Basin Fill (basin + fill)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Geoarchaeology of the Boca Negra Wash Area, Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico, USA

Vance T. Holliday
Dozens of Paleoindian sites, including the Boca Negra Wash (BNW) Folsom site (LA 124474), are scattered across a basalt plateau (the West Mesa) on the western side of the Albuquerque Basin, and adjacent uplands. The BNW site, like many others in the area, is located near a small (,60 × 90 m) playa basin that formed in a depression on the basalt surface and was subsequently covered by an eolian sand sheet (Unit 1) dated by OSL to ,23,000 yr B.P. Most of the basin fill is ,2 m of playa mud (Units 2 and 3) dating ,13,970 14C yr B.P. (17,160,16,140 cal yr B.P.) at the sand,mud interface to ,2810 14C yr B.P. (,2960,2860 cal yr B.P.) at the top. C/N ratios suggest that the BNW playa basin probably held water more often during the Folsom occupation; stable carbon isotope values indicate C3 vegetation was more common as well, but C4 grasses became dominant in the Holocene. Cores extracted from four playa basins nearby revealed a similar stratigraphy and geochronology, documenting presence of wetlands on playa floors during the Paleoindian occupation of the area. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Interpretation of observed fluid potential patterns in a deep sedimentary basin under tectonic compression: Hungarian Great Plain, Pannonian Basin

J. Tóth
Abstract The , 40 000 km2 Hungarian Great Plain portion of the Pannonian Basin consists of a basin fill of 100 m to more than 7000 m thick semi- to unconsolidated marine, deltaic, lacustrine and fluviatile clastic sediments of Neogene age, resting on a strongly tectonized Pre-Neogene basement of horst-and-graben topography of a relief in excess of 5000 m. The basement is built of a great variety of brittle rocks, including flysch, carbonates and metamorphics. The relatively continuous Endr,d Aquitard, with a permeability of less than 1 md (10,15 m2) and a depth varying between 500 and 5000 m, divides the basin's rock framework into upper and lower sequences of highly permeable rock units, whose permeabilities range from a few tens to several thousands of millidarcy. Subsurface fluid potential and flow fields were inferred from 16 192 water level and pore pressure measurements using three methods of representation: pressure,elevation profiles; hydraulic head maps; and hydraulic cross-sections. Pressure,elevation profiles were constructed for eight areas. Typically, they start from the surface with a straight-line segment of a hydrostatic gradient (,st = 9.8067 MPa km,1) and extend to depths of 1400,2500 m. At high surface elevations, the gradient is slightly smaller than hydrostatic, while at low elevations it is slightly greater. At greater depths, both the pressures and their vertical gradients are uniformly superhydrostatic. The transition to the overpressured depths may be gradual, with a gradient of ,dyn = 10,15 MPa km,1 over a vertical distance of 400,1000 m, or abrupt, with a pressure jump of up to 10 MPa km,1 over less than 100 m and a gradient of ,dyn > 20 MPa km,1. According to the hydraulic head maps for 13 100,500 m thick horizontal slices of the rock framework, the fluid potential in the near-surface domains declines with depth beneath positive topographic features, but it increases beneath depressions. The approximate boundary between these hydraulically contrasting regions is the 100 m elevation contour line in the Duna,Tisza interfluve, and the 100,110 m contours in the Nyírség uplands. Below depths of ,,600 m, islets of superhydrostatic heads develop which grow in number, areal extent and height as the depth increases; hydraulic heads may exceed 3000 m locally. A hydraulic head ,escarpment' appears gradually in the elevation range of ,,1000 to ,,2800 m along an arcuate line which tracks a major regional fault zone striking NE,SW: heads drop stepwise by several hundred metres, at places 2000 m, from its north and west sides to the south and east. The escarpment forms a ,fluid potential bank' between a ,fluid potential highland' (500,2500 m) to the north and west, and a ,fluid potential basin' (100,500 m) to the south and east. A ,potential island' rises 1000 m high above this basin further south. According to four vertical hydraulic sections, groundwater flow is controlled by the topography in the upper 200,1700 m of the basin; the driving force is orientated downwards beneath the highlands and upwards beneath the lowlands. However, it is directed uniformly upwards at greater depths. The transition between the two regimes may be gradual or abrupt, as indicated by wide or dense spacing of the hydraulic head contours, respectively. Pressure ,plumes' or ,ridges' may protrude to shallow depths along faults originating in the basement. The basement horsts appear to be overpressured relative to the intervening grabens. The principal thesis of this paper is that the two main driving forces of fluid flow in the basin are gravitation, due to elevation differences of the topographic relief, and tectonic compression. The flow field is unconfined in the gravitational regime, whereas it is confined in the compressional regime. The nature and geometry of the fluid potential field between the two regimes are controlled by the sedimentary and structural features of the rock units in that domain, characterized by highly permeable and localized sedimentary windows, conductive faults and fracture zones. The transition between the two potential fields can be gradual or abrupt in the vertical, and island-like or ridge-like in plan view. The depth of the boundary zone can vary between 400 and 2000 m. Recharge to the gravitational regime is inferred to occur from infiltrating precipitation water, whereas that to the confined regime is from pore volume reduction due to the basement's tectonic compression. [source]

High-resolution seismic and ground penetrating radar,geophysical profiling of a thermokarst lake in the western Lena Delta, Northern Siberia

G. J. Schwamborn
Abstract High-resolution seismic and ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) data have been acquired over Lake Nikolay in the western Lena Delta in order to study the uppermost basin fill and the bordering frozen margins. GPR (100 MHz antenna pair) measurements were completed on the frozen lake and its permafrost margins, while high-resolution seismic data were acquired from the lake during open-water conditions in summer using a 1.5,11.5 kHz Chirp profiler. The combined use of the two profiling systems allows stratigraphic profiling in both frozen and unfrozen parts of the lake. Shallow seismic reflection images of the uppermost 4 to 5 m of sediments are compared to GPR sections, which have approximately the same horizontal and vertical resolution. Short sediment cores aid calibrate the geophysical data. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Importance of predecessor basin history on sedimentary fill of a retroarc foreland basin: provenance analysis of the Cretaceous Magallanes basin, Chile (50,52°S)

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 5 2010
B. W. Romans
ABSTRACT An integrated provenance analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Magallanes retroarc foreland basin of southern Chile (50°30,,52°S) provides new constraints on source area evolution, regional patterns of sediment dispersal and depositional age. Over 450 new single-grain detrital-zircon U-Pb ages, which are integrated with sandstone petrographic and mudstone geochemical data, provide a comprehensive detrital record of the northern Magallanes foreland basin-filling succession (>4000-m-thick). Prominent peaks in detrital-zircon age distribution among the Punta Barrosa, Cerro Toro, Tres Pasos and Dorotea Formations indicate that the incorporation and exhumation of Upper Jurassic igneous rocks (ca. 147,155 Ma) into the Andean fold-thrust belt was established in the Santonian (ca. 85 Ma) and was a significant source of detritus to the basin by the Maastrichtian (ca. 70 Ma). Sandstone compositional trends indicate an increase in volcanic and volcaniclastic grains upward through the basin fill corroborating the interpretation of an unroofing sequence. Detrital-zircon ages indicate that the Magallanes foredeep received young arc-derived detritus throughout its ca. 20 m.y. filling history, constraining the timing of basin-filling phases previously based only on biostratigraphy. Additionally, spatial patterns of detrital-zircon ages in the Tres Pasos and Dorotea Formations support interpretations that they are genetically linked depositional systems, thus demonstrating the utility of provenance indicators for evaluating stratigraphic relationships of diachronous lithostratigraphic units. This integrated provenance dataset highlights how the sedimentary fill of the Magallanes basin is unique among other retroarc foreland basins and from the well-studied Andean foreland basins farther north, which is attributed to nature of the predecessor rift and backarc basin. [source]

Evolution of basin architecture in an incipient continental rift: the Cenozoic Most Basin, Eger Graben (Central Europe)

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2009
Michal Rajchl
ABSTRACT The Oligo-Miocene Most Basin is the largest preserved sedimentary basin within the Eger Graben, the easternmost part of the European Cenozoic Rift System (ECRIS). The basin is interpreted as a part of an incipient rift system that underwent two distinct phases of extension. The first phase, characterised by NNE,SSW- to N,S-oriented horizontal extension between the end of Eocene and early Miocene, was oblique to the rift axis and caused evolution of a fault system characterised by en-échelon-arranged E,W (ENE,WSW) faults. These faults defined a number of small, shallow initial depocentres of very small subsidence rates that gradually merged during the growth and linkage of the normal fault segments. The youngest part of the basin fill indicates accelerated subsidence caused probably by the concentration of displacement at several major bounding faults. Major post-depositional faulting and forced folding were related to a change in the extension vector to an orthogonal position with respect to the rift axis and overprinting of the E,W faults by an NE,SW normal fault system. The origin of the palaeostress field of the earlier, oblique, extensional phase remains controversial and can be attributed either to the effects of the Alpine lithospheric root or (perhaps more likely because of the dominant volcanism at the onset of Eger Graben formation) to doming due to thermal perturbation of the lithosphere. The later, orthogonal, extensional phase is explained by stretching along the crest of a growing regional-scale anticlinal feature, which supports the recent hypothesis of lithospheric folding in the Alpine,Carpathian foreland. [source]

Depositional and tectonic evolution of a supradetachment basin: 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Nova Formation, Panamint Range, California

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 1 2000
N. P. Snyder
The Nova Basin contains an upper Miocene to Pliocene supradetachment sedimentary succession that records the unroofing of the Panamint metamorphic core complex, west of Death Valley, California. Basin stratigraphy reflects the evolution of sedimentation processes from landslide emplacement during basin initiation to the development of alluvial fans composed of reworked, uplifted sections of the basin fill. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of volcanic units in middle and lower parts of the sequence provide age control on the tectonic and depositional evolution of the basin and, more generally, insights regarding the rate of change of depositional environments in supradetachment basins. Our work, along with earlier research, indicate basin deposition from 11.38 Ma to 3.35 Ma. The data imply sedimentation rates, uncorrected for compaction, of ~100 m Myr,1 in the lower, high-energy part to ~1000 m Myr,1 in the middle part characterized by debris-flow fan deposition. The observed variation in sediment flux rate during basin evolution suggests that supradetachment basins have complex depositional histories involving rapid transitions in both the style and rate of sedimentation. [source]