Basin Inversion (basin + inversion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Extensional development of the Fundy rift basin, southeastern Canada

Martha O. Withjack
Abstract The Fundy rift basin of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada, is part of the Eastern North American rift system that formed during the breakup of Pangaea. Integrated seismic-reflection, field, digital-elevation and aeromagnetic data indicate that the Fundy rift basin underwent two phases of deformation: syn-rift extension followed by post-rift basin inversion. Inversion significantly modified the geometries of the basin and its rift-related structures. In this paper, we remove the effects of inversion to examine the basin's extensional development. The basin consists of three structural subbasins: the Fundy and Chignecto subbasins are bounded by low-angle, NE-striking faults; the Minas subbasin is bounded by E- to ENE-striking faults that are steeply dipping at the surface and gently dipping at depth. Together, these linked faults form the border,fault system of the Fundy rift basin. Most major faults within the border,fault system originated as Palaeozoic contractional structures. All syn-rift units imaged on seismic profiles thicken towards the border,fault system, reflecting extensional movement from Middle Triassic (and possibly Permian) through Early Jurassic time. Intra-rift unconformities, observed on seismic profiles and in the field, indicate that uplift and erosion occurred, at least locally, during rifting. Based on seismic data alone, the displacement direction of the hanging wall of the border,fault system of the Fundy rift basin ranged from SW to SE during rifting. Field data (i.e. NE-striking igneous dykes, sediment-filled fissures and normal faults) indicate NW,SE extension during Early Jurassic time, supporting a SE-displacement direction. With a SE-displacement direction, the NE-striking border,fault zones of the Fundy and Chignecto subbasins had predominantly normal dip slip during rifting, whereas the E-striking border,fault zone of the Minas subbasin had oblique slip with left-lateral and normal components. Sequential restorations of seismic-reflection profiles (coupled with projections from onshore geology) show that the Fundy rift basin underwent 10,20,km of extension, most of which was accommodated by the border,fault system, and was considerably wider and deeper prior to basin inversion. Post-rift deformation tilted the eastern side of the basin to the northwest/north, producing significant uplift and erosion. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

On the roles of deformation and fluid during rejuvenation of a polymetamorphic terrane: inferences on the geodynamic evolution of the Ruker Province, East Antarctica

Abstract Evaluating pressure,temperature (P,T) conditions through mineral equilibria modelling within an amphibolite facies polymetamorphic terrane requires knowledge of the fluid content of the rocks. The Archean-Palaeoproterozoic basement rocks of the Ruker Province, East Antarctica, preserve evidence of three metamorphic events (M1,M3). Of particular interest is the M3 event, which is constrained to the early Palaeozoic (c. 550,480 Ma). Evaluation of the tectonic setting during this time is important because the Ruker Province is located within a critical region with respect to models of Gondwana assembly. Structural evidence of the early Palaeozoic event is preserved as large (up to ,500 m wide) high strain zones that cut the orthogneiss-metasedimentary basement (Tingey Complex) of the Ruker Province. Rocks within these zones have been thoroughly recrystallized and preserve a dominant shear fabric and M3 mineral assemblages that formed at P,T conditions of 4.0,5.2 kbar and 565,640 C. Distal to these zones, rocks preserve more complex petrographic relationships with S1 and S2 foliations, being incompletely overgrown by M3 retrograde assemblages. We show that the mineral assemblages preserved during the M3 event are highly dependent on the availability of fluid H2O, which is strongly influenced by the structural setting (i.e. proximity to the high-strain zones). P,T structural and fluid flow constraints support a model of basin inversion during early Palaeozoic crustal rejuvenation in the Ruker Province. [source]


S.F. Jones
Numerical modelling is used to investigate for the first time the interactions between a petroleum system and sill intrusion in the NE Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Although hydrocarbonexploration has been successful in the western Sverdrup Basin, the results in the NE part of thebasin have been disappointing, despite the presence of suitable Mesozoic source rocks, migrationpaths and structural/stratigraphic traps, many involving evaporites. This was explained by (i) theformation of structural traps during basin inversion in the Eocene, after the main phase ofhydrocarbon generation, and/or (ii) the presence of evaporite diapirs locally modifying the geothermalgradient, leading to thermal overmaturity of hydrocarbons. This study is the first attempt at modellingthe intrusion of Cretaceous sills in the east-central Sverdrup Basin, and to investigate how theymay have affected the petroleum system. A one-dimensional numerical model, constructed using PetroMod9.0, investigates the effectsof rifting and magmatic events on the thermal history and on petroleum generation at the DepotPoint L-24 well, eastern Axel Heiberg Island (7923,40,N, 8544,22,W). The thermal history isconstrained by vitrinite reflectance and fission-track data, and by the tectonic history. The simulationidentifies the time intervals during which hydrocarbons were generated, and illustrates the interplaybetween hydrocarbon production and igneous activity at the time of sill intrusion during the EarlyCretaceous. The comparison of the petroleum and magmatic systems in the context of previouslyproposed models of basin evolution and renewed tectonism was an essential step in the interpretationof the results from the Depot Point L-24 well. The model results show that an episode of minor renewed rifting and widespread sill intrusionin the Early Cretaceous occurred after hydrocarbon generation ceased at about 220 Ma in theHare Fiord and Van Hauen Formations. We conclude that the generation potential of these deeperformations in the eastern Sverdrup Basin was not likely to have been affected by the intrusion ofmafic sills during the Early Cretaceous. However, the model suggests that in shallower sourcerocks such as the Blaa Mountain Formation, rapid generation of natural gas occurred at 125 Ma, contemporaneous with tectonic rejuvenation and sill intrusion in the east-central Sverdrup Basin. A sensitivity study shows that the emplacement of sills increased the hydrocarbon generation ratesin the Blaa Mountain Formation, and facilitated the production of gas rather than oil. [source]

The structural evolution of the English Channel area

J. L. Lagarde
Abstract The structural evolution of the English Channel area is controlled by structure and particularly by the pre-existing Cadomian and Variscan crustal discontinuities, which have been reactivated repeatedly in post-Variscan times. They controlled the crustal subsidence that produced basin development in the Mesozoic, prior to the sea-floor spreading in the North Atlantic region. They were then reactivated during the Cenozoic compression and basin inversion. The English Channel development is ascribed to mid-Tertiary differential uplift (Oligocene to Miocene). During late Tertiary to Quaternary times the Channel displays characteristics of a tectonically controlled fluvial basin periodically invaded by the sea. At the lithospheric scale, the Channel can be considered as an active intraplate area influenced by the NW,SE ,Alpine push', the NW,SE ,Atlantic ridge push' and glacial rebound stresses. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]