Toxic Insults (toxic + insult)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Secretion of cortisol and aldosterone as a vulnerable target for adrenal endocrine disruption , screening of 30 selected chemicals in the human H295R cell model

Erik Ullerås
Abstract The adrenal gland is a vulnerable target for toxic insult. Disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis and hormone secretion may cause serious effects on human health. A human in vitro model is needed to predict effects, and elucidate mechanisms of endocrine disruption and adrenal toxicity. The human adrenocortical cell line H295R has been used to screen for effects on sex hormones. Here, we have analyzed the effect of 30 potential endocrine disrupting chemicals on the secretion of cortisol and aldosterone from the H295R cells, using specific ELISA assays. The effect of chemicals was analyzed for basal and forskolin- or angiotensin II-stimulated hormone secretion. The chemicals were tested at the highest concentration where they displayed no evident unspecific cytotoxicity. Quantitative and qualitative differences in effects on hormone secretion were demonstrated for the various chemicals. A subset of the chemicals displayed different effects on cortisol and aldosterone secretion, and in some cases the effects were different between basal and stimulated hormone secretion. Aminoglutethimide, prochloraz, ketoconazole, 6-hydroxyflavone, imazalil and etomidate had the most marked inhibitory effects on cortisol (with or without forskolin) and ketoconazole, 6-hydroxyflavone, imazalil and etomidate had the most marked effects on aldosterone (with or without angiotensin II). The results are discussed in terms of known effects, structural similarity and possible mechanisms. We have shown that adrenal steroidogenesis is a vulnerable target for toxic insult and that the H295R assay is a useful in vitro model for screening purposes. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Recommendation for a definition of acute symptomatic seizure

EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2010
Ettore Beghi
Summary Purpose:, To consider the definition of acute symptomatic seizures for epidemiological studies, and to refine the criteria used to distinguish these seizures from unprovoked seizures for specific etiologies. Methods:, Systematic review of the literature and of epidemiologic studies. Results:, An acute symptomatic seizure is defined as a clinical seizure occurring at the time of a systemic insult or in close temporal association with a documented brain insult. Suggestions are made to define acute symptomatic seizures as those events occurring within 1 week of stroke, traumatic brain injury, anoxic encephalopathy, or intracranial surgery; at first identification of subdural hematoma; at the presence of an active central nervous system (CNS) infection; or during an active phase of multiple sclerosis or other autoimmune diseases. In addition, a diagnosis of acute symptomatic seizure should be made in the presence of severe metabolic derangements (documented within 24 h by specific biochemical or hematologic abnormalities), drug or alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, or exposure to well-defined epileptogenic drugs. Discussion:, Acute symptomatic seizures must be distinguished from unprovoked seizures and separately categorized for epidemiologic purposes. These recommendations are based upon the best available data at the time of this report. Systematic studies should be undertaken to better define the associations in question, with special reference to metabolic and toxic insults, for which the time window for the occurrence of an acute symptomatic seizure and the absolute values for toxic and metabolic dysfunction still require a clear identification. [source]

Nicotine and Parkinson's disease: Implications for therapy

Maryka Quik PhD
Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that nicotine, a drug that stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, may be of therapeutic value in Parkinson's disease. Beneficial effects may be several-fold. One of these is a protective action against nigrostriatal damage. This possibility stems from the results of epidemiological studies that consistently demonstrate an inverse correlation between tobacco use and Parkinson's disease. This reduced incidence of Parkinson's disease has been attributed to the nicotine in tobacco products, at least in part, based on experimental work showing a protective effect of nicotine against toxic insults. Second, several studies suggest a symptomatic effect of nicotine in Parkinson's disease, although effects are small and somewhat variable. Third, recent data in nonhuman primates show that nicotine attenuates levodopa-induced dyskinesias, a debilitating side effect that develops in the majority of patients on levodopa therapy. Collectively, these observations suggest that nicotine or CNS selective nicotinic receptor ligands hold promise for Parkinson's disease therapy to reduce disease progression, improve symptoms, and/or decrease levodopa-induced dyskinesias. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Tacrine,Melatonin Hybrids as Multifunctional Agents for Alzheimer's Disease, with Cholinergic, Antioxidant, and Neuroprotective Properties

CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 5 2009
María Isabel Fernández-Bachiller Dr.
Abstract Tacrine,melatonin hybrids are potential multifunctional drugs for Alzheimer's disease that may simultaneously palliate intellectual deficits and protect the brain against both ,-amyloid peptide and oxidative stress. Molecular modeling studies show that they target both the catalytic active site (CAS) and the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. They are nontoxic and may be able to penetrate the CNS, according to in,vitro PAMPA-BBB assays. Tacrine,melatonin hybrids were designed and synthesized as new multifunctional drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease. These compounds may simultaneously palliate intellectual deficits and protect the brain against both ,-amyloid (A,) peptide and oxidative stress. They show improved cholinergic and antioxidant properties, and are more potent and selective inhibitors of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) than tacrine. They also capture free radicals better than melatonin. Molecular modeling studies show that these hybrids target both the catalytic active site (CAS) and the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. At sub-micromolar concentrations they efficiently displace the binding of propidium iodide from the PAS and could thus inhibit A, peptide aggregation promoted by AChE. Moreover, they also inhibit A, self-aggregation and display neuroprotective properties in a human neuroblastoma line against cell death induced by various toxic insults, such as A,25,35, H2O2, and rotenone. Finally, they exhibit low toxicity and may be able to penetrate the central nervous system according to an in,vitro parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for the blood,brain barrier (PAMPA-BBB). [source]