Basin Centre (basin + centre)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Sedimentary and faunal events revealed by a revised correlation of post-glacial Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) strata in the Welsh Basin, UK

Jeremy R. Davies
Abstract The discovery of a previously unrecognized unconformity and of new faunas in the type Llandovery area underpins a revised correlation of Hirnantian strata in mid Wales. This has revealed the sedimentary and faunal events which affected the Lower Palaeozoic Welsh Basin during the global rise in sea level that followed the end-Ordovician glacial maximum and has allowed their interpretation in the context of local and global influences. In peri-basinal shelfal settings the onset of post-glacial deepening is recorded by an unfossiliferous, transgressive shoreface sequence (Cwm Clyd Sandstone and Garth House formations) which rests unconformably on Rawtheyan rocks, deformed during an episode of pre-Hirnantian tectonism. In the deep water facies of the basin centre, this same sequence boundary is now recognized as the contact between fine-grained, re-sedimented mudstones and an underlying regressive sequence of turbidite sandstones and conglomerates; it is at a level lower than previously cited and calls into question the established lithostratigraphy. In younger Hirnantian strata, graptolites associated with the newly recognized Ystradwalter Member (Chwefri Formation) demonstrate that this distal shelf unit correlates with the persculptus graptolite-bearing Mottled Mudstone Member of the basinal succession. Together these members record an important macrofaunal recolonization of the Welsh Basin and mark a key event in the post-glacial transgression. Further deepening saw the establishment of a stratified water column and the imposition of anoxic bottom water conditions across the basin floor. These post-glacial Hirnantian events are consistent with the re-establishment of connections between a silled Welsh Basin and the open Iapetus Ocean. However, a comparison with other areas suggests that each event records a separate deepening episode within a pulsed glacio-eustatic transgression, while also reflecting changes in post-glacial climate and patterns of oceanic circulation and associated biotic flux. British Geological Survey NERC 2009. All rights reserved. [source]

Mudstone compaction curves in basin modelling: a study of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Sediments in the northern North Sea

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2010
. Marcussen
ABSTRACT Basin modelling studies are carried out in order to understand the basin evolution and palaeotemperature history of sedimentary basins. The results of basin modelling are sensitive to changes in the physical properties of the rocks in the sedimentary sequences. The rate of basin subsidence depends, to a large extent, on the density of the sedimentary column, which is largely dependent on the porosity and therefore on the rate of compaction. This study has tested the sensitivity of varying porosity/depth curves and related thermal conductivities for the Cenozoic succession along a cross-section in the northern North Sea basin, offshore Norway. End-member porosity/depth curves, assuming clay with smectite and kaolinite properties, are compared with a standard compaction curve for shale normally applied to the North Sea. Using these alternate relationships, basin geometries of the Cenozoic succession may vary up to 15% from those predicted using the standard compaction curve. Isostatic subsidence along the cross-section varies 2.3,4.6% between the two end-member cases. This leads to a 3,8% difference in tectonic subsidence, with maximum values in the basin centre. Owing to this, the estimated stretching factors vary up to 7.8%, which further gives rise to a maximum difference in heat flow of more than 8.5% in the basin centre. The modelled temperatures for an Upper Jurassic source rock show a deviation of more than 20 C at present dependent on the thermal conductivity properties in the post-rift succession. This will influence the modelled hydrocarbon generation history of the basin, which is an essential output from basin modelling analysis. Results from the northern North Sea have shown that varying compaction trends in sediments with varying thermal properties are important parameters to constrain when analysing sedimentary basins. [source]

The stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Dzereg Basin, western Mongolia: clastic sedimentation, transpressional faulting and basin destruction in an intraplate, intracontinental setting

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 1 2003
J. P. Howard
ABSTRACT The Dzereg Basin is an actively evolving intracontinental basin in the Altai region of western Mongolia. The basin is sandwiched between two transpressional ranges, which occur at the termination zones of two regional-scale dextral strike-slip fault systems. The basin contains distinct Upper Mesozoic and Cenozoic stratigraphic sequences that are separated by an angular unconformity, which represents a regionally correlative peneplanation surface. Mesozoic strata are characterized by northwest and south,southeast-derived thick clast-supported conglomerates (Jurassic) overlain by fine-grained lacustrine and alluvial deposits containing few fluvial channels (Cretaceous). Cenozoic deposits consist of dominantly alluvial fan and fluvial sediments shed from adjacent mountain ranges during the Oligocene,Holocene. The basin is still receiving sediment today, but is actively deforming and closing. Outwardly propagating thrust faults bound the ranges, whereas within the basin, active folding and thrusting occurs within two marginal deforming belts. Consequently, active fan deposition has shifted towards the basin centre with time, and previously deposited sediment has been uplifted, eroded and redeposited, leading to complex facies architecture. The geometry of folds and faults within the basin and the distribution of Mesozoic sediments suggest that the basin formed as a series of extensional half-grabens in the Jurassic,Cretaceous which have been transpressionally reactivated by normal fault inversion in the Tertiary. Other clastic basins in the region may therefore also be inherited Mesozoic depocentres. The Dzereg Basin is a world class laboratory for studying competing processes of uplift, deformation, erosion, sedimentation and depocentre migration in an actively forming intracontinental transpressional basin. [source]

Carbonate sedimentation in a starved pull-apart basin, Middle to Late Devonian, southern Guilin, South China

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2001
D. Chen
ABSTRACT Geological mapping and sedimentological investigations in the Guilin region, South China, have revealed a spindle- to rhomb-shaped basin filled with Devonian shallow- to deep-water carbonates. This Yangshuo Basin is interpreted as a pull-apart basin created through secondary, synthetic strike-slip faulting induced by major NNE,SSW-trending, sinistral strike-slip fault zones. These fault zones were initially reactivated along intracontinental basement faults in the course of northward migration of the South China continent. The nearly N,S-trending margins of the Yangshuo Basin, approximately coinciding with the strike of regional fault zones, were related to the master strike-slip faults; the NW,SE-trending margins were related to parallel, oblique-slip extensional faults. Nine depositional sequences recognized in Givetian through Frasnian strata can be grouped into three sequence sets (Sequences 1,2, 3,5 and 6,9), reflecting three major phases of basin evolution. During basin nucleation, most basin margins were dominated by stromatoporoid biostromes and bioherms, upon a low-gradient shelf. Only at the steep, fault-controlled, eastern margin were thick stromatoporoid reefs developed. The subsequent progressive offset and pull-apart of the master strike-slip faults during the late Givetian intensified the differential subsidence and produced a spindle-shaped basin. The accelerated subsidence of the basin centre led to sediment starvation, reduced current circulation and increased environmental stress, leading to the extensive development of microbial buildups on platform margins and laminites in the basin centre. Stromatoporoid reefs only survived along the windward, eastern margin for a short time. The architectures of the basin margins varied from aggradation (or slightly backstepping) in windward positions (eastern and northern margins) to moderate progradation in leeward positions. A relay ramp was present in the north-west corner between the northern oblique fault zone and the proximal part of the western master fault. In the latest Givetian (corresponding to the top of Sequence 5), a sudden subsidence of the basin induced by further offset of the strike-slip faults was accompanied by the rapid uplift of surrounding carbonate platforms, causing considerable platform-margin collapse, slope erosion, basin deepening and the demise of the microbialites. Afterwards, stromatoporoid reefs were only locally restored on topographic highs along the windward margin. However, a subsequent, more intense basin subsidence in the early Frasnian (top of Sequence 6), which was accompanied by a further sharp uplift of platforms, caused more profound slope erosion and platform backstepping. Poor circulation and oxygen-depleted waters in the now much deeper basin centre led to the deposition of chert, with silica supplied by hydrothermal fluids through deep-seated faults. Two ,subdeeps' were diagonally arranged in the distal parts of the master faults, and the relay ramp was destroyed. At this time, all basin margins except the western one evolved into erosional types with gullies through which granular platform sediments were transported by gravity flows to the basin. This situation persisted into the latest Frasnian. This case history shows that the carbonate platform architecture and evolution in a pull-apart basin were not only strongly controlled by the tectonic activity, but also influenced by the oceanographic setting (i.e. windward vs. leeward) and environmental factors. [source]