Basin Floor (basin + floor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Pomeranian basin (NW Poland) and its sedimentary evolution during Mississippian times

Hanna Matyja
Abstract The Carboniferous sedimentary history of the Pomeranian Basin (NW Poland) begins with Hastarian open-marine carbonates and is terminated with ?lower Asbian terrestrial deposits in the north-eastern part and, ?upper Asbian or Brigantian, open-marine shales in the south-western part of the basin. The ?latest Viséan, Serpukhovian and early Bashkirian was a period of regional non-deposition and erosion. In the Upper Bashkirian,Gzhelian strata, an alluvial depositional environment was recognized. The Mississippian depositional history of the area has been punctuated by several, regional-scale events: (1) during the late Famennian,early Tournaisian times anoxic conditions developed over the entire basin. The results of both conodont and miospore studies show the presence of a stratigraphic gap within this sequence (which also show extremely reduced thicknesses), that comprises the uppermost Famennian (Middle and Upper praesulcata conodont zones) and the lowermost Hastarian (sulcata,sandbergi conodont zones). This stratigraphic gap probably resulted from some chemical and/or hydrodynamical factors rather than from any tectonic uplift; (2) volcanic activity on the nearby East European Craton (EEC), which was the source of large amounts of detrital (volcaniclastic) material supplied to the Pomeranian Basin during the Early crenulata,?early anchoralis-latus chrons (late Hastarian,early Ivorian), caused with time the gradual shallowing of the sedimentary environment. This shallowing trend began in the Early typicus Chron (early Ivorian) and terminated with terrestrial deposits in the early Asbian. The sedimentary succession and specific phenomena recognized in this structurally unstable basin, displays a pattern partly different from that observed in some areas in Europe. It would appear that other local factors, such as tectonic mobility of the hinterland area (EEC) and the Pomeranian Basin floor, were the possible causes of observed variations and relative sea-level changes. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sedimentary and faunal events revealed by a revised correlation of post-glacial Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) strata in the Welsh Basin, UK

Jeremy R. Davies
Abstract The discovery of a previously unrecognized unconformity and of new faunas in the type Llandovery area underpins a revised correlation of Hirnantian strata in mid Wales. This has revealed the sedimentary and faunal events which affected the Lower Palaeozoic Welsh Basin during the global rise in sea level that followed the end-Ordovician glacial maximum and has allowed their interpretation in the context of local and global influences. In peri-basinal shelfal settings the onset of post-glacial deepening is recorded by an unfossiliferous, transgressive shoreface sequence (Cwm Clyd Sandstone and Garth House formations) which rests unconformably on Rawtheyan rocks, deformed during an episode of pre-Hirnantian tectonism. In the deep water facies of the basin centre, this same sequence boundary is now recognized as the contact between fine-grained, re-sedimented mudstones and an underlying regressive sequence of turbidite sandstones and conglomerates; it is at a level lower than previously cited and calls into question the established lithostratigraphy. In younger Hirnantian strata, graptolites associated with the newly recognized Ystradwalter Member (Chwefri Formation) demonstrate that this distal shelf unit correlates with the persculptus graptolite-bearing Mottled Mudstone Member of the basinal succession. Together these members record an important macrofaunal recolonization of the Welsh Basin and mark a key event in the post-glacial transgression. Further deepening saw the establishment of a stratified water column and the imposition of anoxic bottom water conditions across the basin floor. These post-glacial Hirnantian events are consistent with the re-establishment of connections between a silled Welsh Basin and the open Iapetus Ocean. However, a comparison with other areas suggests that each event records a separate deepening episode within a pulsed glacio-eustatic transgression, while also reflecting changes in post-glacial climate and patterns of oceanic circulation and associated biotic flux. British Geological Survey © NERC 2009. All rights reserved. [source]

Trajectory analysis: concepts and applications

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 5 2009
W. Helland-Hansen
ABSTRACT Shoreline and shelf-edge trajectories describe the migration through time of sedimentary systems, using geomorphological breaks-in-slope that are associated with key changes in depositional processes and products. Analysis of these trajectories provides a simple descriptive tool that complements and extends conventional sequence stratigraphic methods and models. Trajectory analysis offers four advantages over a sequence stratigraphic interpretation based on systems tracts: (1) each genetically related advance or retreat of a shoreline or shelf edge is viewed in the context of a continuously evolving depositional system, rather than as several discrete systems tracts; (2) subtle changes in depositional response (e.g. within systems tracts) can be identified and honoured; (3) trajectory analysis does not anticipate the succession of depositional events implied by systems-tract models; and (4) the descriptive emphasis of trajectory analysis does not involve any a priori assumptions about the type or nature of the mechanisms that drive sequence development. These four points allow the level of detail in a trajectory-based interpretation to be directly tailored to the available data, such that the interpretation may be qualitative or quantitative in two or three dimensions. Four classes of shoreline trajectory are recognized: ascending regressive, descending regressive, transgressive and stationary (i.e. nonmigratory). Ascending regressive and high-angle (accretionary) transgressive trajectories are associated with expanded facies belt thicknesses, the absence of laterally extensive erosional surfaces, and relatively high preservation of the shoreline depositional system. In contrast, descending regressive and low-angle (nonaccretionary) transgressive trajectories are associated with foreshortened and/or missing facies belts, the presence of laterally extensive erosional surfaces, and relatively low preservation of the shoreline depositional system. Stationary trajectories record shorelines positioned at a steeply sloping shelf edge, with accompanying bypass of sediment to the basin floor. Shelf-edge trajectories represent larger spatial and temporal scales than shoreline trajectories, and they can be subdivided into ascending, descending and stationary (i.e. nonmigratory) classes. Ascending trajectories are associated with a relatively large number and thickness of shoreline tongues (parasequences), the absence of laterally extensive erosional surfaces on the shelf, and relatively low sediment supply to the basin floor. Descending trajectories are associated with a few, thin shoreline tongues, the presence of laterally extensive erosional surfaces on the shelf, and high sediment supply to basin-floor fan systems. Stationary trajectories record near-total bypass of sediment across the shelf and mass transfer to the basin floor. [source]

Widespread syn-sedimentary deformation on a muddy deep-water basin-floor: the Vischkuil Formation (Permian), Karoo Basin, South Africa

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 4 2009
W. C. Van Der Merwe
ABSTRACT The ,380-m-thick mudstone,siltstone-dominated Vischkuil Formation represents the initiation phase of a 1.3-km-thick prograding basin floor to slope to shelf succession that marks a significant increase in the rate of siliciclastic sediment supply to the early Karoo Basin in the Permian. In the upper Vischkuil Formation three well exposed, widespread (,3000 km2) 10,70-m-thick intervals of deformed strata are encased within undeformed sediments. Such chaotic mass movement deposits that are mappable over areas comparable with seismic-scale mass transport deposits are commonly associated with submarine slope settings. However, the surrounding lithofacies and the correlation of distinctive marker beds indicate that these deformation intervals developed in a distal low gradient basin floor setting. The deformed intervals comprise a lower division of tight down-flow verging folds dissected by thrust planes that sole out onto a highly sheared décollement surface that are interpreted as slides. The lower divisions are overlain by an upper division of chaotic lithofacies with large contorted clasts of sandstone supported by a fine-grained matrix interpreted as a debrite. The juxtaposition of these lithofacies, the distribution of thickness of the divisions, and their close kinematic relationships indicate that the emplacement of the debris-flows triggered and drove the underlying slide, in a low-gradient distal setting. Individual beds in the deformed intervals can be mapped laterally into undeformed strata indicating limited movement of the slide. Therefore, widespread zones of syn-sedimentary deformation in deep-water settings do not necessarily indicate a slope setting and should not be used as single criterion to determine depositional setting. When associated with major debrites they may be developed on a flat basin floor. [source]

Morphology and origin of major Cenozoic sequence boundaries in the eastern North Sea Basin: top Eocene, near-top Oligocene and the mid-Miocene unconformity

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 1 2001
M. Huuse
Unconformities in sedimentary successions (i.e. sequence boundaries) form in response to the interplay between a variety of factors such as eustasy, climate, tectonics and basin physiography. Unravelling the origin of sequence boundaries is thus one of the most pertinent questions in the analysis of sedimentary basins. We address this question by focusing on three of the most marked physical discontinuities (sequence boundaries) in the Cenozoic North Sea Basin: top Eocene, near-top Oligocene and the mid-Miocene unconformity. The Eocene/Oligocene transition is characterized by an abrupt increase in sediment supply from southern Norway and by minor erosion of the basin floor. The near-top Oligocene and the mid-Miocene unconformity are characterized by major changes in sediment input directions and by widespread erosion along their clinoform breakpoints. The mid-Miocene shift in input direction was followed by a marked increase in sediment supply to the southern and central North Sea Basin. Correlation with global ,18O records suggests that top Eocene correlates with a major long-term ,18O increase (inferred climatic cooling and eustatic fall). Near-top Oligocene does not correlate with any major ,18O events, while the mid-Miocene unconformity correlates with a gradual decrease followed by a major long-term increase in ,18O values The abrupt increases in sediment supply in post-Eocene and post-middle Miocene time correlate with similar changes worldwide and with major ,18O increases, suggesting a global control (i.e. climate and eustasy) of the post-Eocene sedimentation in the North Sea Basin. Erosional features observed at near-top Oligocene and at the mid-Miocene unconformity are parallel to the clinoform breakpoints and resemble scarps formed by mass wasting. Incised valleys have not been observed, indicating that sea level never fell significantly below the clinoform breakpoint during the Oligocene to middle Miocene. [source]

Contrasts in the Quaternary of mid-North America and mid-Eurasia: notes on Quaternary landscapes of western Siberia,

H. E. Wright
Abstract The West Siberian Plain was formed by marine deposits that extended from the Mediterranean basin to the arctic. Tectonic action later produced a striking series of long straight NE,SW grabens in the southern part of the plain. Pleistocene advance of the Kara ice sheet onto the continent resulted in blockage of the Ob and Yenisey rivers to form huge proglacial lakes that drained through these grabens south via the Turgay Pass and the Aral, Caspian, Black and Mediterranean seas to the North Atlantic Ocean, but during the Last Glacial Maximum (late Weichselian, isotope stage 2), the Kara ice sheet did not advance onto the continent in northwestern Siberia. The Altai Mountains, which bound the West Siberian Plain on the south, contained large deep intermontane ice-dammed lakes, which drained catastrophically when the ice dams broke, forming giant ripples on the basin floors. Pollen studies of glacial lakes indicate that the Lateglacial steppe vegetation and dry climatic conditions continued into the early Holocene as summer insolation maintained high levels. Permafrost development on a drained lake floor in the western Altai Mountains resulted in the formation of groups of small pingos. In North America the growth and wastage of the huge Laurentide ice sheet had an indirect role in the climatic history of western Siberia during the Glacial and Lateglacial periods, after which the climate was more affected directly by insolation changes, whereas in North America in the early Holocene the insolation factor was coupled with the climatic effects of the slow wastage of the ice sheet, and the time of maximum dryness was postponed until the mid-Holocene. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]