Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Timescale

  • centennial timescale
  • decadal timescale
  • evolutionary timescale
  • geological timescale
  • longer timescale
  • millisecond timescale
  • nanosecond timescale
  • nmr timescale
  • short timescale

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Quaternary is here to stay,

    D. Q. Bowen
    Abstract The proposals to drop the name Quaternary, to extend the Neogene Period to the present day, and to confirm the base of the Pleistocene at 1.8,Ma are reviewed. It is concluded that there is no scientific case for dropping the name Quaternary and that an overwhelming volume of evidence points to 2.6,Ma as the most appropriate base for the Quaternary/Pleistocene, when extensive Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude glaciation occurred under what were essentially similar physical boundary conditions of continents, oceans, seaways and mountain ranges that characterise, and are unique to, the Quaternary. It is desirable that all stratigraphical and geochronological evidence is tied rigorously into the Global Stratigraphic Timescale. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Ultraviolet Radiation Environment of High Southern Latitudes: Springtime Behavior over a Decadal Timescale,

    Yixiang Liao
    ABSTRACT Four spectroradiometers located at latitudes from 55° to 90°S conducted near-continuous measurements of ground-level solar ultraviolet irradiance from 1990 through 2001. The behavior during months from October through December is of special interest because this period includes the springtime loss in column ozone and the naturally large irradiances of early summer. Monthly integrated irradiances using biological weightings for erythema and damage to DNA show a distortion of the normal annual cycle in irradiance, with enhanced values occurring in October and November. In some cases, these irradiances exceed those near summer solstice in December. Changes in local cloudiness and column ozone both contribute significantly to interannual variability in erythemal irradiance. This is particularly the case at Palmer Station, near 65°S, where the monthly integrated erythemal irradiance in November 1997 was more than double that observed 5 years earlier. In general, at sites on the Antarctic continent, interannual variability in monthly integrated erythemal irradiance is greatest in November, when the observation for any given year can fall 40% above or below the multiyear mean. Near the tip of South America, interannual variability is approximately half that seen in Antarctica. [source]

    Spins as probes of different electronic states

    Dieter Suter
    Abstract Nuclear spins are efficient probes of electronic states. Because most NMR experiments are performed in thermal equilibrium, they probe the electronic ground state,the only state that is significantly populated under ambient conditions. Probing electronically excited states becomes possible, if magnetic resonance techniques are combined with optical (laser) excitation. Depending on the nature of the electronic state, drastic changes of the magnetic resonance parameters may be observed. We discuss the basic principles of this type of investigation. Depending on the lifetime of the electronically excited state, it is possible to measure separate spectra of ground and excited state if the lifetime is long on the NMR timescale, or an averaged spectrum if the lifetime is short. We present examples for both limiting cases using rare earth ions and semiconductor heterostructures. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 30A: 116,126, 2007. [source]

    Climatic influence on the inter-annual variability of late-Holocene minerogenic sediment supply in a boreal forest catchment

    Gunilla Petterson
    Abstract Processes controlling sediment yield vary over a range of timescales, although most process-based observations are extremely short. Lake sediments, however, can be used to extend the observational timescale and are particularly useful when annually laminated (varved) sediment is present. The sediment record at Kassjön (N. Sweden) consists of ,6400 varves, each 0·5,1 mm thick. Image analysis was used to determine grey-scale variation and varve thickness from which annual minerogenic accumulation rate (MinAR) (mg cm,2 year,1) was inferred for the period 4486 BC , AD 1900. MinAR varies on annual to centennial scales and mainly reflects channel bank erosion by the inflow streams. The mineral input reflects the intensity of the spring run-off, which is dependent on the amount of snow accumulated during the winter, and hence MinAR is a long-term record of variability in past winter climate; other factors will be a variable response to catchment uplift, vegetation succession and pedogenesis. A major shift from low to high MinAR occurred ,250 BC, and peaks occurred around AD 250, 600, 1000, 1350 and 1650. Wavelet power spectrum analysis (confirmed by Fourier analyses) indicated significantly different periodicities throughout the period 4000 BC , AD 1700, including 275 years for the period 4000 BC , 2900 BC, 567 years for the period 2901 BC , 1201 BC, and 350 and 725 years for the period 1200 BC , AD 1700. The long-term, centennial scale variability (,350 years) may reflect solar forcing (cf the 385-year peak in tree-ring calibrated 14C activity) but interestingly, there is no obvious link to high frequency forcing, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation. The high resolution component of the record highlights the relevance of varved lake sediment records for understanding erosion dynamics in undisturbed forested catchments and their link to long-term climate dynamics and future climate change. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dating floodplain sediments using tree-ring response to burial,

    Jonathan M. Friedman
    Abstract Floodplain sediments can be dated precisely based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When a stem of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) or sandbar willow (Salix exigua) is buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried section resemble the rings of roots: rings become narrower, vessels within the rings become larger, and transitions between rings become less distinct. We combined observations of these changes with tree-ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds exposed in a 150-m-long trench across the floodplain of the Rio Puerco, a rapidly filling arroyo in New Mexico. This method reliably dated most beds thicker than about 30 cm to within a year of deposition. Floodplain aggradation rates varied dramatically through time and space. Sediment deposition was mostly limited to brief overbank flows occurring every few years. The most rapid deposition occurred on channel-margin levees, which migrated laterally during channel narrowing. At the decadal timescale, the cross-section-average sediment deposition rate was steady, but there was a shift in the spatial pattern of deposition in the 1980s. From 1936 to 1986, sediment deposition occurred by channel narrowing, with little change in elevation of the thalweg. After 1986 sediment deposition occurred by vertical aggradation. From 1936 to 2000 about 27 per cent of the arroyo cross-section filled with sediment. The rate of filling from 1962 to 2000 was 0·8 vertical m/decade or 85 m2/decade. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Modelling the effect of form and profile adjustments on channel equilibrium timescales

    Martin W. Doyle
    Abstract A model for describing river channel pro,le adjustments through time is developed and applied to a river responding to base-level lowering in order to examine the effect of channel widening and downstream aggradation on equilibrium timescales. Across a range of boundary conditions, downstream aggradation controlled how quickly a channel reached equilibrium. Channel widening either increased or decreased the equilibrium timescale, depending on whether or not sediment derived from widening was deposited downstream. Results suggest that pro,le adjustments are more important than channel width adjustments in controlling equilibrium timescales for a channel responding to base-level lowering. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Flooding and geomorphic impacts in a mountain torrent: Raise Beck, central Lake District, England

    R. M. Johnson
    Abstract Raise Beck is a mountain torrent located in the central Lake District fells, northern England (drainage area of 1·27 km2). The torrent shows evidence of several major flood events, the most recent of which was in January 1995. This event caused a major channel avulsion at the fan apex diverting the main flood flow to the south, blocking the A591 trunk road and causing local flooding. The meteorological conditions associated with this event are described using local rainfall records and climatic data. Records show 164 mm of rainfall in the 24 hours preceding the flood. The peak flood discharge is reconstructed using palaeohydrological and rainfall,runoff methods, which provide discharge values of 27,74 m3 s,1, and 4,6 m3 s,1, respectively. The flood transported boulders with b-axes up to 1400 mm. These results raise some important general questions about flood estimation in steep mountain catchments. The geomorphological impact of the event is evaluated by comparing aerial photographs from before and after the flood, along with direct field observations. Over the historical timescale the impact and occurrence of flooding is investigated using lichenometry, long-term rainfall data, and documentary records. Two major historical floods events are identified in the middle of the nineteenth century. The deposits of the recent and historical flood events dominate the sedimentological evidence of flooding at Raise Beck, therefore the catchment is sensitive to high magnitude, low frequency events. Following the 1995 flood much of the lower catchment was channelized using rip-rap bank protection, re-establishing flow north towards Thirlmere. The likely success of this management strategy in containing future floods is considered, based on an analysis of channel capacities. It is concluded that the channelization scheme is only a short-term solution, which would fail to contain the discharge of an event equivalent to the January 1995 flood. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Gully-head erosion processes on a semi-arid valley floor in Kenya: a case study into temporal variation and sediment budgeting

    D. J. Oostwoud Wijdenes
    Abstract A three year monitoring programme of gully-head retreat was established to assess the significance of sediment production in a drainage network that expanded rapidly by gully-head erosion on the low-angled alluvio-lacustrine Njemps Flats in semi-arid Baringo District, Kenya. This paper discusses the factors controlling the large observed spatial and temporal variation in gully-head retreat rates, ranging from 0 to 15 m a,1. The selected gullies differed in planform and in runoff-contributing catchment area but soil material and land use were similar. The data were analysed at event and annual timescales. The results show that at annual timescale rainfall amount appears to be a good indicator of gully-head retreat, while at storm-event timescale rainfall distribution has to be taken into account. A model is proposed, including only rainfall (P) and the number of dry days (DD) between storms: which explains 56 per cent of the variation in retreat rate of the single-headed gully of Lam1. A detailed sediment budget has been established for Lam1 and its runoff-contributing area (RCA). By measuring sediment input from the RCA, the sediment output by channelized flow and linear retreat of the gully head for nine storms, it can be seen that erosion shifts between different components of the budget depending on the duration of the dry period (DD) between storms. Sediment input from the RCA was usually the largest component for the smaller storms. The erosion of the gully head occurred as a direct effect of runoff falling over the edge (GHwaterfall) and of the indirect destabilization of the adjacent walls by the waterfall erosion and by saturation (GHmass/storage). The latter component (GHmass/storage) was usually much larger that the former (GHwaterfall). The sediment output from the gully was strongly related to the runoff volume while the linear retreat, because of its complex behaviour, was not. Overall, the results show that the annual retreat is the optimal timescale to predict retreat patterns. More detailed knowledge about relevant processes and interactions is necessary if gully-head erosion is to be included in event-based soil erosion models. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Costs of cannibalism in the presence of an iridovirus pathogen of Spodoptera frugiperda

    Trevor Williams
    Abstract., 1.,The costs of cannibalism were examined in larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the presence of conspecifics infected by a lethal invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV). The hypothesis of a positive correlation between insect density and the likelihood of disease transmission by cannibalism was examined in laboratory microcosms and a field experiment. 2.,Transmission was negligible following peroral infection of early instars with purified virus suspensions or following coprophagy of virus-contaminated faeces excreted by infected insects. In contrast, 92% of the insects that predated infected conspecifics acquired the infection and died prior to adult emergence in the laboratory. Diseased larvae were more likely to be victims of cannibalism than healthy larvae. 3.,The prevalence of cannibalism was density dependent in laboratory microcosms with a low density (10 healthy insects + one infected insect) or high density (30 healthy insects + one infected insect) of insects, and field experiments performed on maize plants infested with one or four healthy insects + one infected insect. 4.,Cannibalism in the presence of virus-infected conspecifics was highly costly to S. frugiperda; in all cases, insect survival was reduced by between ,,50% (laboratory) and ,,30% (field) in the presence of the pathogen. Contrary to expectations, the prevalence of disease was not sensitive to density because cannibalism resulted in self-thinning. As infected individuals are consumed and disappear from the population, the prevalence of disease will be determined by the timescale over which transmission can be achieved, and the rate at which individuals that have acquired an infection become themselves infectious to conspecific predators. [source]

    Linking dispersal, immigration and scale in the neutral theory of biodiversity

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 12 2009
    Ryan A. Chisholm
    Abstract In the classic spatially implicit formulation of Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity a local community receives immigrants from a metacommunity operating on a relatively slow timescale, and dispersal into the local community is governed by an immigration parameter m. A current problem with neutral theory is that m lacks a clear biological interpretation. Here, we derive analytical expressions that relate the immigration parameter m to the geometry of the plot defining the local community and the parameters of a dispersal kernel. Our results facilitate more rigorous and extensive tests of the neutral theory: we conduct a test of neutral theory by comparing estimates of m derived from fits to empirical species abundance distributions to those derived from dispersal kernels and find acceptable correspondence; and we generate a new prediction of neutral theory by investigating how the shapes of species abundance distributions change theoretically as the spatial scale of observation changes. We also discuss how our main analytical results can be used to assess the error in the mean-field approximations associated with spatially implicit formulations of neutral theory. Ecology Letters (2009) 12: 1385,1393 [source]

    Fabrication of enclosed SU-8 tips for electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 24 2005
    Santeri Tuomikoski Dr.
    Abstract We describe a novel electrospray tip design for MS which is fabricated completely out of SU-8 photoepoxy. A three-layer SU-8 fabrication process provides fully enclosed channels and tips. The tip shape and alignment of all SU-8 layers is done lithographically and is therefore very accurate. Fabrication process enables easy integration of additional fluidic functions on the same chip. Separation channels can be made with exactly the same process. Fluidic inlets are made in SU-8 during the fabrication process and no drilling or other postprocessing is needed. Channels have been fabricated and tested in the size range of 10,,m×10,,m,50,,m×200,,m. Mass spectrometric performance of the tips has been demonstrated with both pressure-driven flow and EOF. SU-8 microtips have been shown to produce stable electrospray with EOF in a timescale of tens of minutes. With pressure driven flow stable spray is maintained for hours. Taylor cone was shown to be small in volume and well defined even with the largest channel cross section. The spray was also shown to be well directed with our tip design. [source]

    Self-Assembly, Structure and Solution Dynamics of Tetranuclear Zn2+ Hydrazone [2×2] Grid-Type Complexes

    Mihail Barboiu
    Abstract We describe the self-assembly processes as well as the structural and physico-chemical properties of [2×2]Zn2+4 grid complexes involving the bis-tridentate ligands 7,12, based on bis(hydrazone)pyrimidine complexation subunits and octahedrally coordinated Zn2+ ions. The NMR spectroscopic data and the X-ray crystal structure results indicate that in solution and in the solid state the complexes 13,18 adopt a very compact arrangement providing stable [2×2] hydrazone-grid arrays. The ,,, stacking between the phenyl ring and the hydrazone units of the perpendicular ligands in the complexes induces a perfect orthogonal arrangement suitable for applications in self-organized metallosupramolecular systems. Zinc complexes provide an opportunity to study the acid,base chemistry without the added effects due to paramagnetism or redox chemistry. The intermediate protonated grids undergo relatively rapid proton exchange on the NMR timescale, the presence of a sharp pyrimidine proton resonance suggesting that there is significant delocalization of the negative charge along the backbone of the ligand. Rotation of the phenyl ring is observed. It involves probably a mechanism in which one of the ligands partially dissociates allowing the initially intercalated phenyl group to rotate, before recoordination of the terminal pyridine. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    NMR Study of L-Shaped (Quinoxaline)platinum(II) Complexes , Crystal Structure of [Pt(DMeDPQ)(bipy)](PF6)2

    Enrico Rotondo
    Abstract A 1H and 13C NMR study of nine PtII complexes of DMeDPQ [6,7-dimethyl-2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)quinoxaline] and BDPQ [2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)benzo[g]quinoxaline], and the crystal structure of one of them, are reported. The results are consistent with Cs symmetry of "L-shaped square-planar complexes". The rigid seven-membered chelated quinoxaline ligand holds the fused aromatic rings nearly perpendicular to the PtII coordination plane, generating the peculiar L-shaped structure. Ancillary ligands in the residual coordination sites are: a) bidentate flexible-planar 2,2,-bipyridine (bipy; complexes 1 and 2); b) bidentate rigid-planar dipyrido[3,2- a:2,3,- c]phenazine (dppz) or benzo[b]dipyrido[3,2- h:2,,3,- j]phenazine (bdppz; complexes 3,6); or c) 3-substituted monodentate pyridines (3-Rpy; complexes 7,9). The L-shaped geometry has been exploited to gain insight into the steric and dynamic features that regulate the noncovalent interactions of these square-planar complexes with DNA. We have shown previously, for [Pt(bipy)(n -Rpy)2]2+, that bipy twisting can be frozen out on the NMR timescale below 260 K. Preservation of the Cs symmetry at low temperature indicates a lack of bipy fluxionality within these L-shaped structures. The static butterfly-like symmetric orientation of the quinoxaline pyridyl rings accounts for the hampered twisting of Pt(bipy), which is otherwise assisted by the synchronous "windscreen wiper" conrotatory rocking of the ancillary pyridine rings. The L-geometry can also be used to monitor the ancillary n -Rpy rotation by NMR spectroscopy. The quasi-vertical quinoxaline pyridyl rings alignment leave room in the coordination plane for the crossing of the opposite pyridine rings, thereby reducing their rotational barriers about the Pt,N bond. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2004) [source]

    Orientation- and Temperature-Dependent Rotational Behavior of Imidazole Ligands (L) in ,-[Ru(azpy)2(L)2](PF6)2 Complexes

    Aldrik H. Velders
    Abstract The synthesis and characterization of the cis bifunctional coordinated ruthenium(II) complexes ,-[Ru(azpy)2(MeIm)2](PF6)2 (,-MeIm) and ,-[Ru(azpy)2(MeBim)2](PF6)2 (,-MeBim) (azpy = 2-phenylazopyridine, MeIm = 1-methylimidazole and MeBim = 1-methylbenzimidazole) is reported. In ,-MeIm the two MeIm ligands can both freely rotate around the Ru,N axes on the NMR timescale. In ,-MeBim the two MeBim ligands appear restricted in their rotation around the Ru,N axes, which becomes slow on the NMR timescale at low temperatures. In contrast to the analogous complexes ,-[Ru(azpy)2(MeBim)2](PF6)2 and cis -[Ru(bpy)2(MeBim)2](PF6)2, only one atropisomer is observed for the two MeBim ligands in ,-MeBim. The orientation of the MeBim ligands appears to correspond to an HT isomer which is similar to the orientation of the MeBim ligands in the most abundant atropisomer found in the related ,-[Ru(azpy)2(MeBim)2](PF6)2. A stacking interaction between the phenyl ring of one azpy and one MeBim ligand is likely to stabilize the observed atropisomer of ,-MeBim, and is such that the rotation of the phenyl ring of one of the two azpy ligands is restricted. At very low temperatures this rotation, or flipping of the phenyl ring between two identical positions, is in the slow-exchange range on the NMR timescale. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]

    Off the Back or on the Side: Comparison of meso and 2-Substituted Donor-Acceptor Difluoroborondipyrromethene (Bodipy) Dyads

    Andrew C. Benniston
    Abstract The preparation of several difluoroborondipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads is described incorporating covalently attached hydroquinone/quinone groups at the 2-position (BD-SHQ, BD-SQ, BD-SPHQ, BD-SPQ). The compounds, currently under investigation as chemical sensors for reactive oxygen species, show various levels of fluorescence depending on the oxidation state of the appended group. The 19F NMR spectrum for BD-SHQ in CDCl3 at room temperature reveals the two fluorines are inequivalent on the NMR timescale. In contrast, the 19F NMR spectrum for the counterpart quinone compound, BD-SQ, is consistent with two equivalent fluorine atoms. The two results are interpreted as the quinone is free to rotate around the connector bond, whereas this motion is restricted for the hydroquinone group and makes the fluorines chemically inequivalent. Cyclic voltammograms recorded for all derivatives in CH2Cl2 electrolyte solution are consistent with typical Bodipy-based redox chemistry; the potentials of which depend on factors such as presence of the phenylene spacer and oxidation state of the appended group. A comparison of the electrochemical behaviour with the counterpart meso derivatives reveals some interesting trends which are associated with the location of the HOMO/LUMOs. The absorption profiles for the compounds in CH3CN are again consistent with Bodipy-based derivatives, though there are some subtle differences in the band-shapes of the closely-coupled systems. In particular, the absorption spectra for the dyad, BD-SQ, in a wide range of solvents are appreciably broader than for BD-SHQ. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy performed on the hydroquinone derivatives, BD-SHQ and its meso analogue is interpreted as electron transfer occurs from the hydroquinone unit to the first-excited singlet (S1) state of the Bodipy center, followed by ultrafast charge recombination to reinstate the ground state. The coupling of OH vibrations to the return electron transfer process is invoked to explain the lack of clear identification of the charge-separated state in the transient records. [source]

    Synthesis and Conformational Analysis of Tetrahydroisoquinoline-Fused 1,3,2-Oxazaphospholidines and 1,2,3-Oxathiazol­idines

    Ildikó Schuster
    Abstract The cyclizations of tetrahydroisoquinoline 1,2-amino alcohols with phenylphosphonic dichloride, bis(2-chloroethyl)phosphoramidic dichloride, thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride were utilized to synthesize 1,5,6,10b-tetrahydro-1,3,2-oxazaphospholo[4,3- a]isoquinolines (2, 3), 1,5,10,10a-tetrahydro-1,3,2-oxazaphospholo[3,4- b]isoquinolines (8, 9), 1,5,6,10b-tetrahydro-1,2,3-oxathiazolo[4,3- a]isoquinolines (4,6) anda 1,5,10,10a-tetrahydro-1,2,3-oxathiazolo[3,4- b]isoquinoline (11), which are the first representatives of these ring systems. NMR spectroscopic analysis revealed the existence of conformational equilibria that are fast on the NMR timescale. Theoretical DFT calculations pointed to the participation of generally two preferred conformers in the conformational equilibria; the positions of the equilibria were indicated by the experimental NMR spectroscopic parameters, and they are in good agreement with the theoretically calculated energy differences of the participating conformers. For two compounds, which could be not isolated (10, 12), both the preferred conformers and the stereochemistry could be concluded from the DFT calculation results. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    Abandoned anthills of Formica polyctena and soil heterogeneity in a temperate deciduous forest: morphology and organic matter composition

    S. M. Kristiansen
    Summary Ants can modify the properties of soil when they build their nests. We have investigated the degree and persistency of changes of soil morphology and chemistry in abandoned anthills in a temperate, deciduous wood in Jutland, Denmark. For this purpose, we sampled surface soils (0,10 cm) from each of five abandoned anthills (Formica polyctena Förster) and adjacent undisturbed sites, where anthills covered about 0.5% of the surface area. In addition, one soil profile in an abandoned anthill was sampled for morphological descriptions. All samples were analysed for pH, C, N, lignin-derived phenol, and cellulosic and non-cellulosic carbohydrate concentrations. The results showed that soils under the anthills were enriched in organic matter, were yellower and showed features of Podzol degradation. Former Podzols had to be reclassified to Umbrisols or Arenosols, whereas anthills on Luvisols affected soil classification only at the subdivision level. The C/N ratio and soil pH were not significantly affected by the ants' activity. However, lignin-derived phenols and cellulosic polysaccharides were enriched inside the mounds by a factor of 6 and 7, respectively. This probably reflected collection of woody debris for nest construction while the nest was occupied, and large input of C from an increased root density. The degree of changes in the quality of the organic matter decreased with time since abandonment, but changes were still detectable within anthills left 20 years ago. As ant colonies are concentrated, and move regularly on a decadal timescale, formation of Formica anthills has an intrinsic influence on the heterogeneity of the soil within this forest ecosystem. [source]

    Trends, challenges and opportunities in power quality research

    Math H. J. Bollen
    Abstract This paper outlines a number of possible research directions in power quality. The introduction of new sources of generation will introduce the need for new research on voltage,magnitude variations, harmonic emission and harmonic resonance. Statistical performance indicators are expected to play an important role in addressing the hosting capacity of the power system for these new sources. The quickly growing amounts of power-quality data call for automatic analysis methods. Advanced signal-processing tools need to be developed and applied to address this challenge. Equipment with an active power-electronic interface generates waveform distortion at higher frequencies than existing equipment. The emission, spread, consequences and mitigation of this distortion require more research emphasis. The growing complexity of the power system calls for remote identification of system events and load transitions. Future DC networks, at different voltage levels, require the research on DC power quality next to AC power quality. Research on methods to describe and analyse time-varying harmonics has applications in a number of the above-mentioned issues. So does the use of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and real-time-digital simulation. Existing power quality standards should not form a barrier against future research; instead research should result in improved standards as well as completely new concepts. Examples are: voltage dips in three-phase systems, flicker due to non-incandescent lamps, and voltage variations on the timescale between 1,second and 10,minutes. All together, it is concluded in this paper that sufficient important and interesting research challenges and opportunities remain in the power quality area. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2002
    Neil Davies
    Abstract Mitochondrial DNA and allozyme variation was examined in populations of two Neotropical butterflies, Heliconius charithonia and Dryas iulia. On the mainland, both species showed evidence of considerable gene flow over huge distances. The island populations, however, revealed significant genetic divergence across some, but not all, ocean passages. Despite the phylogenetic relatedness and broadly similar ecologies of these two butterflies, their intraspecific biogeography clearly differed. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that populations of D. iulia north of St. Vincent are monophyletic and were probably derived from South America. By contrast, the Jamaican subspecies of H. charithonia rendered West Indian H. charithonia polyphyletic with respect to the mainland populations; thus, H. charithonia seems to have colonized the Greater Antilles on at least two separate occasions from Central America. Colonization velocity does not correlate with subsequent levels of gene flow in either species. Even where range expansion seems to have been instantaneous on a geological timescale, significant allele frequency differences at allozyme loci demonstrate that gene flow is severely curtailed across narrow ocean passages. Stochastic extinction, rapid (re)colonization, but low gene flow probably explain why, in the same species, some islands support genetically distinct and nonexpanding populations, while nearby a single lineage is distributed across several islands. Despite the differences, some common biogeographic patterns were evident between these butterflies and other West Indian taxa; such congruence suggests that intraspecific evolution in the West Indies has been somewhat constrained by earth history events, such as changes in sea level. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Propensity of marine reserves to reduce the evolutionary effects of fishing in a migratory species

    Erin S. Dunlop
    Abstract Evolutionary effects of fishing can have unwanted consequences diminishing a fishery's value and sustainability. Reserves, or no-take areas, have been proposed as a management tool for reducing fisheries-induced selection, but their effectiveness for migratory species has remained unexplored. Here we develop an eco-genetic model to predict the effects of marine reserves on fisheries-induced evolution under migration. To represent a stock that undergoes an annual migration between feeding and spawning grounds, we draw model parameters from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the northern part of its range. Our analysis leads to the following conclusions: (i) a reserve in a stock's feeding grounds, protecting immature and mature fish alike, reduces fisheries-induced evolution, even though protected and unprotected population components mix on the spawning grounds; (ii) in contrast, a reserve in a stock's spawning grounds, protecting only mature fish, has little mitigating effects on fisheries-induced evolution and can sometimes even exacerbate its magnitude; (iii) evolutionary changes that are already underway may be difficult to reverse with a reserve; (iv) directly after a reserve is created or enlarged, most reserve scenarios result in yield losses; and (v) timescale is very important: short-term yield losses immediately after a reserve's creation can give way to long-term gains. [source]

    Temperature-Responsive Substrates: Adhesion and Mechanical Properties of PNIPAM Microgel Films and Their Potential Use as Switchable Cell Culture Substrates (Adv. Funct.

    Abstract Thermoresponsive poly(N -isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel films are shown to allow controlled detachment of adsorbed cells via temperature stimuli. Cell response occurs on the timescale of several minutes, is reversible, and allows for harvesting of cells in a mild fashion. The fact that microgels are attached non-covalently allows using them on a broad variety of (charged) surfaces and is a major advantage as compared to approaches relying on covalent attachment of active films. In the following, the microgels' physico-chemical parameters in the adsorbed state and their changes upon temperature variation are studied in order to gain a deeper understanding of the involved phenomena. By means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), the water content, mechanical properties, and adhesion forces of the microgel films are studied as a function of temperature. The analysis shows that these properties change drastically when crossing the critical temperature of the polymer film, which is the basis of the fast cell response upon temperature changes. Furthermore, nanoscale mechanical analysis shows that the films posses a nanoscopic gradient in mechanical properties. [source]

    Adhesion and Mechanical Properties of PNIPAM Microgel Films and Their Potential Use as Switchable Cell Culture Substrates

    Stephan Schmidt
    Abstract Thermoresponsive poly(N -isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel films are shown to allow controlled detachment of adsorbed cells via temperature stimuli. Cell response occurs on the timescale of several minutes, is reversible, and allows for harvesting of cells in a mild fashion. The fact that microgels are attached non-covalently allows using them on a broad variety of (charged) surfaces and is a major advantage as compared to approaches relying on covalent attachment of active films. In the following, the microgels' physico-chemical parameters in the adsorbed state and their changes upon temperature variation are studied in order to gain a deeper understanding of the involved phenomena. By means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), the water content, mechanical properties, and adhesion forces of the microgel films are studied as a function of temperature. The analysis shows that these properties change drastically when crossing the critical temperature of the polymer film, which is the basis of the fast cell response upon temperature changes. Furthermore, nanoscale mechanical analysis shows that the films posses a nanoscopic gradient in mechanical properties. [source]

    Biophysical studies of the development of amyloid fibrils from a peptide fragment of cold shock protein B

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 9 2000
    Deborah K. Wilkins
    The peptide CspB-1, which represents residues 1,22 of the cold shock protein CspB from Bacillus subtilis, has been shown to form amyloid fibrils when solutions containing this peptide in aqueous (50%) acetonitrile are diluted in water [M. Großet al. (1999) Protein Science8, 1350,1357] We established conditions in which reproducible kinetic steps associated with the formation of these fibrils can be observed. Studies combining these conditions with a range of biophysical methods reveal that a variety of distinct events occurs during the process that results in amyloid fibrils. A CD spectrum indicative of ,,structure is observed within 1 min of the solvent shift, and its intensity increases on a longer timescale in at least two kinetic phases. The characteristic wavelength shift of the amyloid-binding dye Congo Red is established within 30 min of the initiation of the aggregation process and corresponds to one of the phases observed by CD and to changes in the Fourier transform-infrared spectrum indicative of ,,structure. Short fibrillar structures begin to be visible under the electron microscope after these events, and longer, well-defined amyloid fibrils are established on a timescale of hours. NMR spectroscopy shows that there are no significant changes in the concentration of monomeric species in solution during the events leading to fibril formation, but that soluble aggregates too large to be visible in NMR spectra are present throughout the process. A model for amyloid formation by this peptide is presented which is consistent with these kinetic data and with published work on a variety of disease-related systems. These findings support the concept that the ability to form amyloid fibrils is a generic property of polypeptide chains, and that the mechanism of their formation is similar for different peptides and proteins. [source]

    Bulk Heterojunctions: Ultrafast Hole-Transfer Dynamics in Polymer/PCBM Bulk Heterojunctions (Adv. Funct.

    The active layer of the currently most efficient plastic photovoltaic cells is a blend of polymer and methanofullerene molecules. In their article on page 1653, M. S. Pshenichnikov et al. show that hole transfer upon methanofullerene excitation operates simultaneously with electron transfer as the charge generation process in plastic photovoltaics, at a staggering timescale of 30 fs. [source]

    Integration of a Chemical-Responsive Hydrogel into a Porous Silicon Photonic Sensor for Visual Colorimetric Readout

    Lisa M. Bonanno
    Abstract The incorporation of a chemo-responsive hydrogel into a 1D photonic porous silicon (PSi) transducer is demonstrated. A versatile hydrogel backbone is designed via the synthesis of an amine-functionalized polyacrylamide copolymer where further amine-specific biochemical reactions can enable control of cross-links between copolymer chains based on complementary target,probe systems. As an initial demonstration, the incorporation of disulfide chemistry to control cross-linking of this hydrogel system within a PSi Bragg mirror sensor is reported. Direct optical monitoring of a characteristic peak in the white light reflectivity spectrum of the incorporated PSi Bragg mirror facilitates real-time detection of the hydrogel dissolution in response to the target analyte (reducing agent) over a timescale of minutes. The hybrid sensor response characteristics are shown to systematically depend on hydrogel cross-linking density and applied target analyte concentration. Additionally, effects due to responsive hydrogel confinement in a porous template are shown to depend on pore size and architecture of the PSi transducer substrate. Sufficient copolymer and water is removed from the PSi transducer upon dissolution and drying of the hydrogel to induce color changes that can be detected by the unaided eye. This highlights the potential for future development for point-of-care diagnostic biosensing. [source]

    Controllable Shifts in Threshold Voltage of Top-Gate Polymer Field-Effect Transistors for Applications in Organic Nano Floating Gate Memory

    Kang-Jun Baeg
    Abstract Organic field-effect transistor (FET) memory is an emerging technology with the potential to realize light-weight, low-cost, flexible charge storage media. Here, solution-processed poly[9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl]-co-(bithiophene)] (F8T2) nano floating gate memory (NFGM) with a top-gate/bottom-contact device configuration is reported. A reversible shift in the threshold voltage (VTh) and reliable memory characteristics was achieved by the incorporation of thin Au nanoparticles (NPs) as charge storage sites for negative charges (electrons) at the interface between polystyrene and cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol). The F8T2 NFGM showed relatively high field-effect mobility (µFET) (0.02,cm2 V,1 s,1) for an amorphous semiconducting polymer with a large memory window (ca. 30,V), a high on/off ratio (more than 104) during writing and erasing with an operation voltage of 80,V of gate bias in a relatively short timescale (less than 1,s), and a retention time of a few hours. This top-gated polymer NFGM could be used as an organic transistor memory element for organic flash memory. [source]

    Exciton,Exciton Annihilation in Mixed-Phase Polyfluorene Films

    Paul E. Shaw
    Abstract Singlet,singlet annihilation is studied in polyfluorene (PFO) films containing different fractions of , -phase chains using time-resolved fluorescence. On a timescale of >15,ps after excitation, the results are fitted well by a time-independent annihilation rate, which indicates that annihilation is controlled by 3D exciton diffusion. A time-dependent annihilation rate is observed during the first 15,ps in the glassy phase and in the , -phase rich films, which can be explained by the slowdown of exciton diffusion after excitons reach low-energy sites. The annihilation rate in the mixed-phase films increases with increasing fraction of , -phase present, indicating enhanced exciton diffusion. The observed trend agrees well with a model of fully dispersed, -phase chromophores in the surrounding glassy phase with the exciton diffusion described using the line-dipole approximation for an exciton wavefunction extending over 2.5,nm. The results indicate that glassy and, -phase chromophores are intimately mixed rather than clustered or phase-separated. [source]

    Deconstructing language by comparative gene expression: from neurobiology to microarray

    M. C. Oldham
    Language is a defining characteristic of our species that has emerged quite recently on an evolutionary timescale. Understanding the neurobiological substrates and genetic underpinnings of language constitutes a basic challenge for both neuroscience and genetics. The functional localization of language in the brain has been progressively refined over the last century through studies of aphasics and more recently through neuroimaging. Concurrently, structural specializations in these brain regions have been identified by virtue of their lateralization in humans and also through comparisons with homologous brain regions in non-human primate species. Comparative genomics has revealed the genome of our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, to be astonishingly similar to our own. To explore the role that changes in the regulation of gene expression have had in recent human evolution, several groups have used microarrays to compare expression levels for thousands of genes in the brain between humans and chimpanzees. By applying this approach to the increasingly refined peri-sylvian network of brain regions involved in language, it may be possible to discern functionally significant changes in gene expression that are universal among humans but unique to our species, thus casting light on the molecular basis of language in the brain. [source]

    Biogeochemical modelling of the rise in atmospheric oxygen

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    M. W. CLAIRE
    ABSTRACT Understanding the evolution of atmospheric molecular oxygen levels is a fundamental unsolved problem in Earth's history. We develop a quantitative biogeochemical model that simulates the Palaeoproterozoic transition of the Earth's atmosphere from a weakly reducing state to an O2 -rich state. The purpose is to gain an insight into factors that plausibly control the timing and rapidity of the oxic transition. The model uses a simplified atmospheric chemistry (parameterized from complex photochemical models) and evolving redox fluxes in the Earth system. We consider time-dependent fluxes that include organic carbon burial and associated oxygen production, reducing gases from metamorphic and volcanic sources, oxidative weathering, and the escape of hydrogen to space. We find that the oxic transition occurs in a geologically short time when the O2 -consuming flux of reducing gases falls below the flux of organic carbon burial that produces O2. A short timescale for the oxic transition is enhanced by a positive feedback due to decreasing destruction of O2 as stratospheric ozone forms, which is captured in our atmospheric chemistry parameterization. We show that one numerically self-consistent solution for the rise of O2 involves a decline in flux of reducing gases driven by irreversible secular oxidation of the crust caused by time-integrated hydrogen escape to space in the preoxic atmosphere, and that this is compatible with constraints from the geological record. In this model, the timing of the oxic transition is strongly affected by buffers of reduced materials, particularly iron, in the continental crust. An alternative version of the model, where greater fluxes of reduced hydrothermal cations from the Archean seafloor consume O2, produces a similar history of O2 and CH4. When climate and biosphere feedbacks are included in our model of the oxic transition, we find that multiple ,Snowball Earth' events are simulated under certain circumstances, as methane collapses and rises repeatedly before reaching a new steady-state. [source]

    High-resolution Lopingian (Late Permian) timescale of South China

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2-3 2010
    Shu-Zhong Shen
    Abstract The Lopingian represents the last epoch of the Palaeozoic Era and is bracketed by two severe biotic mass extinctions associated with dramatic environmental changes. The Lopingian Epoch lasted about 7 millions years and was also bracketed by large volcanic eruptions with the Emeishan volcanics at the base and the Siberian traps at the top. Considerable data have accumulated recently and in this paper we attempt to summarize these findings in a high-resolution Lopingian (Late Permian) timescale that integrates currently available multiple biostratigraphic, isotope chemostratigraphic, geochronologic and magnetostratigraphic data. In South China at least 13 conodont zones, multiple polarity zones and large carbon isotope fluctuations in the Lopingian are recognized and provide the high-resolution calibration that is essential to study this Late Permian interval characterized by Earth's largest biotic extinction. We also present a global correlation chart for the marine Lopingian Series. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]