Time

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Time

  • absorption time
  • acceleration time
  • acceptable time
  • accumulation time
  • acquisition time
  • activated clotting time
  • activated partial thromboplastin time
  • activation time
  • actual time
  • additional time
  • adequate time
  • administration time
  • admission time
  • adsorption time
  • aging time
  • anaesthetic time
  • analysis time
  • analytical time
  • ancient time
  • annealing time
  • application time
  • appointment time
  • appropriate time
  • approximate time
  • arrival time
  • assessment time
  • average follow-up time
  • average residence time
  • average time
  • average waiting time
  • bad time
  • baking time
  • batch time
  • be it time
  • best time
  • bleeding time
  • block performance time
  • blood coagulation time
  • boiling time
  • break-up time
  • breakthrough time
  • burn-in time
  • bypass time
  • calculation time
  • calendar time
  • calling time
  • care time
  • cell cycle time
  • censoring time
  • central motor conduction time
  • certain time
  • changing time
  • characteristic time
  • chewing time
  • choice reaction time
  • chromatographic retention time
  • chromatographic run time
  • circadian time
  • circulation time
  • clamp time
  • class time
  • clearance time
  • clinical time
  • closure time
  • clot lysis time
  • clotting time
  • coagulation time
  • coalescence time
  • cold ischemia time
  • cold ischemic time
  • collection time
  • colonic transit time
  • combustion time
  • completion time
  • computation time
  • computational time
  • computer time
  • computing time
  • conduction time
  • considerable time
  • contact time
  • continuous time
  • contraction time
  • control time
  • convergence time
  • cooking time
  • cooling time
  • correlation time
  • corresponding time
  • cosmic time
  • cpu time
  • cretaceous time
  • critical time
  • cross-clamp time
  • crucial time
  • crystallization time
  • cultivation time
  • culture time
  • cumulative time
  • cure time
  • curing time
  • current time
  • cycle time
  • daily time
  • data acquisition time
  • dead time
  • death time
  • decay time
  • deceleration time
  • decimal reduction time
  • decision time
  • decreased time
  • defined time
  • degradation time
  • dehydration time
  • delay time
  • delivery time
  • deposition time
  • desorption time
  • detection time
  • development time
  • developmental time
  • dialysis time
  • different echo time
  • different reaction time
  • different storage time
  • different time
  • difficult time
  • diffusion time
  • digestion time
  • discrete time
  • disease-free survival time
  • disintegration time
  • divergence time
  • door-to-balloon time
  • doubling time
  • dough development time
  • dry time
  • drying time
  • dtb time
  • duration time
  • dwell time
  • early time
  • echo time
  • ecological time
  • ejaculatory latency time
  • ejection time
  • elapsed time
  • electrolysis time
  • elution time
  • emergence time
  • emptying time
  • endurance time
  • eocene time
  • equilibration time
  • equilibrium time
  • escape time
  • estimated time
  • etching time
  • evaluation time
  • evaporation time
  • event time
  • evolutionary time
  • execution time
  • exercise time
  • expected time
  • experiment time
  • experimental time
  • expiratory time
  • exposure time
  • extended time
  • extinction time
  • extra time
  • extraction time
  • extubation time
  • failure time
  • fast response time
  • faster time
  • feeding time
  • fermentation time
  • few time
  • filling time
  • filtration time
  • financial time
  • finite time
  • firing time
  • first passage time
  • first time
  • fixation time
  • fixed time
  • flight time
  • flow time
  • flowering time
  • fluoroscopy time
  • follow-up time
  • foraging time
  • formation time
  • free time
  • freezing time
  • frying time
  • full time
  • future time
  • gastric emptying time
  • gastrointestinal transit time
  • gel time
  • gelation time
  • generation time
  • geologic time
  • geological time
  • germination time
  • glacial time
  • good time
  • greater time
  • growth time
  • gut transit time
  • half time
  • half-emptying time
  • half-life time
  • hard time
  • harvest time
  • harvesting time
  • hatching time
  • healing time
  • heating time
  • historic time
  • historical time
  • hold time
  • hospitalization time
  • hubble time
  • hydraulic residence time
  • hydraulic retention time
  • identical time
  • ignition delay time
  • ignition time
  • image acquisition time
  • imaging time
  • immersion time
  • immobility time
  • implantation time
  • implicit time
  • inappropriate time
  • increased time
  • increasing exposure time
  • increasing storage time
  • increasing time
  • incubation time
  • induction time
  • infection time
  • infusion time
  • initial time
  • injection time
  • insertion time
  • inspection time
  • insufficient time
  • integration time
  • interatrial conduction time
  • intervention time
  • intestinal transit time
  • intravaginal ejaculatory latency time
  • intubation time
  • inversion time
  • ionization time
  • irradiation time
  • ischaemia time
  • ischemia time
  • ischemic time
  • isovolumetric relaxation time
  • isovolumic contraction time
  • isovolumic relaxation time
  • it time
  • jurassic time
  • key time
  • lag time
  • large time
  • larval development time
  • laser ionization time
  • last time
  • late time
  • latency time
  • lattice relaxation time
  • lead time
  • learning time
  • least time
  • leisure time
  • life time
  • limited time
  • linear time
  • list time
  • little time
  • long reaction time
  • long residence time
  • long time
  • long waiting time
  • longer development time
  • longer exposure time
  • longer incubation time
  • longer lag time
  • longer mixing time
  • longer operative time
  • longer reaction time
  • longer residence time
  • longer response time
  • longer retention time
  • longer time
  • longer treatment time
  • longest time
  • lysis time
  • many time
  • mastication time
  • maturation time
  • maximum time
  • mean follow-up time
  • mean generation time
  • mean open time
  • mean operating time
  • mean operation time
  • mean operative time
  • mean procedure time
  • mean residence time
  • mean response time
  • mean retention time
  • mean survival time
  • mean time
  • mean transit time
  • mean waiting time
  • measurement time
  • median follow-up time
  • median operating time
  • median operative time
  • median survival time
  • median time
  • median waiting time
  • medieval time
  • migration time
  • milling time
  • minimal time
  • mixing time
  • modern time
  • motor conduction time
  • multiple time
  • new york time
  • next time
  • night time
  • normal time
  • numerous time
  • nursing time
  • observation time
  • of the time
  • one time
  • only time
  • onset time
  • open time
  • operating time
  • operation time
  • operative time
  • opportune time
  • optimal burn-in time
  • optimal time
  • optimum time
  • other time
  • our time
  • over time
  • own time
  • oxidation time
  • palaeozoic time
  • part time
  • partial thromboplastin time
  • particular time
  • passage time
  • past time
  • peak time
  • penetration time
  • peptide retention time
  • percent time
  • percentage time
  • performance time
  • perfusion time
  • permian time
  • persistence time
  • placement time
  • pleistocene time
  • polymerization time
  • polynomial time
  • population divergence time
  • population doubling time
  • possible time
  • postoperative time
  • preconcentration time
  • predetermined time
  • prehistoric time
  • preparation time
  • present time
  • presentation time
  • prime time
  • procedural time
  • procedure time
  • process time
  • processing time
  • production time
  • prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time
  • prolonged bleeding time
  • prolonged prothrombin time
  • prolonged residence time
  • prolonged time
  • prolonged waiting time
  • prothrombin time
  • random time
  • rapid response time
  • reaction time
  • reading time
  • real time
  • reasonable time
  • recent time
  • recording time
  • recovery time
  • reduced time
  • reduction time
  • relative time
  • relaxation time
  • release time
  • remaining time
  • repair time
  • reperfusion time
  • repetition time
  • residence time
  • response time
  • retention time
  • right time
  • ripening time
  • rise time
  • roman time
  • rotational correlation time
  • rst time
  • run time
  • running time
  • same time
  • sample time
  • sampling time
  • scanning time
  • screen time
  • search time
  • searching time
  • second time
  • selected time
  • separation time
  • service time
  • setting time
  • settling time
  • setup time
  • several time
  • shaking time
  • short analysis time
  • short contact time
  • short echo time
  • short generation time
  • short incubation time
  • short reaction time
  • short residence time
  • short response time
  • short time
  • shorter median time
  • shorter operative time
  • shorter reaction time
  • shorter residence time
  • shorter survival time
  • shorter time
  • shorter waiting time
  • shortest time
  • significant time
  • similar retention time
  • similar time
  • simple reaction time
  • simulation time
  • sintering time
  • sleep time
  • sleeping time
  • soaking time
  • sojourn time
  • solution time
  • space time
  • spawning time
  • specific time
  • specified time
  • spending time
  • spin relaxation time
  • spin-lattice relaxation time
  • staff time
  • stance time
  • start time
  • storage time
  • study time
  • sufficient time
  • support time
  • surgical time
  • survival time
  • switching time
  • synthesis time
  • take time
  • teaching time
  • test time
  • testing time
  • the time
  • thermal time
  • third time
  • thrombin generation time
  • thrombin time
  • thromboplastin time
  • total analysis time
  • total run time
  • total sleep time
  • total synthesis time
  • total time
  • training time
  • transfer time
  • transit time
  • transition time
  • transport time
  • transverse relaxation time
  • travel time
  • treatment time
  • turbulent time
  • turnaround time
  • turnover time
  • uncertain time
  • unit time
  • variable time
  • various time
  • varying time
  • ventilation time
  • ventricular ejection time
  • very first time
  • very short reaction time
  • very short time
  • viewing time
  • visual reaction time
  • volume doubling time
  • vs. time
  • wait time
  • waiting list time
  • waiting time
  • walking time
  • warm ischemia time
  • warm ischemic time
  • water residence time
  • water storage time
  • withdrawal time
  • work time
  • york time
  • zeitgeber time
  • zero time

  • Terms modified by Time

  • time account
  • time activity
  • time algorithm
  • time algorithms
  • time allocation
  • time alone
  • time analysis
  • time and frequency domain
  • time and frequency domain measure
  • time application
  • time asymmetry
  • time available
  • time behavior
  • time being
  • time better
  • time budget
  • time change
  • time child
  • time come
  • time commitment
  • time complexity
  • time component
  • time consistency
  • time constant
  • time constraint
  • time consuming
  • time consumption
  • time control
  • time cost
  • time course
  • time course change
  • time course data
  • time course experiment
  • time curve
  • time daily
  • time data
  • time decrease
  • time decreased
  • time delay
  • time delay system
  • time dependence
  • time dependency
  • time dependent
  • time dependent manner
  • time dependently
  • time depth
  • time derivative
  • time difference
  • time dimension
  • time directive
  • time discretization
  • time distribution
  • time division multiple access
  • time division multiplexing
  • time domain
  • time domain analysis
  • time domain simulation
  • time duration
  • time dynamics
  • time effect
  • time effects
  • time efficiency
  • time element
  • time estimate
  • time estimation
  • time evolution
  • time existence
  • time experiment
  • time exposure
  • time factor
  • time faster
  • time feeding
  • time flexibility
  • time frame
  • time framework
  • time function
  • time gap
  • time greater
  • time history
  • time history analysis
  • time horizon
  • time imaging
  • time inconsistency
  • time increase
  • time increment
  • time independent
  • time index
  • time information
  • time integral
  • time integration
  • time integration scheme
  • time integrator
  • time interaction
  • time interval
  • time investment
  • time lag
  • time larger
  • time lead
  • time length
  • time level
  • time limit
  • time limitation
  • time line
  • time longer
  • time loss
  • time lower
  • time management
  • time measurement
  • time method
  • time migration
  • time model
  • time models
  • time mother
  • time necessary
  • time observation
  • time only
  • time past
  • time path
  • time paths
  • time patient
  • time pattern
  • time pcr
  • time perception
  • time performance
  • time period
  • time physical activity
  • time point
  • time polymerase chain reaction
  • time post-transplant
  • time post-transplantation
  • time posttransplantation
  • time prediction
  • time preference
  • time pressure
  • time problem
  • time profile
  • time range
  • time ratio
  • time reduction
  • time regardless
  • time requirement
  • time resolution
  • time response
  • time rt-pcr
  • time sample
  • time saving
  • time savings
  • time scale
  • time schedule
  • time scheme
  • time searching
  • time segment
  • time sequence
  • time series
  • time series analysis
  • time series approach
  • time series data
  • time series model
  • time series modelling
  • time series models
  • time series property
  • time series regression
  • time series studies
  • time series techniques
  • time shift
  • time shorter
  • time simulation
  • time slice
  • time slot
  • time slower
  • time smaller
  • time span
  • time spectrum
  • time stability
  • time step
  • time step size
  • time stronger
  • time studies
  • time system
  • time task
  • time test
  • time testing
  • time trajectory
  • time trend
  • time unit
  • time use
  • time used
  • time value
  • time variability
  • time variable
  • time variation
  • time varying
  • time velocity integral
  • time weekly
  • time window
  • time zone

  • Selected Abstracts


    "Strange, Imperious Instantaneousness": Mysteries of Space/Time in Pierre; or, The Ambiguities

    LEVIATHAN, Issue 2 2006
    Brad J. Ricca
    [source]


    MANDATORY HIV TESTING IN PREGNANCY: IS THERE EVER A TIME?

    DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS, Issue 1 2008
    RUSSELL ARMSTRONG
    ABSTRACT Despite recent advances in ways to prevent transmission of HIV from a mother to her child during pregnancy, infants continue to be born and become infected with HIV, particularly in southern Africa where HIV prevalence is the highest in the world. In this region, emphasis has shifted from voluntary HIV counselling and testing to routine testing of women during pregnancy. There have also been proposals for mandatory testing. Could mandatory testing ever be an option, even in high-prevalence settings? Many previous examinations of mandatory testing have dealt with it in the context of low HIV prevalence and a well-resourced health care system. In this discussion, different assumptions are made. Within this context, where mandatory testing may be a strategy of last resort, the objections to it are reviewed. Special attention is paid in the discussion to the entrenched vulnerability of women in much of southern Africa and how this contributes to both HIV prevalence and ongoing challenges for preventing HIV transmission during pregnancy. While mandatory testing is ethically plausible, particularly when coupled with guaranteed access to treatment and care, the discussion argues that the moment to employ this strategy has not yet come. Many barriers remain for pregnant women in terms of access to testing, treatment and care, most acutely in the southern African setting, despite the presence of national and international human rights instruments aimed at empowering women and removing such barriers. While this situation persists, mandatory HIV testing during pregnancy cannot be justified. [source]


    ENDOSCOPIC SUBMUCOSAL DISSECTION FOR EARLY GASTRIC CANCER: TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY, OPERATION TIME AND COMPLICATIONS FROM A LARGE CONSECUTIVE SERIES

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 1 2005
    Ichiro Oda
    Background:, Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a recognized treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC). One-piece resection is considered to be a gold standard of EMR, as it provides accurate histological assessment and reduces the risk of local recurrence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a new technique developed to obtain one-piece resection even for large and ulcerative lesions. The present study aims to identify the technical feasibility, operation time and complications from a large consecutive series. Methods:, We reviewed all patients with EGC who underwent ESD using the IT knife at National Cancer Center Hospital in the period between January 2000 and December 2003. Results:, During the study period of 4 years we identified a total of 1033 EGC lesions in 945 consecutive patients who underwent ESD using the IT knife. We found a one-piece resection rate (OPRR) of 98% (1008/1033). Our OPRR with tumor-free margins was 93% (957/1033). On subgroup analysis it was found to be 86% (271/314) among large lesions (, 21 mm) and 89% (216/243) among ulcerative lesions. The overall non-evaluable resection rate was 1.8% (19/1033). The median operation time was 60 min (range; 10,540 min). Evidence of immediate bleeding was found in 7%. Delayed bleeding after ESD was seen in 6% and perforation in 4% of the cases. All cases with complications except one were successfully treated by endoscopic treatment. Conclusion:, The present study shows the technical feasibility of ESD, which provides one-piece resections even in large and ulcerative EGC. [source]


    BRIEF ALCOHOL INTERVENTION: TIME FOR TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    EILEEN KANER
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    POSTED OFFER MARKETS IN NEAR-CONTINUOUS TIME: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 3 2009
    DOUGLAS D. DAVIS
    This paper reports an experiment conducted to evaluate a "near-continuous" variant of the posted offer trading institution, where the number of periods in a market session is increased by reducing sharply each period's maximum length. Experimental results suggest that although decisions in time-truncated periods are not equivalent to periods of longer duration, extensive repetition improves considerably the drawing power of equilibrium predictions in some challenging environments. Nevertheless, significant deviations remain in the near-continuous framework. We also observe that the extra data collected in the near-continuous framework allow new insights into price convergence and signaling. (JEL C92, L12, L11) [source]


    THE GROWTH IN "UNPAID" WORKING TIME

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 1 2001
    MARK WOODEN
    First page of article [source]


    MEASUREMENT AND CLASSIFICATION OF PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE AND CHILD OUTCOMES: TIME FOR IMPROVEMENT

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    COLLEEN M. O'LEARY
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    TIME TO TEAR DOWN THE WALL: COMMENT ON DAWSON ET AL. (2005)

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2005
    MARK B. SOBELL
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    CALLING TIME FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENGLISH ALCOHOL HARM REDUCTION STRATEGY

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2004
    IAN T. GILMORE
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    CONSTANCY OF THE G MATRIX IN ECOLOGICAL TIME

    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2004
    Mats BjÖrklund
    Abstract The constancy of the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G matrix) across environments and populations has been discussed and tested empirically over the years but no consensus has so far been reached. In this paper, I present a model in which morphological traits develop hierarchically, and individuals differ in their resource allocation and acquisition patterns. If the variance in resource acquisition is many times larger than the variance in resource allocation then strong genetic correlations are expected, and with almost isometric relations among traits. As the variation in resource acquisition decreases below a certain threshold, the correlations decrease overall and the relations among traits become a function of the allocation patterns, and in particular reflecting the basal division of allocation. A strong bottleneck can break a pattern of strong genetic correlation, but this effect diminishes rapidly with increasing bottleneck size. This model helps to understand why some populations change their genetic correlations in different environments, whereas others do not, since the key factor is the relation between the variances in resource acquisition and allocation. If a change in environment does not lead to a change in this ratio, no change can be expected, whereas if the ratio is changed substantially then major changes can be expected. This model can also help to understand the constancy of morphological patterns within larger taxa as a function of constancy in resource acquisition patterns over time and environments. When this pattern breaks, for example on islands, larger changes can be expected. [source]


    THE AFRICANIZATION OF HONEYBEES (APIS MELLIFERA L.) OF THE YUCATAN: A STUDY OF A MASSIVE HYBRIDIZATION EVENT ACROSS TIME

    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2002
    Kylea E. Clarke
    Abstract Until recently, African and European subspecies of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) had been geographically separated for around 10,000 years. However, human-assisted introductions have caused the mixing of large populations of African and European subspecies in South and Central America, permitting an unprecedented opportunity to study a large-scale hybridization event using molecular analyses. We obtained reference populations from Europe, Africa, and South America and used these to provide baseline information for a microsatellite and mitochondrial analysis of the process of Africanization of the bees of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The genetic structure of the Yucatecan population has changed dramatically over time. The pre-Africanized Yucatecan population (1985) comprised bees that were most similar to samples from southeastern Europe and northern and western Europe. Three years after the arrival of Africanized bees (1989), substantial paternal gene flow had occurred from feral Africanized drones into the resident European population, but maternal gene flow from the invading Africanized population into the local population was negligible. However by 1998, there was a radical shift with both African nuclear alleles (65%) and African-derived mitochondria (61%) dominating the genomes of domestic colonies. We suggest that although European mitochondria may eventually be driven to extinction in the feral population, stable introgression of European nuclear alleles has occurred. [source]


    TIME TO THE MOST RECENT COMMON ANCESTOR AND DIVERGENCE TIMES OF POPULATIONS OF COMMON CHAFFINCHES (FRINGILLA COELEBS) IN EUROPE AND NORTH AFRICA: INSIGHTS INTO PLEISTOCENE REFUGIA AND CURRENT LEVELS OF MIGRATION

    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2002
    Cortland K. Griswold
    Abstract We analyzed sequences from a 275-bp hypervariable region in the 5, end of the mitochondrial DNA control region in 190 common chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) from 19 populations in Europe and North Africa, including new samples from Greece and Morocco. Coalescent techniques were applied to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) and divergence times of these populations. The first objective of this study was to infer the locations of refugia where chaffinches survived the last glacial episode, and this was achieved by estimating the TMRCA of populations in regions surrounding the Mediterranean that were unglaciated in the late Pleistocene. Although extant populations in Iberia, Corsica, Greece, and North Africa harbor haplotypes that are basal in a phylogenetic tree, this information alone cannot be used to infer that these localities served as refugia, because it is impossible to infer the ages of populations and their divergence times without also considering the population genetic processes of mutation, migration, and drift. Provided we assume the TMRCAs of populations are a reasonable estimate of a population's age, coalescent-based methods place resident populations in Iberia, Corsica, Greece, and North Africa during the time of the last glacial maximum, suggesting these regions served as refugia for the common chaffinch. The second objective was to determine when populations began diverging from each other and to use this as a baseline to estimate current levels of gene flow. Divergence time estimates suggest that European populations began diverging about 60,000 years before present. The relatively recent divergence of populations in North Africa, Italy, and Iberia may explain why classic migration estimates based on equilibrium assumptions are high for these populations. We compare these estimates with nonequilibrium-based estimates and show that the nonequilibrium estimates are consistently lower than the equilibrium estimates. [source]


    PERSPECTIVE: GENE DIVERGENCE, POPULATION DIVERGENCE, AND THE VARIANCE IN COALESCENCE TIME IN PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC STUDIES

    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2000
    ScottV.
    Abstract Molecular methods as applied to the biogeography of single species (phylogeography) or multiple codistributed species (comparative phylogeography) have been productively and extensively used to elucidate common historical features in the diversification of the Earth's biota. However, only recently have methods for estimating population divergence times or their confidence limits while taking into account the critical effects of genetic polymorphism in ancestral species become available, and earlier methods for doing so are underutilized. We review models that address the crucial distinction between the gene divergence, the parameter that is typically recovered in molecular phylogeographic studies, and the population divergence, which is in most cases the parameter of interest and will almost always postdate the gene divergence. Assuming that population sizes of ancestral species are distributed similarly to those of extant species, we show that phylogeographic studies in vertebrates suggest that divergence of alleles in ancestral species can comprise from less than 10% to over 50% of the total divergence between sister species, suggesting that the problem of ancestral polymorphism in dating population divergence can be substantial. The variance in the number of substitutions (among loci for a given species or among species for a given gene) resulting from the stochastic nature of DNA change is generally smaller than the variance due to substitutions along allelic lines whose coalescence times vary due to genetic drift in the ancestral population. Whereas the former variance can be reduced by further DNA sequencing at a single locus, the latter cannot. Contrary to phylogeographic intuition, dating population divergence times when allelic lines have achieved reciprocal monophyly is in some ways more challenging than when allelic lines have not achieved monophyly, because in the former case critical data on ancestral population size provided by residual ancestral polymorphism is lost. In the former case differences in coalescence time between species pairs can in principle be explained entirely by differences in ancestral population size without resorting to explanations involving differences in divergence time. Furthermore, the confidence limits on population divergence times are severely underestimated when those for number of substitutions per site in the DNA sequences examined are used as a proxy. This uncertainty highlights the importance of multilocus data in estimating population divergence times; multilocus data can in principle distinguish differences in coalescence time (T) resulting from differences in population divergence time and differences in T due to differences in ancestral population sizes and will reduce the confidence limits on the estimates. We analyze the contribution of ancestral population size (,) to T and the effect of uncertainty in , on estimates of population divergence (,) for single loci under reciprocal monophyly using a simple Bayesian extension of Takahata and Satta's and Yang's recent coalescent methods. The confidence limits on , decrease when the range over which ancestral population size , is assumed to be distributed decreases and when increases; they generally exclude zero when /(4Ne) > 1. We also apply a maximum-likelihood method to several single and multilocus data sets. With multilocus data, the criterion for excluding = 0 is roughly that l/(4Ne)> 1, where l is the number of loci. Our analyses corroborate recent suggestions that increasing the number of loci is critical to decreasing the uncertainty in estimates of population divergence time. [source]


    EXPENDITURES ON CHILDREN AND VISITATION TIME

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2004
    A Reply to Garfinkel, McLanahan, Wallerstein
    In their critique, Garfinkel, McLanahan, and Wallerstein raise concerns about the representativeness of the authors' sample, benchmark approach methodology, and historical review of guidelines, all of which lead them to discount the evidence presented opposing the cliff-model assumption of father expenditures on children, and to laud instead child support guidelines that give little monetary credit or adjustment for visitation. This article presents evidence that (a) this sample is at most little biased, and remains trustworthy for the main implications presented; (b) although only a beginning, the benchmark approach is highly useful and most of the concerns raised about it are ill founded or implausible; and (c) the historical review suggesting that current guidelines assume zero visitation expenses is indeed accurate for the vast majority of states, according to the foremost authority. Thus, notwithstanding the critique, these findings have merit and importance and should be considered by policy makers. The authors also comment on the additional arguments against continuous and generous adjustments for visitation, finding them based on a weak foundation of evidence and reasoning. [source]


    CHARTING THE "TRANSITIONAL PERIOD": THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN TIME IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 1 2006
    GÖRAN BLIX
    ABSTRACT This paper seeks to chart a concept of historical experience that French Romantic writers first developed to describe their own relationship to historical time: the notion of the "transitional period." At first, the term related strictly to the evolving periodic conception of history, one that required breaks, spaces, or zones of indeterminacy to bracket off periods imagined as organic wholes. These transitions, necessary devices in the new grammar of history, also began to attract interest on their own, conceived either as chaotic but creative times of transformation, or, more often, as slack periods of decadence that possessed no proper style but exhibited hybrid traits. Their real interest, however, lies in their reflexive application to the nineteenth century itself, by writers and historians such as Alfred de Musset, Chateaubriand, Michelet, and Renan, who in their effort to define their own period envisioned the "transitional period" as a passage between more coherent and stable historical formations. This prospective self-definition of the "age of history" from a future standpoint is very revealing; it shows not just the tension between its organic way of apprehending the past and its own self-perception, but it also opens a window on a new and paradoxical experience of time, one in which change is ceaseless and an end in itself. The paper also presents a critique of the way the term "modernity" has functioned, from Baudelaire's initial use to the present, to occlude the experience of transition that the Romantics highlighted. By imposing on the nineteenth-century sense of the transitory a heroic period designation, the term "modernity" denies precisely the reality it describes, and sublimates a widespread temporal malaise into its contrary. The paper concludes that the peculiarly "modern" mania for naming one's period is a function of transitional time, and that the concept coined by the Romantics still governs our contemporary experience. [source]


    ENTERING THE WRECKAGE: GRIEF AND HOPE IN JEREMIAH, AND THE RESCRIPTING OF THE PASTORAL VOCATION IN A TIME OF GEOPOLITICAL CRISIS

    INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF MISSION, Issue 365 2003
    Chris William Erdman
    First page of article [source]


    INFECTIONS IN NURSING HOMES: IS IT TIME TO REVISE THE McGEER CRITERIA?

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 1 2010
    Monique Rothan-Tondeur PhD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    OLDER PEOPLE INVOLVED IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BENEFIT FROM WATER EXERCISE, SHOWING LONGER TOTAL SLEEP TIME

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 4 2006
    Katia L. F. G. Alencar MSc
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    EFFECT OF FROZEN TEMPERATURE AND STORAGE TIME ON CALPAINS, CATHEPSINS (B, B + L, H AND D) AND THEIR ENDOGENOUS INHIBITORS IN GOAT MUSCLES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2006
    N.S. NAGARAJ
    ABSTRACT The effects of frozen storage on the biochemical properties of myofibrils, muscle proteinases (cathepsins and calpains) and their endogenous inhibitors were investigated. Longissimus dorsi, biceps femoris, semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles from goat were frozen (,15C) and studied up to 120 days. The results showed that the percentage change in sarcomere length was 8.4,13.1. The calpain activity was determined after separation on a diethylaminoethyl,Sephacel column (Sigma, St. Louis, MO). Significantly greater percentage of calpain II activity was recovered when compared to calpain I. There was a 15,25% loss in calpastatin inhibitory activity, and the cystatin level fell by 11,16% after 80 days. Cathepsin B, B + L, H and D were very stable when compared to calpains. The calcium concentration may also be the factor for calpain activation. The sodium dodecyl sulfate,polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis result showed the appearance of 55 kDa components. It was concluded that calpains, not cathepsins, play an important role in the proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins at the freezing temperature. [source]


    PROTEOLYSIS IN SALMON (SALMO SALAR) DURING COLD STORAGE; EFFECTS OF STORAGE TIME AND SMOKING PROCESS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2001
    KAREN ENGVANG LUND
    ABSTRACT Changes in free amino acids (FAAs), small peptides and myofibrillar proteins were investigated in salmon (Salmo salar) muscle stored at OC for up to 23 days and after the stored salmon was smoked. Storage time and smoking process did not increase the formation of FAAs and small peptides indicating low exopeptidase activity. During storage, SDS PAGE analysis of myofibrils showed an increase in density of bands at 16, 37, 60, 64, 67, 76 and 130 kDa, a decrease of a 32 kDa band and the appearance of four new bands of 30, 90, 95 and 113 kDa. These results indicate proteolytic degradation. A little change of myosin and no change of ,-actinin and actin were observed. The smoking process itself enhances the intensity of bands, but does not change the pattern markedly except for the appearance of a 25 and 70 kDa band. Degradation pattern after smoking was not affected by storage time. [source]


    INFLUENCE OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE (STP) TREATMENT AND COOKING TIME ON COOK LOSSES AND TEXTURAL PROPERTIES OF RED MEATS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 6 2007
    S. BELGIN ERDOGDU
    ABSTRACT Sodium tripolyphosphates (STPs) are important functional additives used in meat products. STPs reduce cook losses and improve textural properties, especially by increasing the water-holding capacity of proteins. However, increases in cooking time or temperature enhance meat proteins' denaturation, resulting in a reduced water-holding capacity. The amount of STPs diffused into meats would play an important role for these changes. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine the effects of processing conditions (cooking time, STP concentration and dipping time) on cook losses and textural properties of red meats, and to relate these changes with diffused amount of STPs. For this purpose, meats (2 × 2 × 2 cm in size) were dipped in different concentrations of STP solutions (2, 4 and 6%) for 10, 20 and 30 min, and were cooked in boiling water for 5, 10 and 15 min. Cook losses were calculated from weight changes, and textural properties were determined by applying texture profile analysis to data obtained using Texture Analyzer TA-XT2i (Stable Micro Systems, Godalming, Surrey, U.K.). STPs were found to decrease cook losses and hardness values. While an increase in STP concentration increased cohesiveness, increase in cooking time resulted in higher hardness, gumminess, chewiness and cook losses. An increase in dipping times also decreased the cook losses and hardness. The results showed that STP concentration, STP dipping and cooking times had significant effects on the changes of textural properties and cook losses of meats. These results may be used for further meat processing optimization studies if they get correlated with sensory data obtained at the same conditions. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Cooking to assure safety of food products leads to changes in sensory attributes. The major changes occurring in meats are shrinkage, toughening of tissues, releasing of meat juice and color due to the effect of thermal treatment on proteins. Based on these, resulting cook losses for economical considerations and changes in textural properties affecting consumer satisfaction are widely recognized. Because the meat processing industry uses sodium tripolyphosphates (STPs) to improve textural properties and to reduce cook losses, the objective of this research was to determine the effects of STPs and cooking time on cook losses and textural properties of red meats. The results showed that STPs and cooking time affected the changes in cook losses and textural properties significantly. In addition to these results, an optimization study for decreasing cook losses while improving textural properties should be conducted where these changes are attributed to be significant for human perception using a sensory panel. [source]


    EFFECT OF PRETREATMENT ON DRYING TIME AND QUALITY OF CHILLI PEPPER

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 4 2010
    T.Y. TUNDE-AKINTUNDE
    ABSTRACT A study was carried out on the effect of various pretreatments and drying methods on drying time and quality of chilli pepper. Chilli peppers were pretreated with different blanching types and concentrations of osmotic sugar solutions (60 and 70°Brix), and were dried afterward. Results indicated that the pretreated peppers dried faster than the untreated ones. The peppers soaked in osmotic solution of 70°Brix had the lowest drying time, which decreased by a variation of 33.3,41.7%, compared with the dried untreated peppers that had the highest drying time. Solar-dried peppers had higher nutritional content than peppers dried from the other methods, while the oven-dried pepper samples had the lowest vitamin A and vitamin C contents. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Drying gives dried samples lower nutritional quality than fresh samples because of physiological changes that takes place. Pretreatments of pepper by steam and by water blanching are common methods, but osmotic dehydration also has a significant effect on the quality of dried foods. The effect of the pretreatments and drying methods on the drying rate and nutritional quality of dried pepper were investigated. Osmotically dehydrated samples had the lowest drying time, while pretreated samples dried faster than untreated samples generally. The nutritional quality of the dried samples, however, varied with the different pretreatment methods. This indicates that pretreatment enhances drying rate and also affects the quality of the final dried product. Dried pepper can thus be pretreated with blanching or dipping in osmotic solutions for products of higher nutritional quality. This will give dried pepper that will meet the nutritional requirement of the consumers better than untreated dried pepper. [source]


    PROPERTIES OF IDLI BATTER DURING ITS FERMENTATION TIME

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 1 2007
    S. BALASUBRAMANIAN
    ABSTRACT Idli is a traditional fermented rice and black gram-based breakfast food of South India. Idli batter was prepared from soaking polished parboiled rice and decorticated black gram for 4 h at 30 ± 1C in water. The soaked mass was ground to 0.5- to 0.7-mm particle size batter using wet grinder with adequate amount of water. The blend ratios of 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 (v/v) batter were allowed for fermentation (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h) adding 2% of salt. The idli batter parameters viz. bulk density, pH, percent total acidity, flow behavior index and consistency coefficient were studied for different fermentation times and blend ratios. The bulk density, pH and percentage total acidity of batter during different fermentation times and blend ratios ranged between 0.94 and 0.59 g/cm3, 5.9 and 4.1 and 0.443 and 0.910%, respectively. The consistency coefficient at any fermentation time shows increasing trend as the rice to black gram ratio increased. The flow behavior index indicated strong non-Newtonian fluid behavior (pseudoplastic) of idli batter at different fermentation times and blend ratios. [source]


    QUALITY OF MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGED "BARTLETT" PEARS AS INFLUENCED BY TIME AND TYPE OF STORAGE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 5 2004
    S.R. DRAKE
    ABSTRACT Commercially mature "Bartlett" pears for this study were obtained from local commercial packing facilities. In the first year, pears were packed in modified atmosphere bags and placed in boxes or packed normally (control) with an individual paper wrap around each pear plus a polyethylene liner in the box. Boxed pears from both types of packaging were stored in regular atmosphere (RA) storage at 1C for 30 or 90 days. In the second year, pears were packed normally and stored in both RA or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage for 45 or 90 days, or packed in modified atmosphere bags and stored in RA at 1C. After 45 days, normally packed pears from both RA and CA were removed from their initial storage, placed in modified atmosphere bags and returned to RA storage for an additional 45 days. Pears stored in modified atmosphere bags were superior in quality to normally packed pears stored only in RA storage and equal in quality to pears stored in CA for periods of 90 days. The quality of pears held in modified atmosphere bags under CA conditions deteriorated after only short periods of time (<45 days). Pears in modified atmosphere bags should be stored only in RA. Little or no quality advantage was evident if use of modified atmosphere bags was delayed regardless of prior storage type. [source]


    EFFECT OF PACKAGING AND STORAGE TIME ON BEEF QUALITATIVE AND MICROBIAL TRAITS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2010
    MARIA D'AGATA
    ABSTRACT The effect of polyvinyl chloride packaging (PP), vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (60% O2, 30% CO2, 10% N2) on some quality parameters and microbiological profile of beef was studied. Longissimus dorsi samples were examined at 7-day intervals during storage at 4C ± 2C, until 21 days. pH of PP beef increased during storage, whereas in VP and MAP beef remained stable. Superficial color darkened for PP samples, remaining stable until 7 and 21 days for VP and MAP samples, respectively; internal color was not significantly influenced by either storage time and packaging methods. Water-holding capacity was not affected by packaging methods, increasing from 7 to 21 days. VP showed lower lipid oxidation than MAP until 21 days and than PP until 14 days. Total mesophilic counts reached the threshold of 107 ufc/g after 7 days in PP and after 14 and 21 days in MAP and VP, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The results of this study confirmed that meat packaged in polyvinyl chloride packaging (PP) must be stored for few days to not fall into pH, color and microbiological alterations; meat packaged in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), even though maintained appreciable superficial colorimetric characteristics, showed a high microbiological growth from 14 days of storage; meat vacuum packaged (VP), although the worst colorimetric appearance, showed the best keeping properties in terms of microbiological profile and lipid oxidation lower than MAP until 21 days of storage. Nevertheless, the fact that the internal color of meat is similar among different packaging systems, independently from time of storage, may suggest that VP system may be useful for prolonged storage of big pieces of meat. [source]


    EFFECT OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND TIME ON QUALITY IN MINIMALLY PROCESSED LITCHI FRUIT (LITCHI CHINENSIS SONN.)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 3 2010
    ELIA NORA AQUINO BOLAÑOS
    ABSTRACT Rind browning is the most serious marketing problem for litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit, although it has no effect on the quality of the edible aril portion. Physicochemical, biochemical and subjective quality evaluations were done in minimally processed (peeled and vacuum-packed) litchi cv. Racimo Rojo fruit stored 18 days at 2, 5 or 10C. Little change was observed in total soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH, independent of storage temperature. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity decreased, total phenolic compound content remained unchanged and peroxidase (POD) activity increased during storage. Correlation was low (<0.63) between color parameters (L*, a*and b*) and PPO and POD activities, and phenolic compounds. The minimally processed fruit stored at 2C exhibited characteristics similar to fresh fruit, whereas those stored at 5 and 10C emitted disagreeable odors that lowered their subjective quality. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The insignificant physicochemical changes observed here suggest that when stored at 2C, litchi fruit can be offered as a minimally processed product with characteristics similar to fresh fruit. Unlike most other minimally processed fruit products and other litchi varieties, pulp browning was not a significant problem in litchi cv. Racimo Rojo after peeling, providing it a potential commercial advantage. [source]


    THE EFFECT OF EXTRUDED FLOUR AND FERMENTATION TIME ON SOME QUALITY PARAMETERS OF IDLI

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 1 2000
    KULWINDER KAUR
    ABSTRACT The effects on idli characteristics of fermentation time and substituting rice with differing proportions of rice flour extrusion-cooked under different conditions were studied. The specific gravity, pH and viscosity of batter and idli characteristics such as expansion, compression force and sensory attributes were measured and described using regression to fit a response surface analysis. Fermentation time showed the most pronounced effect on specific gravity, pH and aqueous dispersion viscosity of batter and taste scores of idli. Substituting rice flour with extruded rice flour at different levels were observed to have significant effect on expansion and appearance scores of idlis. The textural scores and compression force was significantly affected by extrusion temperature. The formulation containing rice substituted by 30% extruded rice flour extruded at 175C and fermented for 24 h produced idlis with highest expansion and overall acceptability. [source]


    VARIATION OF LAG TIME AND SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE AMONG 11 STRAINS OF SALMONELLA INOCULATED ONTO STERILE GROUND CHICKEN BREAST BURGERS AND INCUBATED AT 25C,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 4 2000
    THOMAS P. OSCAR
    ABSTRACT One strain of 11 serotypes or 11 strains of Salmonella, which were isolated from the ceca of broilers, were surveyed for their growth kinetics on sterile ground chicken breast burgers incubated at 25C to determine the variation of lag time and specific growth rate. Growth curves, four per strain, were fit to a two-phase linear model to determine lag time (h) and specific growth rate (log10/h). Repeatability of growth kinetics measurements for individual strains had a mean coefficient of variation of 11.7% for lag time (range: 5.8 to 17.3%) and a mean coefficient of variation of 6.7% for specific growth rate (range: 2.7 to 13.3%). Lag time among strains ranged from 2.2 to 3.1 h with a mean of 2.8 h for all strains, whereas specific growth rate among strains ranged from 0.3 to 0.38 log10 per h with a mean of 0.35 log10per h for all strains. One-way analysis of variance indicated that lag time (P =0.029) and specific growth rate (P =0.025) differed slightly among strains. S. Haardt had a shorter (P < 0.05) lag time than S. Agona and S. Brandenburg, whereas the specific growth rate of S. Enteritidis was less than (P < 0.05) the specific growth rates of S. Typhimurium and S. Brandenburg. All other strains had similar lag times and specific growth rates. The coefficient of variation among strains was 9.4% for lag time and 5.7% for specific growth rate. These results indicate that there were only minor differences in the lag times and specific growth rates among the strains of Salmonella surveyed. Thus, the growth kinetic values obtained with one strain of Salmonella may be useful for predicting the growth of other strains of Salmonella for which data do not currently exist. [source]


    COMBATING MALNUTRITION: TIME TO ACT

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 2 2004
    Eleanor McGee
    [source]


    PARASITISM OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC DINOFLAGELLATES BY THREE STRAINS OF AMOEBOPHRYA (DINOPHYTA): PARASITE SURVIVAL, INFECTIVITY, GENERATION TIME, AND HOST SPECIFICITY1

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    D. Wayne Coats
    Amoebophrya ceratii (Koeppen) Cachon is an obligate parasite of dinoflagellates and may represent a species complex. However, little is known about the biology and host range of different strains of Amoebophrya Cachon. Here, we determined parasite generation time and dinospore infectivity, survival, and ability to infect nonprimary hosts for strains of Amoebophrya from Akashiwo sanguinea (Hirasaka) G. Hansen et Moestrup, Gymnodinium instriatum (Freudenthal et Lee) Coats comb. nov., and Karlodinium micrum (Leadbeater et Dodge) J. Larsen. Akashiwo sanguinea was readily infected, with parasite prevalence reaching 100% in dinospore:host inoculations above a 10:1 ratio. Parasitism also approached 100% in G. instriatum, but only when inoculations exceeded a 40:1 ratio. Karlodinium micrum appeared partially resistant to infection, as parasite prevalence saturated at 92%. Parasite generation time differed markedly among Amoebophrya strains. Survival and infectivity of dinospores decreased over time, with strains from G. instriatum and A. sanguinea unable to initiate infections after 2 and 5 days, respectively. By contrast, dinospores from Amoebophrya parasitizing K. micrum remained infective for up to 11 days. Akashiwo sanguinea and G. instriatum were not infected when exposed to dinospores from nonprimary Amoebophrya strains. Karlodinium micrum, however, was attacked by dinospores of Amoebophrya from the other two host species, but infections failed to reach maturity. Observed differences in host,parasite biology support the hypothesis that Amoebophrya ceratii represents a complex of host-specific species. Results also suggest that Amoebophrya strains have evolved somewhat divergent survival strategies that may encompass sexuality, heterotrophy during the "free-living" dinospore stage, and dormancy. [source]