Basin Formation (basin + formation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Basin evolution, diagenesis and uranium mineralization in the Paleoproterozic Thelon Basin, Nunavut, Canada

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2010
Eric E. Hiatt
ABSTRACT The Paleoproterozoic (Statherian) Thelon Basin is located in the Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield, formed following the Trans-Hudson Orogeny. Basin formation followed an interval of felsic volcanism and weathering of underlying bedrock. The diagenetic evolution of the Thelon lasted about one billion years and was punctuated by fluid movement influenced by tectonic events. Early quartz cements formed in well-sorted, quartz-rich facies during diagenetic stage 1; fluids in which these overgrowths formed had ,18O values near 0, (Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). Uranium-rich apatite cement (P1) also formed during diagenetic stage 1 indicating that oxygenated, uranium-bearing pore water was present in the basin early in its diagenetic history. Syntaxial quartz cement (Q1) formed in water with ,18O from ,4 to ,0.8, in diagenetic stage 2. Diagenetic stage 3 occurred when the Thelon Formation was at ca. 5 km depth, and was marked by extensive illitization, alteration of detrital grains, and uranium mineralization. Basin-wide, illite crystallized at ,200 °C by fluids with ,18O values of 5,9, and ,D values of ,60 to ,31,, consistent with evolved basinal brines. Tectonism caused by the accretion of Nena at ca. 1600 Ma may have provided the mechanism for brine movement during deep burial. Diagenetic stage 4 is associated with fracturing and emplacement of mafic dikes at ca. 1300 Ma, quartz cement (Q3) in fractures and vugs, further illitization, and recrystallization of uraninite (U2). Q3 cements have fluid inclusions that suggest variable salinities, ,18O values of 1.5,9,, and ,D values of ,97 to ,83, for stage 4 brines. K-feldspar and Mg-chlorite formed during diagenetic stage 5 at ca. 1000 Ma in upper stratigraphic sequences, and in the west. These phases precipitated from low-temperature, isotopically distinct fluids. Their distribution indicates that the basin hydrostratigraphy remained partitioned for >600 Ma. [source]

Evidence for two episodes of volcanism in the Bigadiç borate basin and tectonic implications for western Turkey

Fuat Erkül
Abstract Western Turkey has been dominated by N,S extension since the Early Miocene. The timing and cause of this N,S extension and related basin formation have been the subject of much debate, but new data from the Bigadiç borate basin provide insights that may solve this controversy. The basin is located in the Bornova Flysch Zone, which is thought to have formed as a major NE-trending transform zone during Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene collisional Tethyan orogenesis and later reactivated as a transfer zone of weakness, and which separates two orogenic domains having different structural evolutions. Volcanism in the Bigadiç area is characterized by two rock units that are separated by an angular unconformity. These are: (1) the Kocaiskan volcanites that gives K/Ar ages of 23,Ma, and (2) the Bigadiç volcano-sedimentary succession that yields ages of 20.6 to 17.8,Ma. Both units are unconformably overlain by Upper Miocene-Pliocene continental deposits. The Kocaiskan volcanites are related to the first episode of volcanic activity and comprise thick volcanogenic sedimentary rocks derived from subaerial andesitic intrusions, domes, lava flows and pyroclastic rocks. The second episode of volcanic activity, represented by basaltic to rhyolitic lavas and pyroclastic rocks, accompanied lacustrine,evaporitic sedimentation. Dacitic to rhyolitic volcanic rocks, called the S,nd,rg, volcanites, comprise NE-trending intrusions producing lava flows, ignimbrites, ash-fall deposits and associated volcanogenic sedimentary rocks. Other NE-trending olivine basaltic (Gölcük basalt) and trachyandesitic (Kay,rlar volcanites) intrusions and lava flows were synchronously emplaced into the lacustrine sediments. The intrusions typically display peperitic rocks along their contacts with the sedimentary rocks. It is important to note that the Gölcük basalt described here is the first recorded Early Miocene alkali basalt in western Turkey. The oldest volcanic episode occurred in the NE-trending zone when the region was still experiencing N,S compression. The angular unconformity between the two volcanic episodes marks an abrupt transition from N,S collision-related convergence to N,S extension related to retreat of the Aegean subduction zone to the south along an extensional detachment. Thrust faults with top-to-the-north sense of shear and a series of anticlines and synclines with subvertical NE-striking axial planes observed in the Bigadiç volcano-sedimentary succession suggest that NW,SE compression was reactivated following sedimentation. Geochemical data from the Bigadiç area also support the validity of the extensional regime, which was characterized by a bimodal volcanism related to extrusion of coeval alkaline and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks during the second volcanic episode. The formation of alkaline volcanic rocks dated as 19.7,±,0.4,Ma can be related directly to the onset of the N,S extensional regime in western Turkey. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Biogeography of Iberian freshwater fishes revisited: the roles of historical versus contemporary constraints

Ana F. Filipe
Abstract Aim, The question of how much of the shared geographical distribution of biota is due to environmental vs. historical constraints remains unanswered. The aim of this paper is to disentangle the contribution of historical vs. contemporary factors to the distribution of freshwater fish species. In addition, it illustrates how quantifying the contribution of each type of factor improves the classification of biogeographical provinces. Location, Iberian Peninsula, south-western Europe (c. 581,000 km2). Methods, We used the most comprehensive data on native fish distributions for the Iberian Peninsula, compiled from Portuguese and Spanish sources on a 20-km grid-cell resolution. Overall, 58 species were analysed after being categorized into three groups according to their ability to disperse through saltwater: (1) species strictly intolerant of saltwater (primary species); (2) species partially tolerant of saltwater, making limited incursions into saltwaters (secondary species); and (3) saltwater-tolerant species that migrate back and forth from sea to freshwaters or have invaded freshwaters recently (peripheral species). Distance-based multivariate analyses were used to test the role of historical (basin formation) vs. contemporary environmental (climate) conditions in explaining current patterns of native fish assemblage composition. Cluster analyses were performed to explore species co-occurrence patterns and redefine biogeographical provinces based on the distributions of fishes. Results, River basin boundaries were better at segregating species composition for all species groups than contemporary climate variables. This historical signal was especially evident for primary and secondary freshwater fishes. Eleven biogeographical provinces were delineated. Basins flowing to the Atlantic Ocean north of the Tagus Basin and those flowing to the Mediterranean Sea north of the Mijares Basin were the most dissimilar group. Primary and secondary freshwater species had higher province fidelity than peripheral species. Main conclusions, The results support the hypothesis that historical factors exert greater constraints on native freshwater fish assemblages in the Iberian Peninsula than do current environmental factors. After examining patterns of assemblage variation across space, as evidenced by the biogeographical provinces, we discuss the likely dispersal and speciation events that underlie these patterns. [source]

Up-temperature flow of surface-derived fluids in the mid-crust: the role of pre-orogenic burial of hydrated fault rocks

Abstract The Walter-Outalpa shear zone in the southern Curnamona Province of NE South Australia is an example of a shear zone that has undergone intensely focused fluid flow and alteration at mid-crustal depths. Results from this study have demonstrated that the intense deformation and ductile shear zone reactivation, at amphibolite facies conditions of 534 ± 20 °C and 500 ± 82 MPa, that overprint the Proterozoic Willyama Supergroup occurred during the Delamerian Orogeny (c. 500 Ma) (EPMA monazite ages of 501 ± 16 and 491 ± 19 Ma). This is in contrast to the general belief that the majority of basement deformation and alteration in the southern Curnamona Province occurred during the waning stages of the Olarian Orogeny (c. 1610,1580 Ma). These shear zones contain hydrous mineral assemblages that cut wall rocks that have experienced amphibolite facies metamorphism during the Olarian Orogeny. The shear zone rock volumes have much lower ,18O values (as low as 1,) than their unsheared counterparts (7,9,), and calculated fluid ,18O values (5,8,) consistent with a surface-derived fluid source. Hydrous minerals show a decrease in ,D(H2O) from ,14 to ,22,, for minerals outside the shear zones, to ,28 to ,40,, for minerals within the shear zones consistent with a contribution from a meteoric source. It is unclear how near-surface fluids initially under hydrostatic pressure penetrate into the middle crust where fluid pressures approach lithostatic, and where fluid flow is expected to be dominantly upward because of pressure gradients. We propose a mechanism whereby faulting during basin formation associated with the Adelaidean Rift Complex (c. 700 Ma) created broad hydrous zones containing mineral assemblages in equilibrium with surface waters. These panels of fault rock were subsequently buried to depths where the onset of metamorphism begins to dehydrate the fault rock volumes evolving a low ,18O fluid that is channelled through shear zones related to Delamerian Orogenic activity. [source]

Observations and interpretations at Vredefort, Sudbury, and Chicxulub: Towards an empirical model of terrestrial impact basin formation

Richard A. F. GRIEVE
Assuming that the structures originally had the same morphology, the observations/interpretations for each structure are compared and extended to the other structures. This does not result in any major inconsistencies but requires that the observations be scaled spatially. In the case of Vredefort and Sudbury, this is accomplished by scaling the outer limit of particular shock metamorphic features. In the case of Chicxulub, scaling requires a reasoned assumption as to the formation mechanism of an interior peak ring. The observations/interpretations are then used to construct an integrated, empirical kinematic model for a terrestrial peak-ring basin. The major attributes of the model include: a set of outward-directed thrusts in the parautochthonous rocks of the outermost environs of the crater floor, some of which are pre-existing structures that have been reactivated during transient cavity formation; inward-directed motions along the same outermost structures and along a set of structures, at intermediate radial distances, during transient cavity collapse; structural uplift in the center followed by a final set of radially outward-directed thrusts at the outer edges of the structural uplift, during uplift collapse. The rock displacements on the intermediate, inward and innermost, outward sets of structures are consistent with the assumption that a peak ring will result from the convergence of the collapse of the transient cavity rim area and the collapse of the structural uplift. [source]

Detrital zircon geochronology of Carboniferous,Cretaceous strata in the Lhasa terrane, Southern Tibet

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2007
Andrew L. Leier
ABSTRACT Sedimentary strata in the Lhasa terrane of southern Tibet record a long but poorly constrained history of basin formation and inversion. To investigate these events, we sampled Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the Lhasa terrane for detrital zircon uranium,lead (U,Pb) analysis. The >700 detrital zircon U,Pb ages reported in this paper provide the first significant detrital zircon data set from the Lhasa terrane and shed new light on the tectonic and depositional history of the region. Collectively, the dominant detrital zircon age populations within these rocks are 100,150, 500,600 and 1000,1400 Ma. Sedimentary strata near Nam Co in central Lhasa are mapped as Lower Cretaceous but detrital zircons with ages younger than 400 Ma are conspicuously absent. The detrital zircon age distribution and other sedimentological evidence suggest that these strata are likely Carboniferous in age, which requires the existence of a previously unrecognized fault or unconformity. Lower Jurassic strata exposed within the Bangong suture between the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes contain populations of detrital zircons with ages between 200 and 500 Ma and 1700 and 2000 Ma. These populations differ from the detrital zircon ages of samples collected in the Lhasa terrane and suggest a unique source area. The Upper Cretaceous Takena Formation contains zircon populations with ages between 100 and 160 Ma, 500 and 600 Ma and 1000 and 1400 Ma. Detrital zircon ages from these strata suggest that several distinct fluvial systems occupied the southern portion of the Lhasa terrane during the Late Cretaceous and that deposition in the basin ceased before 70 Ma. Carboniferous strata exposed within the Lhasa terrane likely served as source rocks for sediments deposited during Cretaceous time. Similarities between the lithologies and detrital zircon age-probability plots of Carboniferous rocks in the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes and Tethyan strata in the Himalaya suggest that these areas were located proximal to one another within Gondwanaland. U,Pb ages of detrital zircons from our samples and differences between the geographic distribution of igneous rocks within the Tibetan plateau suggest that it is possible to discriminate a southern vs. northern provenance signature using detrital zircon age populations. [source]

Temporal-Spatial Structure of Intraplate Uplift in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Dewei LI
Abstract: The intraplate uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau took place on the basis of breakup and assembly of the Precambrian supercontinent, and southward ocean-continent transition of the Proto-, Paleo-, Meso- and Neo-Tethys during the Caledonian, Indosinian, Yanshanian and Early Himalayan movements. The intraplate tectonic evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau underwent the early stage of intraplate orogeny characterized by migrational tectonic uplift, horizontal movement and geological processes during 180,7 Ma, and the late stage of isostatic mountain building characterized by pulsative rapid uplift, vertical movement and geographical processes since 3.6 Ma. The spatial-temporal evolution of the intraplate orogeny within the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau shows a regular transition from the northern part through the central part to the southern part during 180,120 Ma, 65,35 Ma, and 25,7 Ma respectively, with extensive intraplate faulting, folding, block movement, magmatism and metallogenesis. Simultaneous intraplate orogeny and basin formation resulted from crustal rheological stratification and basin-orogen coupling that was induced by lateral viscous flow in the lower crust. This continental dynamic process was controlled by lateral flow of hot and soft materials within the lower crust because of slab dehydration and melted mantle upwelling above the subducted plates during the southward Tethyan ocean-continent transition processes or asthenosphere diapirism. Intraplate orogeny and basin formation were irrelevant to plate collision. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as a whole was actually formed by the isostatic mountain building processes since 3.6 Ma that were characterized by crust-scale vertical movement, and integral rapid uplift of the plateau, accompanied by isostatic subsidence of peripheral basins and depressions, and great changes in topography and environment. A series of pulsative mountain building events, associated with gravity equilibrium and isostatic adjustment of crustal materials, at 3.6 Ma, 2.5 Ma, 1.8,1.2 Ma, 0.9,0.8 Ma and 0.15,0.12 Ma led to the formation of a composite orogenic belt by unifying the originally relatively independent Himalayas, Gangdisê, Tanghla, Longmenshan, Kunlun, Altyn Tagh, and Qilian mountains, and the formation of the complete Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a unified mountain root after Miocene uplift of the plateau as a whole. [source]