Basin Development (basin + development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The structural evolution of the English Channel area

J. L. Lagarde
Abstract The structural evolution of the English Channel area is controlled by structure and particularly by the pre-existing Cadomian and Variscan crustal discontinuities, which have been reactivated repeatedly in post-Variscan times. They controlled the crustal subsidence that produced basin development in the Mesozoic, prior to the sea-floor spreading in the North Atlantic region. They were then reactivated during the Cenozoic compression and basin inversion. The English Channel development is ascribed to mid-Tertiary differential uplift (Oligocene to Miocene). During late Tertiary to Quaternary times the Channel displays characteristics of a tectonically controlled fluvial basin periodically invaded by the sea. At the lithospheric scale, the Channel can be considered as an active intraplate area influenced by the NW,SE ,Alpine push', the NW,SE ,Atlantic ridge push' and glacial rebound stresses. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Modelling interactions between fold,thrust belt deformation, foreland flexure and surface mass transport

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2006
Guy D. H. Simpson
ABSTRACT Interactions between fold and thrust belt deformation, foreland flexure and surface mass transport are investigated using a newly developed mathematical model incorporating fully dynamic coupling between mechanics and surface processes. The mechanical model is two dimensional (plane strain) and includes an elasto-visco-plastic rheology. The evolving model is flexurally compensated using an elastic beam formulation. Erosion and deposition at the surface are treated in a simple manner using a linear diffusion equation. The model is solved with the finite element method using a Lagrangian scheme with marker particles. Because the model is particle based, it enables straightforward tracking of stratigraphy and exhumation paths and it can sustain very large strain. It is thus ideally suited to study deformation, erosion and sedimentation in fold,thrust belts and foreland basins. The model is used to investigate how fold,thrust deformation and foreland basin development is influenced by the non-dimensional parameter , which can be interpreted as the ratio of the deformation time scale to the time scale for surface processes. Large values of imply that the rate of surface mass transport is significantly greater than the rate of deformation. When , the rates of surface processes are so slow that one observes a classic propagating fold,thrust belt with well-developed wedge top basins and a largely underfilled foreland flexural depression. Increasing causes (1) deposition to shift progressively from the wedge top into the foredeep, which deepens and may eventually become filled, (2) widespread exhumation of the fold,thrust belt, (3) reduced rates of frontal thrust propagation and possible attainment of a steady-state orogen width and (4) change in the style and dynamics of deformation. Together, these effects indicate that erosion and sedimentation, rather than passively responding to tectonics, play an active and dynamic role in the development of fold,thrust belts and foreland basins. Results demonstrate that regional differences in the relative rates of surface processes (e.g. because of different climatic settings) may lead to fold,thrust belts and foreland basins with markedly different characteristics. Results also imply that variations in the efficiency of surface processes through time (e.g., because of climate change or the emergence of orogens above sea level) may cause major temporal changes in orogen and basin dynamics. [source]

Oil and Gas Accumulation in the Foreland Basins, Central and Western China

Abstract: Foreland basin represents one of the most important hydrocarbon habitats in central and western China. To distinguish these foreland basins regionally, and according to the need of petroleum exploration and favorable exploration areas, the foreland basins in central and western China can be divided into three structural types: superimposed, retrogressive and reformative foreland basin (or thrust belt), each with distinctive petroleum system characteristics in their petroleum system components (such as the source rock, reservoir rock, caprock, time of oil and gas accumulation, the remolding of oil/gas reservoir after accumulation, and the favorable exploration area, etc.). The superimposed type foreland basins, as exemplified by the Kuqa Depression of the Tarim Basin, characterized by two stages of early and late foreland basin development, typically contain at least two hydrocarbon source beds, one deposited in the early foreland development and another in the later fault-trough lake stage. Hydrocarbon accumulations in this type of foreland basin often occur in multiple stages of the basin development, though most of the highly productive pools were formed during the late stage of hydrocarbon migration and entrapment (Himalayan period). This is in sharp contrast to the retrogressive foreland basins (only developing foreland basin during the Permian to Triassic) such as the western Sichuan Basin, where prolific hydrocarbon source rocks are associated with sediments deposited during the early stages of the foreland basin development. As a result, hydrocarbon accumulations in retrogressive foreland basins occur mainly in the early stage of basin evolution. The reformative foreland basins (only developing foreland basin during the Himalayan period) such as the northern Qaidam Basin, in contrast, contain organic-rich, lacustrine source rocks deposited only in fault-trough lake basins occurring prior to the reformative foreland development during the late Cenozoic, with hydrocarbon accumulations taking place relatively late (Himalayan period). Therefore, the ultimate hydrocarbon potentials in the three types of foreland basins are largely determined by the extent of spatial and temporal matching among the thrust belts, hydrocarbon source kitchens, and regional and local caprocks. [source]