18% (31 mm w.eq.) of the solid precipitation was returned to the atmosphere by sublimation. Modelled mean annual snow melt and glacier ice melt for the glaciers in the Zackenberg river drainage basin from 1997 through 2005 (September,August) averaged 207 mm w.eq. year,1 and 1198 mm w.eq. year,1, respectively, yielding a total averaging 1405 mm w.eq. year,1. Total modelled mean annual surface melt varied from 960 mm w.eq. year,1 to 1989 mm w.eq. year,1. The surface-melt period started between mid-May and the beginning of June and lasted until mid-September. Annual calculated runoff averaged 1487 mm w.eq. year,1 (,150 × 106 m3) (1997,2005) with variations from 1031 mm w.eq. year,1 to 2051 mm w.eq. year,1. The model simulated a total glacier recession averaging , 1347 mm w.eq. year,1 (,136 × 106 m3) (1997,2005), which was almost equal to previous basin average hydrological water balance storage studies , 244 mm w.eq. year,1 (,125 × 106 m3) (1997,2003). Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Local and systemic interleukin-18 and interleukin-18-binding protein in children with inflammatory bowel disease

    Steven T. Leach
    Abstract Background: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is increased in the inflamed mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The balance between this pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine and its natural inhibitor, IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BP), may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Serum and mucosal biopsies were collected from children with IBD, from children with celiac disease, and from controls. Biopsies were maintained in culture for 24 hours, and supernatant was collected. Serum and supernatant IL-18 and IL-18BPa concentrations were measured by immunoassay. Disease activity score (PCDAI) and standard serum inflammatory markers (albumin, platelets, ESR, and CRP) were recorded. Results: Serum IL-18 was greater in children with CD (537 pg/mL) than in controls (335 pg/mL; P < 0.05) but not in children with ulcerative colitis (UC) or IBD type unclassified (IBDU). Mucosal IL-18 was greater in children with CD and UC/IBDU than in controls (P < 0.01). Serum IL-18BPa was increased in children with CD compared with that in controls (3.9 versus 2.6 ng/mL; P < 0.05), but was not elevated in children with UC/IBDU. Furthermore, calculated free-serum IL-18 was elevated in CD, but not UC/IBDU, compared with that in controls (P = 0.001). Total and free-serum IL-18 were elevated in severe CD relative to in mild/moderate disease. Conclusions: IL-18, produced in the colons of children with IBD, may contribute to local inflammatory changes. Systemic IL-18 level may be a useful indicator of gut inflammation. Furthermore, free IL-18 is greatly elevated in children with CD, suggesting that compensatory increases in IL-18BPa are insufficient. Further exploration of the role of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of IBD is now required. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

    In vitro stability of triclosan in dentifrice under simulated use condition

    Z. Hao
    Synopsis Triclosan has been formulated into a dentifrice at a 0.3% level to enhance the antibacterial function of the dentifrice, to improve oral health and to decrease the daily malodor inside the mouth cavity. The hypothesis that chloroform may be generated from triclosan when contacted with chlorinated drinking water has challenged our guarantee of safe use of triclosan in oral care products, especially in Colgate Total® toothpaste. Currently, there was no available analytical method to detect chloroform levels under the use conditions expected during daily tooth brushing. To fill this gap and to continue guaranteeing that our customers can safely use Colgate Total® toothpaste products, a gas chromatography,single ion monitoring,mass spectrometry method for detecting chloroform in artificial saliva media has been developed. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation are about 41 and 130 ppb, respectively. This LOD level is lower than the current Environmental Protection Agency trihalomethanes contamination limit, which is required for our daily drink water. Our in vitro study indicated that Colgate Total® does not form detectable chloroform levels (41 ppb) over the range of expected consumer-brushing times while using normal chlorinated drinking water. Résumé Un dentifrice contenant une concentration de 0.3% de Triclosan a été formulé dans le but de renforcer les propriétés antibactériennes du produit, d'améliorer l'hygiène buccale et de diminuer les mauvaises odeurs quotidiennes de la cavité buccale. L'hypothèse que du chloroforme peut se former à partir du Triclosan au contact de l'eau douce chlorée jette un doute sur la garantie de sécurité d'utilisation du Triclosan dans les produits oraux, en particulier dans la pâte dentifrice Colgate Total®. On ne dispose actuellement d'aucune méthode analytique permettant de détecter le chloroforme dans des conditions habituelles d'utilisation qui correspondent au brossage quotidien des dents. Pour y remédier et pour continuer à garantir à nos clients la sécurité d'utilisation de la pâte dentifrice Colgate Total®, une méthode GC-SIM-MS capable de détecter le chloroforme dans une salive artificielle a été développée. La limite de détection (LOD) et la limite de quantification (LOQ) sont respectivement d'environ de 41 et 130 ppb. Cette valeur de LOD est inférieure à la limite de contamination en trihalométhane requise pour l'eau douce journalière par l'Environnemental Protection Agency (EPA). Notre étude in vitro montre que Colgate Total® ne génère pas de chloroforme à une concentration détectable (41 ppb) pendant la durée requise d'un brossage avec l'utilisation d'eau potable chlorée. [source]

    Ingredients in dentifrices and their effect on plaque, gingivitis and mutans streptococci

    L Jannesson
    The main objectives of this thesis were to study: (i) the effect of an enzyme-containing dentifrice (Zendium Dentine®), with addition of xylitol on mutans streptococci (MS) in saliva and dental plaque (Paper I) (ii) the effect of a combination of triclosan and xylitol in a dentifrice (Colgate Total®) on MS in saliva and dental plaque (Paper II), and (iii) the effect of oxybenzone on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-production in cell culture and the effect of an oxybenzone-containing dentifrice on plaque, gingivitis and MS (Paper III). In Paper I, the subjects were divided into two test groups: one using a 10% xylitol and the other using a 5% xylitol dentifrice for 3 months. The addition of 10% xylitol to Zendium Dentine® had an inhibitory effect on MS in both saliva and dental plaque, and the effect of xylitol seemed to be dose dependent. In Paper II, three groups were using one of the following dentifrices: (i) Colgate Total® with addition of 10% xylitol; (ii) Colgate Total®; and (iii) Colgate Total® without triclosan and without xylitol. The results showed that the addition of 10% xylitol to Colgate Total® reduced the number of MS in saliva and plaque. This effect was more pronounced at 6 months than at 2 months. In Paper III, the effect of oxybenzone was studied in vitro and in vivo. Human Embryo Palatal Mesenchyme (HEPM) cells were used to test the inhibition of IL-1,-stimulated PGE2 production by different concentrations of oxybenzone. The results revealed that there was no decrease of cell viability up to 50 µm. A dose-dependent inhibition of stimulated PGE2 production was found: 50% inhibition (IC50) was found at 0.6 µm. Paper III also included a double-blind clinical trial testing two fluoride dentifrices: one with the addition of 0.5% oxybenzone and one without. Plaque index was reduced in both groups. There was no difference between the groups. A 25% reduction in gingival index was observed in the oxybenzone group after 6 weeks, compared to 2% in the placebo group, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect of oxybenzone. [source]

    Impact of late-life self-reported emotional problems on Disability-Free Life Expectancy: results from the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    Karine Pérès
    Abstract Objectives Depression in old age is a major public health problem though its relationship to onset of disability and death is not well understood. We aim to quantify the impact of late-life self-reported depression and emotional problems on both the length and quality of remaining life. Methods Longitudinal analysis of 11,022 individuals from the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS), multi-centre longitudinal study on ageing in individuals age 65 years and older living in England and Wales. Individuals have been followed at intermittent time intervals over 10 years. Subjects reporting at baseline that they had consulted about emotional problems for the first time since the age of 60 years were considered, along with a subgroup where a GP suggested depression. Disability was defined as an IADL or ADL disability that required help at least once a week. Total and Disability-Free Life Expectancy (TLE and DFLE) were calculated using multi-state models, separately by gender, and with presence of emotional problems/depression and multimorbidity as covariates. Results Emotional problems had a greater impact on DFLE than TLE, reducing DFLE by 1.8 years, but TLE by only 0.5 years at age 65 with the effect increasing with age. The effect was most marked in older people reporting other co-morbidities where emotional problems in addition resulted in a reduction of 0.9 years in total and 2.6 years disability-free. Conclusions Although emotional problems were only self-reported, these results highlight the burden of late-life depression on the quality of remaining years of life. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cell Lysis of Cyanobacteria and Its Implications for Nutrient Dynamics

    Linlin Ye
    Abstract The dynamics of nutrients, such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbohydrates, during cyanobacteria cell lysis was investigated under darkness incubation in the laboratory. The cell lysis rate of cyanobacteria sampled from Lake Taihu was measured using an esterase assay. Based on particulate esterase activity, the calculated cyanobacteria lysis rate was 0.094 d,1. During 30 days of darkness incubation, Chlorophyll a concentration decreased from 56 ,g L,1 to 2.0 ,g L,1. Parallel to this, total particulate carbohydrate concentration decreased rapidly. The fluctuation of dissolved organic carbon concentration was a function of the production of non-carbohydrate by cyanobacteria and the decomposition of carbohydrate by bacteria. Total dissolved carbohydrates and dissolved polysaccharides concentrations showed a similar pattern, declining at the beginning of the experiment and keeping relatively stable, thereafter. In contrast, the concentration of dissolved monosaccharides remained constant during the entire process. The concentrations of NH4+ and PO43, increased at the early stage, and then decreased afterwards. A gradual decrease in NO3, concentration after day 8 indicated that anaerobic conditions might be produced during the cell lysis process. The present results demonstrated cyanobacteria cell lysis has a big influence on the nutrient status of the surrounding water. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Functional Impact of Relative Versus Absolute Sarcopenia in Healthy Older Women

    Marcos Estrada MD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether adjustment of muscle mass for height2 or for body mass represents a more-relevant predictor of physical performance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, using baseline data from a trial comparing upper- and lower-body training. SETTING: Women recruited from the community and gynecological practices in Connecticut. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eighty-nine healthy older (aged 67.5 ± 4.8), active women receiving estrogen for osteoporosis over 2 years. MEASUREMENTS: Total and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) and fat mass (AFM) were determined using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Physical performance, muscle strength, and fitness measures were obtained at baseline. RESULTS: Adjusting ASM for height2 identifies lean women who are sarcopenic according to published standards yet fails to identify overweight and obese women whose ASM adjusted for body mass is low. ASM divided by body mass (ASM/body mass) is a stronger physical performance predictor, explaining 32.5%, 13.5%, 11.6%, 6.3%, and 6.8% of the variance in maximum time on treadmill, 6-minute walk, gait speed, 8-foot walk, and single leg stance, respectively, whereas ASM divided by height in m2 (ASM/height2) explained only 2.9%, 0.2%, 2.0%, 0.04%, and 0.1%. Multivariate modeling demonstrated considerable overlap in aspects of ASM/body mass and AFM/body mass associated with performance, with ASM/body mass dominant. In contrast, ASM/height2 is a much stronger predictor of leg press 1 repetition maximum and maximum power. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that relative sarcopenia with ASM adjusted for body mass is a better mobility predictor, with absolute sarcopenia a better indicator of isolated muscle group function in healthy postmenopausal women receiving estrogen replacement. [source]

    Prospective Association Between Low and High Total and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease in Elderly Men

    J. David Curb MD
    Objectives: To examine the relationship between total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in elderly men. Design: Prospective. Setting: Population based. Participants: A sample of 2,424, Japanese-American men aged 71 to 93 was used. Measurements: Six years of data on incident fatal plus nonfatal CHD were examined. Results: Analysis revealed a significant U-shaped relationship between age-adjusted CHD rates and both TC and LDL-C. The ranges of TC and LDL-C with the lowest risk of CHD were 200 to 219 mg/dL and 120 to 139 mg/dL, respectively. As cholesterol concentrations declined and increased beyond these ranges, the risk of CHD increased. These U-shaped relationships remained significant after adjusting for age and other risk factors. Conclusion: The U-shaped associations between TC and LDL-C and CHD imply a complex relationship between lipids and CHD in late life. The results indicate that elevated lipid levels should continue to be treated in healthy elderly individuals, as they are in those who are younger, although pharmacologically lowering lipids to excessively low levels in the elderly may warrant further study, as does the contribution of subclinical frailty to the relationship of lipids to CHD risk. [source]

    Effect of time of year on the development of immature stages of the Large Pine Weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) in stumps of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Carr.) and influence of felling date on their growth, density and distribution

    R. Moore
    Abstract:, The time of year and time of felling of a commercial stand of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Carr.) were both shown to influence the spatial distribution and development of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L). Stump and root systems were excavated over a 5-month period in 1997, between 18 and 27 months after felling, and all immature H. abietis removed. On a site with a 6-month spread of felling dates in 1995, mean larval weights in 1997 were higher in stumps from earlier fellings, but H. abietis numbers were higher in stumps from later fellings. This appeared to be due to the continued presence of older, heavier larvae, laid as eggs in 1995, in stumps from earlier fellings, combined with a greater concentration of oviposition having occurred in 1996 in the fresher stumps of later fellings. Pupae were first found in excavated stumps on 12 June 1997 and adults on 29 July 1997. Emergence of the ,new generation' of adult weevils commenced on 7 August 1997. On average, 25% of H. abietis adults emerged in autumn 1997, 41% in 1998 and 34% in 1999. First emergence (1997) was proportionally higher in the areas felled earlier in 1995 than those felled later that year. However, the opposite was found for third emergence (1999) where emergence was greater for stumps created later in 1995. Larger stumps contained greater densities of H. abietis. Total ,potential' emergence was estimated to be between 46400 and 170825 H. abietis/ha. However, emergence traps indicated that only 40,80% managed to complete their development and emerge successfully. It is suggested that within-season felling date may be one of the most important factors affecting larval development, distribution and abundance; as well as subsequent damage levels associated with adult feeding. Consequently, knowledge of felling date could be crucial to developing methods of integrated forest management for this major forest pest. [source]

    The Reliability, Validity and Practical Utility of Measuring Supports using the I-CAN Instrument: Part II

    Vivienne C. Riches
    Background, There is an urgent need for developing reliable, valid and practical instruments that assess and classify the support needed by persons with disability to function in their chosen living, working and social environments. I-CAN is an instrument that addresses the frequency and level of support needed (not individual skills or deficits) for each individual with a disability. Method, Studies were conducted to assess the test,retest reliability and inter-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was investigated by exploring the relationship between the I-CAN domain scales and the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning (ICAP) (Bruininks et al. 1986) and the Quality of Life Questionnaire (QOL-Q) (Schalock & Keith 1993). Predictive validity studies were undertaken using day- and night-time support hours. Regression analyses were run using these measures with I-CAN domain scales. Two independent studies were also conducted to ascertain the practical utility of the instrument. Results, The I-CAN instrument demonstrated excellent inter-rater and test,retest reliability in the Activities and Participation domains. Low-to-moderate test,retest results in Physical Health, Mental Emotional Health and Behaviour domains were tracked to actual change in support needs in these areas. Validity proved acceptable. The relationships between I-CAN domain scales and adaptive behaviour were mixed but in the expected direction. Low-to-moderate correlation coefficients were evident between the I-CAN scales and the QOL-Q Total, but greater support needed in certain domains was associated with less empowerment and independence, and less community integration and social belonging. Attempts to explain current support hours against the I-CAN scales were disappointing and suggest that a number of other factors apart from individual support need to play a significant role. There was general satisfaction with the assessment process from stakeholders and participant groups. Conclusions, I-CAN is a reliable, valid and user-friendly instrument for assessing the support needs of people with disabilities. It uses a process that involves the persons with disability, their family and friends and staff as appropriate. It is also apparent that the current provision of paid support hours by agencies is a complex phenomenon that is not based solely on individual support needs. Further research is warranted on the influence of the environment and the perceptions of need for support based on negotiable and non-negotiable support needs. [source]

    Development and Evaluation of a Measure of Dangerous, Aggressive, Negative Emotional, and Risky Driving,

    Chris S. Dula
    The Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) was created to measure drivers' self-reported likelihood to drive dangerously. Each DDDI scale (DDDI Total, Aggressive Driving, Negative Emotional Driving, and Risky Driving scales) had strong internal reliability and there was also evidence for the construct validity of the scales. The DDDI was used to examine the relation between dangerous and aggressive driving and dispositional aggression and anger among 119 college students. Males reported significantly more aggressive, risky, and angry driving than did females. Males and females reported similar levels of dangerous driving and negative emotions while driving. Dangerous driving was positively related to traffic citations and causing accidents. The DDDI will be useful as a research instrument to examine dangerous driving. [source]

    On silver wings: a fragile structural mechanism increases plumage conspicuousness

    Ismael Galván
    We report for the first time the existence of a structural mechanism of feathers different from iridescence that makes plumage conspicuous. By using electron and light microscopy, we show that the mechanism consists of special lengthened and twisted distal barbules that are very susceptible to damage. The dorsal side of these barbules is translucent, which creates a distinctive sheen colouration to feathers that otherwise would be dark. When distal sheen barbules are broken, the black proximal barbules are exposed, thus generating a conspicuous difference between abraded and non-abraded areas. Total and ultraviolet reflectance of sheen (non-abraded) areas are strikingly higher than in abraded areas. We propose that this mechanism represents a case of convergent evolution in species that are limited in developing colourful plumage patches. Future studies should explore the potential of this colour mechanism to act as a signal of individual quality or identity. [source]

    Amylin and Bone Metabolism in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Marie-Noëlle Horcajada-Molteni
    Abstract Amylin (AMY) is a 37 amino acid peptide cosecreted with insulin (INS) by pancreatic ,-cells and absent in type 1 diabetes, a condition frequently associated with osteopenia. AMY binds to calcitonin receptors, lowers plasma calcium concentration, inhibits osteoclast activity, and stimulates osteoblasts. In the present study, we examined the effects of AMY replacement on bone loss in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rodent model type 1 diabetes. Of 50 male Wistar rats studied, 40 were made diabetic with intraperitoneal STZ (50 mg/kg; plasma glucose concentrations >11 mM within 5 days). Ten nondiabetic control (CONT) rats received citrate buffer without STZ. Diabetic rats were divided into four groups (n = 10/group) and injected subcutaneously with rat AMY (45 mg/kg), INS (12 U/kg), both (same doses), or saline (STZ; diabetic controls) once per day. After 40 days of treatment and five 24-h periods of urine collection for deoxypyridinoline (DPD), the animals were killed, blood was sampled, and femurs were removed. The left femur was tested for mechanical resistance (three-point bending). The right femur was tested for total, diaphyseal (cortical bone), and metaphyseal (trabecular bone) bone densities using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone was ashed to determine total bone mineral (calcium) content. None of the treatments had any significant effect on femoral length and diameter. Untreated diabetic rats (STZ; 145 ± 7N) had lower bone strength than did nondiabetic CONT (164 ± 38; p < 0.05). Total bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) was significantly lower in STZ (0. 2523 ± 0. 0076) than in CONT (0.2826 ± 0.0055), as were metaphyseal and diaphyseal densities. Diabetic rats treated with AMY, INS, or both had bone strengths and bone densities that were indistinguishable from those in nondiabetic CONT. Changes in bone mineral content paralleled those for total BMD (T-BMD). Plasma osteocalcin (OC) concentration, a marker for osteoblastic activity, was markedly lower in untreated diabetic rats (7. 6 ± 0. 9 ng/ml); p < 0. 05) than in nondiabetic CONT (29. 8 ± 1. 7; p < 0. 05) or than in AMY (20. 1 ± 0. 7; p < 0. 05). Urinary DPD excretion, a marker for bone resorption, was similar in untreated and AMY-treated diabetic rats (35.0 ± 3.1 vs. 35.1 ± 4.4 nmol/mmol creatinine), intermediate in rats treated with INS (49.9 ± 2.7), and normalized in diabetic rats treated with both agents (58.8 ± 8.9 vs. 63.2 ± 4.5 in CONT). Thus, in our STZ rat model of diabetic osteopenia, addition of AMY improved bone indices apparently by both inhibiting resorption and stimulating bone formation. [source]