Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Battery

  • assessment battery
  • cognitive test battery
  • frontal assessment battery
  • impairment battery
  • ion battery
  • li-ion battery
  • lithium battery
  • lithium ion battery
  • lithium rechargeable battery
  • lithium-ion battery
  • neuropsychological battery
  • neuropsychological test battery
  • performance battery
  • physical performance battery
  • rechargeable battery
  • rechargeable lithium battery
  • repeatable battery
  • secondary battery
  • severe impairment battery
  • short physical performance battery
  • test battery

  • Terms modified by Battery

  • battery depletion
  • battery for children
  • battery life

  • Selected Abstracts

    High-Performance Carbon-LiMnPO4 Nanocomposite Cathode for Lithium Batteries

    Seung-Min Oh
    Abstract A cathode material of an electrically conducting carbon-LiMnPO4 nanocomposite is synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis followed by ball milling. The effect of the carbon content on the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of this material is extensively studied. A LiMnPO4 electrode with 30 wt% acetylene black (AB) carbon exhibits an excellent rate capability and good cycle life in cell tests at 55 and 25 °C. This electrode delivers a discharge capacity of 158 mAh g,1 at 1/20 C, 126 mAh g,1 at 1 C, and 107 mAh g,1 at 2 C rate, which are the highest capacities reported so far for this type of electrode. Transmission electron microscopy and Mn dissolution results confirm that the carbon particles surrounding the LiMnPO4 protect the electrode from HF attack, and thus lead to a reduction of the Mn dissolution that usually occurs with this electrode. The improved electrochemical properties of the C-LiMnPO4 electrode are also verified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. [source]

    Titanium Containing ,-MnO2 (TM) Hollow Spheres: One-Step Synthesis and Catalytic Activities in Li/Air Batteries and Oxidative Chemical Reactions

    Lei Jin
    Abstract Titanium containing ,-MnO2 octahedral molecular sieves having hollow sphere structures are successfully prepared for the first time using a one-step synthesis method. Titanium cations are used as structure-directing agents in the synthesis process. The assembly of the hollow spheres is carried out at the beginning of the process. Various techniques including XRD, N2 adsorption, SEM, EDX, RAMAN, TEM, XPS, and TGA are employed for the materials characterization. Ti is incorporated into the MnO2 framework in isolated sites, and TiO2 phases (anatase and rutile) are not observed. When introduced in medium-sized lithium-air batteries, the materials give very high specific capacity (up to 2.3 A h g,1). These materials are also catalytically tested in the oxidation of toluene with molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure, showing significant oxidative catalytic activities in this difficult chemical reaction. [source]

    A Novel Cathode Material with a Concentration-Gradient for High-Energy and Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Yang-Kook Sun
    Abstract A high-energy functional cathode material with an average composition of Li[Ni0.72Co0.18Mn0.10]O2, mainly comprising a core material Li[Ni0.8Co0.2]O2 encapsulated completely within a stable manganese-rich concentration-gradient shell is successfully synthesized by a co-precipitation process. The Li[Ni0.72Co0.18Mn0.10]O2 with a concentration-gradient shell has a shell thickness of about 1,µm and an outer shell composition rich in manganese, Li[Ni0.55Co0.15Mn0.30]O2. The core material can deliver a very high capacity of over 200,mA h g,1, while the manganese-rich concentration-gradient shell improves the cycling and thermal stability of the material. These improvements are caused by a gradual and continuous increase of the stable tetravalent Mn in the concentration-gradient shell layer. The electrochemical and thermal properties of this cathode material are found to be far superior to those of the core Li[Ni0.8Co0.2]O2 material alone. Electron microscopy also reveals that the original crystal structure of this material remains intact after cycling. [source]

    Combined First-Principle Calculations and Experimental Study on Multi-Component Olivine Cathode for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    Hyeokjo Gwon
    Abstract The electrochemical properties and phase stability of the multi-component olivine compound LiMn1/3Fe1/3Co1/3PO4 are studied experimentally and with first-principles calculation. The formation of a solid solution between LiMnPO4, LiFePO4, and LiCoPO4 at this composition is confirmed by XRD patterns and the calculated energy. The experimental and first-principle results indicate that there are three distinct regions in the electrochemical profile at quasi-open-circuit potentials of ,3.5,V, ,4.1,V, and ,4.7,V, which are attributed to Fe3+/Fe2+, Mn3+/Mn2+, and Co3+/Co2+ redox couples, respectively. However, exceptionally large polarization is observed only for the region near 4.1,V of Mn3+/Mn2+ redox couples, implying an intrinsic charge transfer problem. An ex situ XRD study reveals that the reversible one-phase reaction of Li extraction/insertion mechanism prevails, unexpectedly, for all lithium compositions of LixMn1/3Fe1/3Co1/3PO4 (0,,,x,,,1) at room temperature. This is the first demonstration that the well-ordered, non-nanocrystalline (less than 1% Li,M disorder and a few hundred nanometer size particle) olivine electrode can be operated solely in a one-phase mode. [source]

    A Multiscale Description of the Electronic Transport within the Hierarchical Architecture of a Composite Electrode for Lithium Batteries

    Jean-Claude Badot
    Abstract The broadband dielectric spectroscopy technique is applied, for the first time, to a composite material used as an electrode for lithium battery. The electrical properties (permittivity and conductivity) are measured from low (a few Hz) to microwave (a few GHz) frequencies. The results demonstrate that the broadband dielectric spectroscopy technique is very sensitive to the different scales of the electrode architecture involved in electronic transport, from interatomic distances to macroscopic sizes, as well as to the morphology at these scales, coarse or fine distribution of the constituents. This work opens up new prospects for a more fundamental understanding and more rational optimization of the electronic transport in composite electrodes for lithium batteries and other electrochemical energy storage technologies (including other batteries, supercapacitors, low- and medium-temperature fuel cells), electrochemical sensors and conductor,insulator composite materials. [source]

    Silicon Inverse-Opal-Based Macroporous Materials as Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Alexei Esmanski
    Abstract Several types of silicon-based inverse-opal films are synthesized, characterized by a range of experimental techniques, and studied in terms of electrochemical performance. Amorphous silicon inverse opals are fabricated via chemical vapor deposition. Galvanostatic cycling demonstrates that these materials possess high capacities and reasonable capacity retentions. Amorphous silicon inverse opals perform unsatisfactorily at high rates due to the low conductivity of silicon. The conductivity of silicon inverse opals can be improved by their crystallization. Nanocrystalline silicon inverse opals demonstrate much better rate capabilities but the capacities fade to zero after several cycles. Silicon,carbon composite inverse-opal materials are synthesized by depositing a thin layer of carbon via pyrolysis of a sucrose-based precursor onto the silicon inverse opals. The amount of carbon deposited proves to be insufficient to stabilize the structures and silicon,carbon composites demonstrate unsatisfactory electrochemical behavior. Carbon inverse opals are coated with amorphous silicon producing another type of macroporous composite. These electrodes demonstrate significant improvement both in capacity retentions and in rate capabilities. The inner carbon matrix not only increases the material conductivity but also results in lower silicon pulverization during cycling. [source]

    Lithium Batteries: (Adv. Funct.

    The cover picture is a scanning electron microscopy image of uncoated and 0.5 wt% TiO2 nanoparticle-coated LiCoO2 cathode particles, which are investigated in the research and development of lithium rechargeable batteries that require high power, high capacity, and high safety. TiO2 nanoparticles with sizes below 100 nm are mixed with LiCoO2 particles with an average particle size of 20,µm in a rotating jar at 200 rpm. The mixed particles are then fired at 1000°C for 5 h in air. The uncoated and 0.5 wt% coated particles show similar surface morphologies to each other. Despite the use of dry coating, Ti atoms appear to distribute uniformly throughout the particles. The advantage of this method is a simplified and cost-effective coating procedure, and these electrochemical enhancements can lead to versatile potential applications of the batteries, and provide breakthroughs in the power supply of mobile electronics. [source]

    Reversible and High-Capacity Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Min Gyu Kim
    Abstract Reversible nanostructured electrode materials are at the center of research relating to rechargeable lithium batteries, which require high power, high capacity, and high safety. The higher capacities and higher rate capabilities for the nanostructured electrode materials than for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to the higher surface area, which reduces the overpotential and allows faster reaction kinetics at the electrode surface. These electrochemical enhancements can lead to versatile potential applications of the batteries and can provide breakthroughs for the currently limited power suppliers of mobile electronics. This Feature Article describes recent research advances on nanostructured cathode and anode materials, such as metals, metal oxides, metal phosphides and LiCoO2, LiNi1,xMxO2 with zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional morphologies. [source]

    Long-Cycle Electrochemical Behavior of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized on Stainless Steel in Li Ion Batteries

    Charan Masarapu
    Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered to be excellent candidates for high performance electrode materials in Li ion batteries. The nanometer-sized pore structures of CNTs can provide the hosting sites for storing large numbers of Li ions. A short diffusion distance for the Li ions may bring about a high discharge rate. The long-cycle performance of aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) directly synthesized on stainless-steel foil as an anode material in lithium battery is demonstrated. An increase in the specific capacity with an increase in the cycle number is observed. Starting at a value of 132,mA hg,1 in the first cycle at a current rate of 1,C, the specific capacity increased about 250% to a value of 460,mA hg,1 after 1,200 cycles. This is an unusual but a welcoming behavior for battery applications. It is found that the morphology of the MWNTs with structural and surface defects and the stainless-steel substrate play an important role in enhancing the capacity during the cycling process. [source]

    Capacity Fading Mechanism in All Solid-State Lithium Polymer Secondary Batteries Using PEG-Borate/Aluminate Ester as Plasticizer for Polymer Electrolytes

    Fuminari Kaneko
    Abstract Solid-state lithium polymer secondary batteries (LPB) are fabricated with a two-electrode-type cell construction of Li|solid-state polymer electrolyte (SPE)|LiFePO4. Plasticizers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-borate ester (B-PEG) or PEG-aluminate ester (Al-PEG) are added into lithium-conducting SPEs in order to enhance their ionic conductivity, and lithium bis-trifluoromethansulfonimide (LiTFSI) is used as the lithium salt. An improvement of the electrochemical properties is observed upon addition of the plasticizers at an operation temperature of 60,°C. However, a decrease of discharge capacities abruptly follows after tens of stable cycles. To understand the origin of the capacity fading, electrochemical impedance techniques, ex-situ NMR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques are adopted. Alternating current (AC) impedance measurements indicate that the decrease of capacity retention in the LPB is related to a severe increase of the interfacial resistance between the SPE and cathode. In addition, the bulk resistance of the SPE film is observed to accompany the capacity decay. Ex situ NMR studies combined with AC impedance measurements reveal a decrease of Li salt concentration in the SPE film after cycling. Ex situ SEM/EDS observations show an increase of concentration of anions on the electrode surface after cycling. Accordingly, the anions may decompose on the cathode surface, which leads to a reduction of the cycle life of the LPB. The present study suggests that a choice of Li salt and an increase of transference number is crucial for the realization of lithium polymer batteries. [source]

    In Situ Growth of Mesoporous SnO2 on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: A Novel Composite with Porous-Tube Structure as Anode for Lithium Batteries,

    Z. Wen
    Abstract A novel mesoporous-nanotube hybrid composite, namely mesoporous tin dioxide (SnO2) overlaying on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), was prepared by a simple method that included in situ growth of mesoporous SnO2 on the surface of MWCNTs through hydrothermal method utilizing Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as structure-directing agents. Nitrogen adsorption,desorption, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis techniques were used to characterize the samples. It was observed that a thin layer tetragonal SnO2 with a disordered porous was embedded on the surface of MWCNTs, which resulted in the formation of a novel mesoporous-nanotube hybrid composite. On the base of TEM analysis of products from controlled experiment, a possible mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the mesoporous-nanotube structure. The electrochemical properties of the samples as anode materials for lithium batteries were studied by cyclic voltammograms and Galvanostatic method. Results showed that the mesoporous-tube hybrid composites displayed higher capacity and better cycle performance in comparison with the mesoporous tin dioxide. It was concluded that such a large improvement of electrochemical performance within the hybrid composites may in general be related to mesoporous-tube structure that possess properties such as one-dimensional hollow structure, high-strength with flexibility, excellent electric conductivity and large surface area. [source]

    Low-Temperature Ionic-Liquid-Based Synthesis of Nanostructured Iron-Based Fluoride Cathodes for Lithium Batteries

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 33 2010
    Chilin Li
    A mesoporous iron-based fluoride cathode for lithium batteries is fabricated by a novel low-temperature non-aqueous synthesis based on ionic liquid medium. The hydration-water-induced microstructural optimization and morphological decoration are expected to contribute positively to both the large reversible Li-storage capacity and the high reactive voltage of carbon-free FeF3 · 0.33H2O at room temperature. [source]

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Nanostructured Fe3O4/SWNT Electrode: Binder-Free and High-Rate Li-Ion Anode (Adv. Mater.

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 20 2010
    A flexible carbon nanotube net is employed to demonstrate high capacity/high volume expansion materials for Li-ion battery electrodes, as presented by A. C. Dillon et al. on page E145. An electrode, with well over twice the capacity of the state-of-the-art technology, charges and discharges in 12 minutes without significant capacity fade. These advancements, funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies Program, will help enable next generation electric vehicles. [source]

    Ultrathin Direct Atomic Layer Deposition on Composite Electrodes for Highly Durable and Safe Li-Ion Batteries

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 19 2010
    Yoon Seok Jung
    Direct atomic layer deposition (ALD) on composite electrodes leads to ultrathin conformal protective coatings without disrupting inter-particle electronic pathways. Al2O3 -coated natural graphite (NG) electrodes obtained by direct ALD on the as-formed electrode show exceptionally durable capacity retention even at an elevated temperature of 50,°C. In sharp contrast, ALD on powder results in poorer cycle retention than bare NG. [source]

    Graphite-Grafted Silicon Nanocomposite as a Negative Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 46 2009
    Cédric Martin
    p -Phenylenediamine is used to successively generate two aryl radicals that are required to link silicon nanoparticles to graphite flakes by a phenyl bridge and form new silicon/graphite nanocomposites (see image). Such a covalent grafting technique enhances the cycling ability and the gravimetric capacity of the nano composite-based electrode in a lithium-ion battery. [source]

    Research on Advanced Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 45 2009
    Hong Li
    Abstract In order to address power and energy demands of mobile electronics and electric cars, Li-ion technology is urgently being optimized by using alternative materials. This article presents a review of our recent progress dedicated to the anode and cathode materials that have the potential to fulfil the crucial factors of cost, safety, lifetime, durability, power density, and energy density. Nanostructured inorganic compounds have been extensively investigated. Size effects revealed in the storage of lithium through micropores (hard carbon spheres), alloys (Si, SnSb), and conversion reactions (Cr2O3, MnO) are studied. The formation of nano/micro core,shell, dispersed composite, and surface pinning structures can improve their cycling performance. Surface coating on LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 was found to be an effective way to enhance their thermal and chemical stability and the mechanisms are discussed. Theoretical simulations and experiments on LiFePO4 reveal that alkali metal ions and nitrogen doping into the LiFePO4 lattice are possible approaches to increase its electronic conductivity and does not block transport of lithium ion along the 1D channel. [source]

    A Tin-Based Amorphous Oxide Composite with a Porous, Spherical, Multideck-Cage Morphology as a Highly Reversible Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 35 2009
    Yan Yu
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cross-Stacked Carbon Nanotube Sheets Uniformly Loaded with SnO2 Nanoparticles: A Novel Binder-Free and High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 22 2009
    Hao-Xu Zhang
    SnO2,carbon nanotube (CNT) composite sheets are synthesized using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) to uniformly load a monolayer of SnO2 nanoparticles onto the surfaces of CNTs and CNT bundles within cross-stacked CNT sheets. When they are used as high-capacity (over 850,mA h g,1) and binder-free anodes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, they exhibit good cycle performance, as shown in the lower portion of the figure. [source]

    A Tin-Based Amorphous Oxide Composite with a Porous, Spherical, Multideck-Cage Morphology as a Highly Reversible Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 7 2007
    Y. Yu
    Thin-film anodes for Li-ion batteries prepared by using electrostatic spray deposition are reported. They consist of a tin-based amorphous oxide composite with a porous, spherical, multideck-cage morphology (see figure). The electrochemical properties of the thin-film electrodes are shown to be improved significantly by introducing Li2O and CuO, the ternary Li2O,CuO,SnO2 electrode being demonstrated to exhibit the best performance. [source]

    Conducting-Polymer/Iron-Redox- Couple Composite Cathodes for Lithium Secondary Batteries,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 6 2007
    K.-S. Park
    Physically or chemically attaching an FeIII/FeIIredox couple to the backbone of a conducting polymer leads to stabilization of the charge/discharge characteristics and higher electrode capacities. Composite cathodes made from LiFePO4 particles bound to polypyrrole show enhanced electrode capacities and better rate capabilities, as shown in the figure. Chemically attaching ferrocene to the pyrrole backbone not only stabilizes the charge,discharge curves but also leads to higher capacity. [source]

    Redox-Active Polypyrrole: Toward Polymer-Based Batteries,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 13 2006
    H.-K. Song
    An energy-storage device consisting of polypyrrole (pPy) doped with indigo carmine (IC) and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) has been fabricated. These redox-active conducting polymers (see figure) form the basis of a battery that depends on the faradaic reactions of the redox-active dopants, and performs better than conventional batteries and ultracapacitors at high power density. [source]

    The Zwitterion Effect in Ionic Liquids: Towards Practical Rechargeable Lithium-Metal Batteries,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 20 2005
    N. Byrne
    Practical lithium-metal batteries are the ultimate goal of battery researchers. The addition of a zwitterionic compound (see Figure) to an ionic liquid electrolyte doped with a lithium salt results in a 100% enhancement of the current densities achieved in the cycling of a lithium-metal cell. This phenomenon arises due to increased lithium-ion mobility or a reduced solid electrolyte interphase layer resistance. [source]

    Cover Picture: Nanostructured Electrodes and the Low-Temperature Performance of Li-Ion Batteries (Adv. Mater.

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 1 2005
    Abstract The cover image shows a scanning electron micrograph of a commercially available track-etch polycarbonate filter. This porous membrane serves as the host for the template-synthesis of V2O5 nanowires of various diameters. Nanowires that are 70,nm in diameter are shown in the inset. Because V2O5 reversibly intercalates Li-ions, it has potential for use as a cathode material in Li-ion batteries. On p.,125, Sides and Martin report the use of these V2O5 nanowires as tools to investigate the poor low-temperature performance of Li-ion batteries. [source]

    A Novel Inorganic Polymer as Cathode Material for Secondary Lithium Batteries

    Guo-Xiang Xu
    Abstract Summary: This paper introduces a new inorganic poly(phosphazene disulfide) material. With unique element composition and molecular structure, the polymer has noncombustible safety and preferable conductivity. When used as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries, the polymer's first discharge capacity is as high as 467.9 mAh,·,g,1, which can be retained at 409.9 mAh,·,g,1 after 60 repeated cycles. Therefore, it has a great application potential in the field of lithium batteries. Replacement of the Cl atoms by SS groups by refluxing Na2S2 and linear poly(dichloro-phosphazene). [source]

    Electroactive Organic Molecules Immobilized onto Solid Nanoparticles as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 40 2010
    Dr. Bostjan Genorio
    Aktive Monomere: Indem man lösliche organische Moleküle an unlösliche Substrate bindet, z.,B. Calixchinone an Nanopartikel (siehe Bild), gelingt die Herstellung einer ganzen Reihe sehr stabiler Materialien für Anwendungen in Lithiumionenbatterien. Die Immobilisierung der organischen Moleküle vermeidet das zu Leistungsabfällen führende Problem der Dissolution. [source]

    A Critical Size of Silicon Nano-Anodes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 12 2010
    Hyejung Kim
    Feindispergierte Si-Nanokristalle von ungefähr 5, 10 und 20,nm Größe wurden bei hohem Druck und 380,°C in reversen Micellen hergestellt und als Anodenmaterial für Lithiumbatterien getestet. Die 10-nm-Nanokristalle wiesen eine Anfangs-Ladungskapazität y von 3380,mAh,g,1 auf, und selbst nach 40 Zyklen war die Kapazität nur auf 81,% gesunken, bei Kohlenstoffbeschichtung sogar nur auf 96,% (siehe Bild). [source]

    LiMn0.8Fe0.2PO4: An Advanced Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 45 2009
    Mit Kohlenstoff beschichtete LiMn0.8Fe0.2PO4 -Nanopartikel (siehe TEM-Bild) aus einer Festkörpersynthese erwiesen sich als hervorragendes Kathodenmaterial für Lithiumionenbatterien: Neben einer stabilen reversiblen Kapazität von 165,mA,h,g,1 wurden ein hervorragendes Zyklusverhalten, schnelles Ansprechverhalten, eine hohe Temperaturbeständigkeit und sehr geringe Oberflächenreaktivität beobachtet. [source]

    Encapsulation of Sn@carbon Nanoparticles in Bamboo-like Hollow Carbon Nanofibers as an Anode Material in Lithium-Based Batteries,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 35 2009
    Yan Yu Dr.
    Durch Pyrolyse koaxial elektrogesponnener Nanofasern wurde ein Anodenmaterial für Lithiumionenbatterien hergestellt, dessen deutlich erhöhte elektrochemische Leistungsfähigkeit wohl aus seiner einzigartigen Nanostruktur resultiert: Sn-Nanopartikel sind von einer dünnen Kohlenstoffhülle umgeben und zusätzlich noch in einer hohlen Kohlenstoff-Nanofaser verkapselt (siehe Bild). [source]

    Biological Conversion of Anglesite (PbSO4) and Lead Waste from Spent Car Batteries to Galena (PbS)

    Jan Weijma
    Lead paste, a solid mixture containing PbSO4, PbO2, PbO/Pb(OH)2precipitate, and elemental Pb, is one of the main waste fractions from spent car batteries. Biological sulfidation represents a new process for recovery of lead from this waste. In this process the lead salts in lead paste are converted to galena (PbS) by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This paper investigates a continuous process for sulfidation of anglesite (PbSO4), the main constituent of lead paste, and lead paste, consisting of a laboratory-scale gas-lift bioreactor to which a slurry of anglesite or lead paste was supplied. Sulfate or elemental sulfur was added as an additional sulfur source. Hydrogen gas served as an electron donor for the biological reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur to sulfide by sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria. Anglesite was almost completely converted to galena at a loading rate of 19 kg of PbSO4m,3day,1, producing a sludge of which the crystalline lead phases consisted of >98% PbS (galena) and 1,2% elemental Pb. With lead paste, stable sulfidation rates of up to 17 kg of lead paste m,3day,1were demonstrated, producing a sludge of which the crystalline lead phases consisted of an estimated >96% PbS, 1,2% elemental Pb, and 1,2% PbO2. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Sn-0.4BPO4 Composite as a Promising Negative Electrode for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 15 2010
    Abdelmaula Aboulaich
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]