Distribution by Scientific Domains

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  • Terms modified by Topics

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  • Selected Abstracts

    Report from a workshop on multianalyte microsphere assays,,§

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 5 2002
    Marie C. Earley
    Abstract Multiplexed assays using fluorescent microspheres is an exciting technique that has been gaining popularity among researchers, particularly those in the public health field. Part of its popularity is due to its flexibility, as both immunoassays and oligonucleotide hybridization assays can be developed on this platform. This report summarizes a workshop held by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that discussed issues surrounding these assays and the Luminex 100 xMAP instrument. Topics included instrumentation, assay design, sample matrix and volume, quality control, and development of commercial applications. Cytometry (Clin. Cytometry) 50:239,242, 2002. Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Research reports on treatments for bipolar disorder: preliminary assessment of methodological quality

    F. Soldani
    Objective:, To assess frequencies of types of publications about bipolar disorder (BD) and evaluate methodological quality of treatment studies. Method:, We classified 100 randomly selected articles (1998,2002) from five psychiatric journals with highest impact ratings, by topic areas, and assessed methods employed in treatment studies. Results:, Topics ranked: treatment (41%; 37% on pharmacotherapy) > biology (31%) > psychopathology (14%) = miscellaneous (14%). Of treatment studies, only 19% of original articles were randomized, 15% were relatively large (n , 50) but non-randomized, 65% were small non-randomized, case-series or -reports, and 53% relied on baseline-to-endpoint contrasts without a control group. Patient dropout rates were ,40% in 43% of prospective studies. Only two reports provided confidence intervals; one included a power analysis, and 53% included no references on study design or statistical methods. Conclusion:, Even in highly respected journals, the typical methodological quality of recent reports on therapeutics for BD was unexpectedly limited, and psychopathology and psychotherapies were little studied. [source]

    Prescription drug misuse: Is technology friend or foe?

    Abstract Introduction and Aims. Prescription drug misuse and related harms have been increasing considerably over the past decade. At the same time, there has also been rapid growth in the use of online and Internet technologies. Thus, it is important that we understand the role online and Internet technologies play in prescription drug misuse. Design and Methods. Published work addressing the role of technology in prescription drug misuse is explored. Topics include: Internet supply, online monitoring of prescription drug use trends and electronic prescription monitoring. Results. Little is known about the prevalence of acquiring prescription drugs from online pharmacies. Prescription drugs are easily accessible through vendor websites, and ,rogue' no-prescription websites have proven difficult to control. There has so far been limited application of real-time monitoring to prevent overuse of prescription medications. Online monitoring of drug use trends may also prove to be a useful and timely source of information about new methods of ,off-label' prescription drug use. Discussion and Conclusions. Technology has the potential to play a more prominent role in facilitating drug acquisition, while also enhancing the monitoring and prevention of prescription drug misuse. As technology becomes more ubiquitous in everyday life, the continued investigation of its relationship with prescription drug misuse becomes even more important.[Nielsen S, Barratt MJ. Prescription drug misuse: Is technology friend or foe? Drug Alcohol Rev 2009;28:81,86] [source]

    Identifying Essential Topics in General and Special Education Introductory Assessment Textbooks

    Cynthia Campbell
    We reviewed the five top-selling introductory assessment textbooks in both general and special education to identify topics contained in textbooks and to determine the extent of agreement among authors regarding the essentialness of topics within and across discipline. Content analysis across the 10 assessment textbooks yielded 73 topics related to 13 categories: Decisions, Law, Technical Adequacy, Plan Assessment, Create Assessment, Score Assessment, Assessment Target, Assessment Type, Assessment Method, Interpret Assessment, Communicate Assessment Results, Assessment Population, and Computer-Assisted Assessment. Many of the topics identified were consistent with traditional assessment expectations of general and special education environments, while other, arguably important, topics were not identified as essential. The idea of core assessment topics for all teachers is introduced. [source]

    Cover Picture: Electrophoresis 7'09

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 7 2009
    Article first published online: 16 APR 200
    Issue no. 7 is a special issue on "Biomarker Discovery and Related Topics". It has 18 articles distributed among four parts including genomic, proteomic, glycoproteomic and metabolomic markers. "New separation technologies, improvements of existing methods and intuitive, elegant applications are providing a representative snapshot on the "state-of-the-art" of the bioanalytical aspects of biomarker discovery today". In addition, as recognition of his significant contribution to the field, this special issue is dedicated to the 70th birthday of Professor Barry L. Karger. [source]

    Cover Picture: Electrophoresis 21'2008

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 21 2008
    Article first published online: 14 NOV 200
    This issue has an emphasis on "Proteomics and Related Topics". It comprises 11 research articles including the "Fast Track" article on the topic of proteomics, glycoproteomics, proteins and peptides. The "Fast Track" article describes a CE-LIF detection-based assay for the simultaneous measurements of the electrophoretic mobility, catalytic activity and the variation of activity over time of the individual enzymes molecules of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. The remaining 10 research articles of the Emphasis deal with the development of sensitive fluorescent staining for proteomic analysis, depletion of high abundance proteins form human serum, lectin affinity chromatography in the identification of rat urinary glycoproteome, lab-on-chip screening strategy of mouse serum samples prior to proteomics analysis, identification of proteins from membrane preparations, capillary coating for CE of proteins, characterization of rabbit liver apothioneins by CE-ESI-MS, quantitative analysis of recombinant protein charge heterogeneity by imaging CIEF, dye staining and immunodetection of proteins on a PVDF membrane, and separation of multiphosphorylated peptide isomers by CZE. [source]

    Interest in Preventive Health Topics Changed in New York after the Disaster on September 11, 2001

    Ingrid Llovera MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    ,I'm living with a chronic illness, not . . . dying with cancer': a qualitative study of Australian women's self-identified concerns and needs following primary treatment for breast cancer

    M. OXLAD m.psych, research assistant
    This study aimed to identify the current concerns and needs of Australian women who had recently completed primary treatment for breast cancer in order to develop a workbook-journal for this population. Focus groups were utilized to allow women to use their own frames of reference, and to identify and verbalize the topics that were important to them following treatment. All focus groups were conducted in a patient education and relaxation room, familiar to the women to assist them to feel more at ease. Ten women aged 36,68 years who had recently completed treatment for early-stage breast cancer at a South Australian public hospital took part in one of three focus groups. Topics covered included current physical, emotional and social needs. Participants reported a sense of apprehension about the future at the completion of primary treatment. In addition to this, five specific areas of concern were identified including physical sequelae of treatment, intimacy issues, fear of recurrence, benefit finding, and optimism versus pessimism about the future. Means of addressing post-treatment concerns were also discussed. Following the presentation of these findings, suggestions to aid health-care professionals in their clinical practice are provided. [source]

    Topics of Special Interest in an Emergency Medicine Course for Dental Practice Teams

    S. Weber
    Considering increasing life expectancy and population comorbitity, not only dentists but also nursing staff should gain knowledge and skills in treatment of patients in acute life-threatening situations. In cooperation with the State Dental Council, a 1-day course in the management of medical emergencies based on the ERC ALS guidelines was held for primary care dental practice teams. Following a short lecture series (2 hours), a systematic skills-training session (6 hours) was performed in small groups, addressing the following subjects: BLS, airway management and ventilation, intravenous techniques, manual and automated external defibrillation, ALS and resuscitation routine in a typical dental practice setting. For all skills-training sessions, life-like manikins and models were utilized and the emergency scenarios were simulated by the use of a universal patient simulator (SimMan®, MPL/Laerdal). At the end of the course, an evaluation questionnaire was completed by all candidates to find out in which emergency situations the dental practice teams now felt well trained or incompetent. In the first course with 32 participants, 13 were dentists and 19 were dental nurses. In the evaluation results, 53% of both, dentists and nurses, stated to be competent in cardiac arrest situations. 95% of the nurses, but only 69% of the dentists, thought that an automated external defibrillator should be available in the dental practice. 26% of the dentists felt unable to treat patients with anaphylactic reactions adequately, whereas 37% of the nurses felt incompetent in respiratory emergencies. [source]

    Statistical Analysis of Microarray Data

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Mark Reimers
    Microarrays promise dynamic snapshots of cell activity, but microarray results are unfortunately not straightforward to interpret. This article aims to distill the most useful practical results from the vast body of literature availalable on microarray data analysis. Topics covered include: experimental design issues, normalization, quality control, exploratory analysis, and tests for differential expression. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities of low-level analysis of Affymetrix chips, and the multiple testing problem in determining differential expression. The aim of this article is to provide useful answers to the most common practical issues in microarray data analysis. The main topics are pre-processing (normalization), and detecting differential expression. Subsidiary topics include experimental design, and exploratory analysis. Further discussion is found at the author's web page (, Notes on Microarray Data Analysis). [source]

    Special Topics: DGM/DVM Working Group Materials Fatigue

    Article first published online: 23 APR 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Topics gained and lost in primate social behavior

    Article first published online: 7 JAN 200, Hans Kummer
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Review of Topics in Current Genetics 15: Comparative Genomics Using Fungi as Models Edited by P. Sunnerhagen and J. Piskur

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 1 2007
    Ed Louis
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Strings in plane wave backgrounds,

    A. Pankiewicz
    Abstract I review aspects of string theory on plane wave backgrounds emphasising the connection to gauge theory given by the BMN correspondence. Topics covered include the Penrose limit and its role in deriving the BMN duality from AdS/CFT, light-cone string field theory in the maximally supersymmetric plane wave and extensions of the correspondence to less supersymmetric backgrounds. [source]

    Third international meeting on the genetic epidemiology of complex traits, April 4,6, 2002, Cambridge, UK

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 3 2002
    Sally John
    Abstract The Third International Meeting on the Genetic Epidemiology of Complex Traits was held at Churchill College, Cambridge, UK on April 4,6, 2002. The event was organized by the Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St Thomas' Hospital, London and sponsored by Roche Genetics and Insightful. It provided an interactive forum for discussion of topical issues relating to the genetic analysis of complex diseases and traits. Topics discussed included linkage disequilibrium mapping and candidate gene analysis, as well as cutting edge advances in both technologies and statistical analysis methods. Details of the meeting can be found at Hum Mutat20:227,229, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Importance of Auditing Topics to Chinese Auditors

    Ronald A. Davidson
    This paper describes the recent history of auditing in China and reports on a survey of Chinese auditors and accounting academics on the importance of a number of auditing topics. We find that Chinese auditors are concerned about their professional responsibilities and legal liabilities, probably resulting from the recent instances of the imposition of severe penalties for breaking the law. We also find that Chinese auditors appear to be more concerned with what we might refer to as the traditional financial audit approach, and are not yet at the stage of using a risk-based audit approach. [source]

    The technology of low-fat cheese manufacture

    Growth in the low-fat cheese market has been slower than would be anticipated on the basis of increased consumer awareness of dietary fat intake. Consumer dissatisfaction with the quality of first-generation low-fat products has highlighted the need for improved technology. Significant advances in understanding the biochemical and physicochemical characteristics of low-fat variants in the past decade have led to novel technological developments. Approaches that have the potential to improve the flavour, texture and functionality of reduced- and low-fat cheese are reviewed here. Topics include the control of processing variables, the selection of appropriate starter and adjunct bacteria, and the use of fat mimetics to improve texture. Factors influencing flavour and texture development in low-fat variants are also considered. [source]

    Ionic Liquids-Based Catalysis with Solids: State of the Art

    Yanlong Gu
    Abstract Topics related to ionic liquid (IL)-based catalysis with solids not only open new ways for studies of heterogeneous catalysts, but also minimize many of the negative effects that current ILs have encountered. This review evaluates the various examples in solid-based heterogeneous catalytic systems that have been developed with the aid of ILs. Catalysis over ready-made solid catalysts in the presence of ILs, immobilizations of homogeneous organic and organometallic catalysts with the concepts of supported ionic liquid phase catalysis, metal nanoparticles catalysts in ILs, catalysis over supported ILs as well as metal complexes and the preparation of solid catalysts by using ILs as solvents have been described. In several cases, detailed information on the performance concerning catalytic activity and recyclability is available. [source]

    Teaching crystallography to undergraduate physical chemistry students

    Virginia B. Pett
    Teaching goals, laboratory experiments and homework assignments are described for teaching crystallography as part of two undergraduate physical chemistry courses. A two-week teaching module is suggested for introductory physical chemistry, including six to eight classroom sessions, several laboratory experiences and a 3,h computer-based session, to acquaint undergraduate physical chemistry students with crystals, diffraction patterns, the mathematics of structure determination by X-ray diffraction, data collection, structure solution and the chemical insights available from crystal structure information. Student projects and laboratory work for three to four weeks of an advanced physical chemistry course are presented. Topics such as symmetry operators, space groups, systematic extinctions, methods of solving the phase problem, the Patterson map, anomalous scattering, synchrotron radiation, crystallographic refinement, hydrogen bonding and neutron diffraction all lead to the goal of understanding and evaluating a crystallographic journal article. Many of the ideas presented here could also be adapted for inorganic chemistry courses. [source]

    The uptake of applied ecology

    S. J. Ormerod
    Summary 1We asked 229 authors who have published recently in the Journal of Applied Ecology (1999,2001) whether their papers made management or policy recommendations and whether they had evidence of consequent uptake. 2A total of 108 respondents working in the UK (34%), Europe (30%), the Americas (12%), Australasia (11%), Asia (7%) and Africa (6%) reported on 110 papers. They represented agro-ecosystems (35%), temperate forests or woodlands (16%), savanna, grass or arid lands (11%), rivers or wetlands (10%), estuaries or marine systems (7%) and tropical forests (5%). The major organisms were invertebrates (27%), birds (24%), mammals (21%) and higher plants (21%). Topics apparently under-represented in recent coverage include ecosystem science, urban areas, soils, mountain systems, fish, amphibians and lower organisms such as algae. 3Almost all papers (99%) carried recommendations and for 57% there was evidence of uptake in the broad categories of ,environmental management or models', ,information, training and education' and ,monitoring and assessment'. Most uptake involved large geographical scales through habitat or species management plans (32% of cases), effects on reserve design or designation (6%), and effects on agri-environmental policy (5%). The development of further research (11%), the communication of methods to other ecologists (9%), the dissemination of recommendations to practitioners or agencies (7%), and uptake in training or education (5%) were important uses of information. 4Prestige from publication in the Journal of Applied Ecology aided several authors in convincing end-users of research value. User involvement in research as participants or funders was widespread (> 42% of papers), a fact which almost certainly promotes uptake along with the parallel dissemination of management messages. We view applied issues as an important interface between end-users and ecologists of value to ,both' communities but suggest that improved communication will further benefit the sponsorship and application of ecological science. 5The major reason offered for lack of uptake was that it was still too soon after publication (21% of respondents). Costs, difficulty of implementation, the scale of the problem, and ,challenges to existing thinking' each figured in more than one response. 6For some respondents, papers were led by curiosity rather than the need for direct application. Several authors published in the Journal to share ideas internationally, or said that recommendations were general, conceptual or long-term rather than specific. The editors of the Journal of Applied Ecology recognize the seminal importance of contributions that affect policy incrementally and conceptually as much as those with specific application. 7These data provide evidence that ecological science is aiding environmental management and policy across a wide range of regions, ecosystems and types of organisms; rather than merely detecting problems, applied ecology is offering solutions both directly and more diffusely through conceptual advance. We invite the user community to offer their own perspectives about the value of research-led publications such as this Journal, about how links between researchers and users might be strengthened, and about how the uptake of applied ecology might be further advanced. [source]

    Discovering Emerging Topics from WWW

    Naohiro Matsumura
    Discovering emerging topics from WWW has been attracting attention of business professionals, especially marketing researchers. For this purpose, WWW can be a valuable source of information because it reflects the dynamics of human society. In this paper we aim at revealing the structure of WWW by using KeyGraph, a visualization method of hidden structure behind data, for understanding emerging topics. [source]

    Political Macroeconomics: A Survey of Recent Developments

    Manfred Gärtner
    The paper surveys political macroeconomics, covering its development from Rogoff's conservative central banker to the most recent discussions of monetary policy and institutional design. Topics include the inflation-stabilization trade-off, central bank independence with escape clauses and overruling with costs, inflation targets, performance contracts for monetary authorities, and the consequences of output persistence for these issues. Further topics are the political business cycle when output is persistent, the political macroeconomics of fiscal policy, the government spending bias, and the game-theoretic interaction between fiscal and monetary policy. All work is discussed within a coherent analytical framework. [source]

    Introduction to the special issue "small farms: decline or persistence?"

    A. Bailey
    Agricultural diversification; Food chains; Globalization; Transition economies Abstract This issue of,Agricultural Economics,contains articles from a seminar entitled "Small Farms: Decline or Persistence?" held at the University of Kent. This issue includes nine papers selected from more than 50 papers presented at the seminar. Articles published use a range of econometric and simulation methods to provide a suite of case studies. Topics studied range from such fundamental issues as what constitutes a small farm to recent trends in the diversification of small farms and their integration into modern globalized food chains. Several papers emphasize the link between agricultural policy development and the future of small farms. [source]

    Educational and health service needs of Australian general practitioners in managing hepatitis C

    Leena Gupta
    Abstract Background:, There has been interest in recent years in the role of primary care practitioners in managing hepatitis C, but there has been minimal research to identify educational and health service needs. A national survey of Australian general practitioners (GPs) was therefore conducted to assess their needs and identify areas for service development. Methods:, A self-administered questionnaire was developed that included questions to assess caseload, confidence in patient management, educational needs and approaches to management and prevention. Questionnaires were sent to a random sample of Australian GPs. Returned questionnaires were coded, frequencies tabulated and significant associations identified. Results:, A 70% response rate was achieved from 658 eligible GPs. A total of 76% of respondents had managed one patient in the previous year with hepatitis C. While 69% reported feeling more confident about their management of hepatitis C than 5 years previously, 55% identified a high level of need for hospital-based clinics. Financial benefits for case conferences and chronic case management were not considered useful by most GPs. Topics identified for further skills development included therapeutics and diagnostic testing. Only 39% were highly likely to discuss psychosocial issues as part of initial patient management and 37% reported finding it difficult to play a central role in the medical and psychosocial care of patients with hepatitis C. Conclusion:, These results have significant implications for policy and service development, as well as identifying areas where GPs need support. The findings invite further discussion between health authorities about the source and magnitude of funding for hospital-based services and further consideration of how to provide services to address patients' psychosocial needs. [source]

    Topics in neuroscience: New frontiers of MR-based techniques in multiple sclerosis

    Jay J. Pillai M.D. Associate Professor of Radiology

    Selected Reviews on Mass Spectrometric Topics,CXXXIII

    H. Budzikiewicz

    Proteomics by FTICR mass spectrometry: Top down and bottom up

    Bogdan Bogdanov
    Abstract This review provides a broad overview of recent Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) applications and technological developments relevant to the field of proteomics. Both the "bottom up" (peptide level) and "top down" (intact protein level) approaches are discussed and illustrated with examples. "Bottom up" topics include peptide fragmentation, the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach and dynamic range extension technology, aspects of quantitative proteomics measurements, post-translational modifications, and developments in FTICR operation software focused on peptide and protein identification. Topics related to the "top down" approach include various aspects of high mass measurements, protein tandem mass spectrometry, methods for the study of protein conformations, and protein complexes as well as advanced technologies that may become of practical utility in the coming years. Finally, early examples of the integration of both FTICR approaches to biomedical proteomics applications are presented, along with an outlook for future directions. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 24:168,200, 2005 [source]

    Selected reviews on Mass Spectrometric Topics,CVII

    H. Budzikiewicz

    Chronic patients in undergraduate education: didactic value as perceived by students

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 8 2006
    Joseph P M Diederiks
    Objectives, Medical education should prepare students for future clinical practice. However, this preparation is inadequate for the most prevalent problem in health care: chronic disease. This applies to the continuous aspect of chronic disease. Within the context of a newly developed programme, we investigated what makes a chronic patient interesting in the eyes of medical students, what they learned from a specific programme in which each student had contact with a chronic patient 4 times in 8 months, and what they learned from their patients. Methods, A total of 240 Year 3 students were enrolled in the programme, 89 of whom filled in questionnaires at both the start and end of the programme. Topics included the characteristics of the ideal and the actual patient, the Ideal Physician Questionnaire, and several questions on the expected and actual amount of knowledge gained from the patient. Results, Students preferred patients who demonstrated clear symptoms and had frequent contacts with health care professionals during the programme to ,well adapted' patients. The perceived knowledge obtained from the patient was less than they had expected at the start of the programme. A didactic gain perceived as low was mainly due to low expectations of gaining knowledge at the start of the programme, a doctor-centred attitude and a high level of discrepancy between the student's ideal patient and the actual patient. Conclusions, Programmes that aim to present chronic patients to medical students focus on patient selection so that patients who differ only very slightly from healthy persons are eliminated. In addition, realistic information on the types of patients with whom students can expect to have contact may help students appreciate the knowledge to be gained from these patients. [source]

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus entry into host cells: Opportunities for therapeutic intervention,

    Kap-Sun Yeung
    Abstract A novel human coronavirus (CoV) has been identified as the etiological agent that caused the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003. The spike (S) protein of this virus is a type I surface glycoprotein that mediates binding of the virus to the host receptor and the subsequent fusion between the viral and host membranes. Because of its critical role in viral entry, the S protein is an important target for the development of anti-SARS CoV therapeutics and prophylactics. This article reviews the structure and function of the SARS CoV S protein in the context of its role in virus entry. Topics that are discussed include: the interaction between the S1 domain of the SARS spike protein and the cellular receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and the structural features of the ectodomain of ACE2; the antigenic determinants presented by the S protein and the nature of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that are elicited in vivo; the structure of the 4,3-hydrophobic heptad repeats HR1 and HR2 of the S2 domain and their interaction to form a six-helical bundle during the final stages of fusion. Opportunities for the design and development of anti-SARS agents based on the inhibition of receptor binding, the therapeutic uses of S-directed monoclonal antibodies and inhibitors of HR1,HR2 complex formation are presented. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev, 26, No. 4, 414,433, 2006 [source]