Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Back to Basics: The Subcutaneous Island Pedicle Flap

Janie M. Leonhardt MD
Background. Optimal aesthetic reconstruction of cutaneous defects following excisional surgery is largely dependent on the availability of regional donor tissue that shares a likeness of the original tissue in color, texture, sebaceous quality, and thickness. The island pedicle flap is a useful tool in facial reconstruction because it minimizes regional anatomic distortion and optimizes tissue match. Objective. The objective was to review four locations where the island pedicle flap is a well-suited closure tool. Methods. We review flap planning and specific modifications of the island pedicle flap at four sites of closure, reinforcing its role as an important tool in facial reconstruction. Results. Through careful planning and implementation, the island pedicle flap may be used on the nasal tip, the nasal ala, the upper cheek, and the upper lip for closures with much success. Conclusion. The island pedicle flap remains an important tool in the armamentarium for surgeons in the repair of facial defects. [source]

Basics of F-theory from the Type IIB perspective

R. Blumenhagen
These short lecture notes provide an introduction to some basic notions of F-theory with some special emphasis on its relation to Type IIB orientifolds with O7/O3-planes. [source]

Basics of M-theory

A. Miemiec
Abstract This is a review article of eleven dimensional supergravity in which we present all necessary calculations, namely the Noether procedure, the equations of motion (without neglecting the fermions), the Killing spinor equation, as well as some simple and less simple supersymmetric solutions to this theory. All calculations are printed in much detail and with explicit comments as to how they were done. Also contained is a simple approach to Clifford algebras to prepare the grounds for the harder calculations in spin space and Fierz identities. [source]

Back to Basics: Diuretics as First-Line Agents in the Treatment of Hypertension

Vanessa J. Mandal MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

The Pacemaker Current: From Basics to the Clinics

Activation of the pacemaker ("funny," If) current during diastole is the main process underlying generation of the diastolic depolarization and spontaneous activity of cardiac pacemaker cells. If modulation by autonomic transmitters is responsible for the chronotropic regulation of heart rate. Given its role in pacemaking, If has been a major target of investigation aimed to exploit its rate-controlling function in a clinical perspective. In this short review, we describe some of the most recent clinically relevant applications of the concept of If -based pacemaking. [source]

The information-processing approach to the human mind: Basics and beyond

Daniel David
Cognitive psychology attempts to understand the nature of the human mind by using the information-processing approach. In this article, the fundamentals of the cognitive approach will be presented. It will be argued that the human mind can be described at three levels,computational, algorithmic,representational, and implementational,and that the cognitive approach has both important theoretical and practical/clinical implications. Finally, it will be suggested that the study of cognitive psychology can provide a foundation for other fields of social science, including the field of clinical psychology. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol. [source]

Back to Basics: The evidence for reducing the pain of administration of local anesthesia and cosmetic injectables

Kajal Babamiri MD
Summary Administration of injections, whether local anesthetic or cosmetic injectable, can result in significant distress and discomfort to patients. This review explores factors that can alleviate anxiety and pain associated with injections including cosmetic injectables. We highlight that many techniques used to reduce pain have only been reported based on anecdotal evidence and small series. The techniques that have been reported to reduce pain, by randomized controlled trials, include pretreatment with topical local anesthetic agents and combined cosmetic injectables with local anesthetics. [source]

Basics and applications of solid-state kinetics: A pharmaceutical perspective,

Ammar Khawam
Abstract Most solid-state kinetic principles were derived from those for homogenous phases in the past century. Rate laws describing solid-state degradation are more complex than those in homogenous phases. Solid-state kinetic reactions can be mechanistically classified as nucleation, geometrical contraction, diffusion, and reaction order models. Experimentally, solid-state kinetics is studied either isothermally or nonisothermally. Many mathematical methods have been developed to interpret experimental data for both heating protocols. These methods generally fall into one of two categories: model-fitting and model-free. Controversies have arisen with regard to interpreting solid-state kinetic results, which include variable activation energy, calculation methods, and kinetic compensation effects. Solid-state kinetic studies have appeared in the pharmaceutical literature over many years; some of the more recent ones are discussed in this review. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 95:472,498, 2006 [source]

Diagnosis of DIG in Cats: Is It Time to Go Back to the Basics?

Tracy Stokol
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Spin dynamics: Basics of nuclear magnetic resonance, second edition.

Malcolm H. Levitt.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

,Proteomic Basics , Sample Preparation and Separation': The 1st European Summer School in Kloster Neustift 12,18 August, 2007 Brixen/Bressanone, South Tyrol, Italy

Katrin Marcus Dr.
Abstract Proteomics is rapidly developing into a routine approach for protein analysis in many laboratories. The series of European-wide Summer Schools ,Proteomics Basics' ( aims at teaching of comprehensive knowledge in proteomics research and applied technologies for master and graduate students and postdocs currently moving into the field of proteomic research. In the next 3,years the series will cover the theoretical basis of the fundamental topics in the various areas of proteomic analysis, i.e. sample preparation and handling, mass spectrometry, post-translational modifications and quantitation given by leading experts in the field. This summer school series embodies a unique advantage in comparison with conventional scientific meetings and university curricula: internationally renowned experts will give a detailed perspective view of the fundamentals of their particular proteome research area, something which is usually not encountered at conferences and congresses. Here, we give a report on the first European Summer School ,Sample Preparation and Handling' within the series ,Proteomic Basics' that was held at the monastery in Neustift close to Bressanone/Brixen, Italy from August 12 to 18, 2007. [source]

DIN 1052:2008-12 Neue Grundlagen für Entwurf, Berechnung und Bemessung von Holzbauwerken , Teil 5 (2): Aussteifungen von Holztragwerken (Fortsetzung aus Heft 7/09 und Schluss)

BAUTECHNIK, Issue 8 2009
Karin Lißner Dr.-Ing.
Holzbau; Timber Construction Abstract Es werden die Grundlagen zur Aussteifung von Holztragwerken dargelegt und an Beispielen erläutert. DIN 1052:2008-12 , New basics for design, calculation and dimensioning of timber structures, Part 5 (2): Construction of bracing in wooden structures. Basics of bracing in wooden structures are given and amplified by several examples. (Continuation of part 5 (1), number 7/09) [source]

Feuchtetransport in Bauteilen aus wasserundurchlässigem Beton: Grundlagen und Praxisbetrachtungen

Udo Wiens Dr.-Ing.
Bei WU-Konstruktionen übernimmt der Beton neben seiner tragenden auch eine abdichtende Funktion. Eine flächenförmige Hautabdichtung entfällt. Die Eigenschaft der Wasserundurchlässigkeit kann hierbei als zusätzliche Gebrauchstauglichkeitseigenschaft gesehen werden. Eine sehr häufig auftretende Fragestellung ist, ob trotz im Erdreich vorhandener Bodenfeuchte oder anstehendem Wasser sowie der im Beton enthaltenen Baufeuchte trockene Innenräume erreichbar sind. Zur Beantwortung der Fragen wurden Untersuchungen mit einem bauphysikalischen Rechenprogramm durchgeführt. Wichtige Eingangsgrößen für das Rechenprogramm wurden an Laborversuchen kalibriert. Ein Vergleich von Baufeuchte zu abführbarer Feuchte durch Lüften und zu nutzungsbedingter Feuchte wird vorgenommen. Moisture Transport in Components made of Water-Tight Concrete Basics and Practical Considerations In water-tight constructions, the concrete takes charge of a sealing function beside a load bearing function. A skin-sealing on the surface is not necessary. The property of water-tightness can be seen herewith as additional serviceability-property. A very often occurring question is, whether despite the in soil appearing ground-humidity or the upcoming water and the in concrete existing building moisture, dry interior rooms are achievable. To give answer to the questions, examinations by the help of a building physical calculation programme were carried out. Essential input parameters were calibrated in laboratory tests. A comparison of the inherent material moisture to the removable humidity by ventilation and to the humidity caused by using is given. [source]

Buchbesprechung: Corrosion Basics , An Introduction.

Von P. R. Roberge.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Addressing Central Nervous System (CNS) Penetration in Drug Discovery: Basics and Implications of the Evolving New Concept

Andreas Reichel
Abstract Despite enormous efforts, achieving a safe and efficacious concentration profile in the brain remains one of the big challenges in central nervous system (CNS) drug discovery and development. Although there are multiple reasons, many failures are due to underestimating the complexity of the brain, also in terms of pharmacokinetics (PK). To this day, PK support of CNS drug discovery heavily relies on improving the blood,brain barrier (BBB) permeability in vitro and/or the brain/plasma ratio (Kp) in vivo, even though neither parameter can be reliably linked to pharmacodynamic (PD) and efficacy readouts. While increasing BBB permeability may shorten the onset of drug action, an increase in the total amount in brain may not necessarily increase the relevant drug concentration at the pharmacological target. Since the traditional Kp ratio is based on a crude homogenization of brain tissue, it ignores the compartmentalization of the brain and an increase favors non-specific binding to brain lipids rather than free drug levels. To better link exposure/PK to efficacy/PD and to delineate key parameters, an integrated approach to CNS drug discovery is emerging which distinguishes total from unbound brain concentrations. As the complex nature of the brain requires different compartments to be considered when trying to understand and improve new compounds, several complementary parameters need to be measured in vitro and in vivo, and integrated into a coherent model of brain penetration and distribution. The new paradigm thus concentrates on finding drug candidates with the right balance between free fraction in plasma and brain, and between rate and extent of CNS penetration. Integrating this data into a coherent model of CNS distribution which can be linked to efficacy will allow it to design compounds with an optimal mix in physicochemical, pharmacologic, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately mitigating the risk for failures in the clinic. [source]

,Proteomic Basics , Sample Preparation and Separation': The 1st European Summer School in Kloster Neustift 12,18 August, 2007 Brixen/Bressanone, South Tyrol, Italy

Katrin Marcus Dr.
Abstract Proteomics is rapidly developing into a routine approach for protein analysis in many laboratories. The series of European-wide Summer Schools ,Proteomics Basics' ( aims at teaching of comprehensive knowledge in proteomics research and applied technologies for master and graduate students and postdocs currently moving into the field of proteomic research. In the next 3,years the series will cover the theoretical basis of the fundamental topics in the various areas of proteomic analysis, i.e. sample preparation and handling, mass spectrometry, post-translational modifications and quantitation given by leading experts in the field. This summer school series embodies a unique advantage in comparison with conventional scientific meetings and university curricula: internationally renowned experts will give a detailed perspective view of the fundamentals of their particular proteome research area, something which is usually not encountered at conferences and congresses. Here, we give a report on the first European Summer School ,Sample Preparation and Handling' within the series ,Proteomic Basics' that was held at the monastery in Neustift close to Bressanone/Brixen, Italy from August 12 to 18, 2007. [source]

The 1st European Summer School on ,Proteomic Basics' , The Students View 12,18 August, 2007 Kloster Neustift, Brixen/Bressanone, South Tyrol, Italy

Emily S. Collins Dr.
Abstract Fifty postgraduate and postdoctoral delegates from all over Europe attended the week-long ,1st European Summer School on Proteomic Basics' in Kloster Neustift in the Italian South Tyrol in August 2007. Invited proteomics experts gave tutorial lectures on Proteomics techniques with an emphasis on sample preparation, protein separation and purification in the first of an annual series of Proteomics Summer Schools funded by the EU and the Volkswagen Stiftung. [source]

Framing French Success in Elementary Mathematics: Policy, Curriculum, and Pedagogy

ABSTRACT For many decades Americans have been concerned about the effective teaching of mathematics, and educational and political leaders have often advocated reforms such as a return to the basics and strict accountability systems as the way to improve mathematical achievement. International studies, however, suggest that such reforms may not be the best path to successful mathematics education. Through this qualitative case study, the authors explore in depth the French approach to teaching elementary mathematics, using interviews, classroom observations, and documents as their data sets. They apply three theoretical frameworks to their data and find that the French use large-group instruction and a visible pedagogy, focusing on the discussion of mathematical concepts rather than on the completion of practice exercises. The national curriculum is relatively nonprescriptive, and teachers are somewhat empowered through site-based management. The authors conclude that the keys to French success with mathematics education are ongoing formative assessment, mathematically competent teachers, policies and practices that help disadvantaged children, and the use of constructivist methods. They urge comparative education researchers to look beyond international test scores to deeper issues of policy and practice. [source]

Long-term care dermatology

Robert A. Norman
ABSTRACT:, Long-term care dermatology is a growing specialty, serving a U.S. population of over 2.7 million patients. Included here is an overview of the medical and administrative structures of extended care facilities, basics of nursing home management, risk assessment tools, and treatment recommendations. [source]

The Modified Atkins Diet

EPILEPSIA, Issue 2008
Eric H. Kossoff
Summary In 2003, a case series was published describing the benefits of a less restrictive ketogenic diet (KD) started as an outpatient without a fast and without any restrictions on calories, fluids, or protein. This "Modified Atkins Diet" (MAD) restricts carbohydrates to 10 g/day (15 g/day in adults) while encouraging high fat foods. Now 5 years later, there have been eight prospective and retrospective studies published on this alternative dietary therapy, both in children as well as adults. In these reports, 45 (45%) have had 50,90% seizure reduction, and 28 (28%) >90% seizure reduction, which is remarkably similar to the traditional KD. This review will discuss basics and tips to best provide the MAD, evidence for its efficacy, suggestions about the role of ketosis in dietary treatment efficacy, and its side effect profile. Lastly, the possible future benefits of this treatment for new-onset seizures, adults, neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, and developing countries of the world will be discussed. [source]

Drinking volume and patterns: back to basics

ADDICTION, Issue 7 2005
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Culture, Charisma, and Consciousness: The Case of the Rajneeshee

ETHOS, Issue 4 2002
Professor Charles Lindholm
This article outlines the basics of a theory of charisma drawn from a synthesis of the classic texts of Weber, Marx, and Freud. This abstract theoretical perspective is then applied to an analysis of the charismatic religious cult led by Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh. Emphasis is placed on the methods used to inculcate loyalty infollowers and on the personal history and psychic capacities of the leader. [source]

Quantitative Chemical Mapping of Relevant Trace Elements at Biomaterials/Biological Media Interfaces by Ion Beam Methods

Edouard Jallot
The definition of biomaterial as proposed by the European Society for Biomaterials in 1986 puts forward the overall importance of the notion of contact between the biomaterial and biological medium (cell, tissue, fluid,,). The underlying concept of biocompatibility makes the interface between biomaterial and biological medium a privileged zone of interest. In this paper, we would like to give an exhaustive view of how ion beams techniques can contribute to a better understanding of such interface taking several examples dealing with bone tissue substitution. After a short presentation of ion beams techniques the paper will focus on PIXE/RBS spectroscopies and will give the basics of these coupled technique. Three examples will then be presented to illustrate the interest of these techniques to study biomaterials/biological interactions. The first example deals with metallic alloys based joint prostheses. The ionic release from the prosthesis and the wear behavior of total knee prostheses will be presented. In the last two examples, bioactive materials will be studied. The common characteristic of bioactive ceramics is the kinetic modification of their surface upon interaction which is ideally monitored by PIXE chemical mapping. The second example will review the benefit of using PIXE/RBS technique to study the effect of doping of bioactive glasses on the very first steps involved in the bioactivity mechanisms like dissolution, ionic release, and biomineralization onto the surface of the glasses. Finally, protein delivery systems based upon mesoporous hydroxyapatites will be studied. Chemical mapping allowing the quantitative determination of protein distribution inside the HAp grains will be presented for the first time. [source]

Quantitative Phase Field Modeling of Precipitation Processes,

Q. Bronchard
Phase Field modelling of microstructural evolution in alloys has already a long and successful history. One of the basics of the theory is the introduction of continuous fields (concentration, long-range order parameters) that describe the local state of the alloy. These fields have a meaning only at a mesoscopic scale. One consequence is that we can treat much larger systems than with microscopic methods such as Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics simulations. The aim of this work is to precisely analyse the status of the mesoscopic free energy densities that are used in Phase Field theories and, simultaneously, to clarify the form that the Phase Field equations should adopt. [source]

Gauge/string duality in confining theories

J.D. Edelstein
Abstract This is the content of a set of lectures given at the "XIII Jorge André Swieca Summer School on Particles and Fields", Campos do Jordão, Brazil in January 2005. They intend to be a basic introduction to the topic of gauge/gravity duality in confining theories. We start by reviewing some key aspects of the low energy physics of non-Abelian gauge theories. Then, we present the basics of the AdS/CFT correspondence and its extension both to gauge theories in different spacetime dimensions with sixteen supercharges and to more realistic situations with less supersymmetry. We discuss the different options of interest: placing D,branes at singularities and wrapping D,branes in calibrated cycles of special holonomy manifolds. We finally present an outline of a number of non-perturbative phenomena in non-Abelian gauge theories as seen from supergravity. [source]

Teaching and Learning Guide for: Memoryscape: How Audio Walks Can Deepen Our Sense of Place by Integrating Art, Oral History and Cultural Geography

Toby Butler
Author's Introduction This article is concerned with the history and practice of creating sound walks or ,memoryscapes': outdoor trails that use recorded sound and spoken memory played on a personal stereo or mobile media to experience places in new ways. It is now possible to cheaply and easily create this and other kinds of located media experience. The development of multi-sensory-located media (,locedia') presents some exciting opportunities for those concerned with place, local history, cultural geography and oral history. This article uses work from several different disciplines (music, sound art, oral history and cultural geography) as a starting point to exploring some early and recent examples of locedia practice. It also suggests how it might give us a more sophisticated, real, embodied and nuanced experience of places that the written word just can not deliver. Yet, there are considerable challenges in producing and experiencing such work. Academics used to writing must learn to work in sound and view or image; they must navigate difficult issues of privacy, consider the power relations of the outsider's ,gaze' and make decisions about the representation of places in work that local people may try and have strong feelings about. Creating such work is an active, multi-sensory and profoundly challenging experience that can offer students the chance to master multi-media skills as well as apply theoretical understandings of the histories and geographies of place. Author Recommends 1.,Perks, R., and Thomson, A. (2006). The oral history reader, 2nd ed. London: Routledge. This is a wonderful collection of significant writing concerned with oral history. Part IV, Making Histories features much of interest, including a thought-provoking paper on the challenges of authoring in sound rather than print by Charles Hardy III, and a moving interview with Graeme Miller, the artist who created the Linked walk mentioned in the memoryscape article. These only feature in the second edition. 2.,Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: a short introduction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. A refreshingly clear and well-written guide to the different theoretical takes on what makes places , a good starting point for further reading. 3.,Carlyle, A. (ed.). (2008). Autumn leaves: sound and the environment in artistic practice. Paris, France: Double Entendre. This is a collection of short essays and examples of located sonic media art; it includes interviews with practitioners and includes Hildegard Westekamp's Soundwalking, a practical guide to leading students on a mute walk. Lots of thought provoking, applied reading material for students here. 4.,Blunt, A., et al. (eds) (2003). Cultural geography in practice. London: Arnold. A great book for undergraduate and postgraduate students , concepts explained and lots of examples of actually doing cultural geography. The chapter on mapping worlds by David Pinder is particularly useful in this context. 5.,Pinder, D. (2001). Ghostly footsteps: voices, memories and walks in the city. Ecumene 8 (1), pp. 1,19. This article is a thoughtful analysis of a Janet Cardiff sound walk in Whitechapel, East London. Online Materials This is my project website, which features two online trails, Dockers which explores Greenwich and the memories of the London Docks that are archived in the Museum of London, and Drifting which is a rather strange experiment-combining physical geography and oral history along the Thames at Hampton Court, but still makes for an interesting trail. Audio, maps and trails can be downloaded for free, so students with phones or iPods can try the trails if you are within reach of Surrey or London. The site features an online version, with sound-accompanying photographs of the location. This website has three more trails here, this time of the communities surrounding the Royal Docks in East London. The scenery here is very dramatic and anyone interested in the regeneration of East London and its impact on local communities will find these trails interesting. Like Dockers, the walks feature a lot of rare archive interviews. This project involved a great deal of community interaction and participation as I experimented with trying to get people involved with the trail-making process. The site uses Google maps for online delivery. This New York-based firm creates exceptionally high-quality soundwalks, and they are well worth the money. They started by producing trails for different districts of New York (I recommend the Bronx Graffiti trail) and have recently made trails for other cities, like Paris and Varanassi in India. This website is run by Hewlett Packard, which has a long history of research and development in located media applications. They currently give free licence to use their mscape software which is a relatively easy to learn way of creating global positioning system-triggered content. The big problem is that you have to have a pricey phone or personal digital assistant to run the software, which makes group work prohibitively expensive. But equipment prices are coming down and with the new generations of mobile phones developers believe that the time when the player technology is ubiquitous might be near. And if you ask nicely HP will lend out sets of equipment for teaching or events , fantastic if you are working within reach of Bristol. See also which has advice and examples of how mscape software has been used for teaching children. Sample Syllabus public geography: making memoryscapes This course unit could be adapted to different disciplines, or offered as a multidisciplinary unit to students from different disciplines. It gives students a grounding in several multi-media techniques and may require support/tuition from technical staff. 1.,Introduction What is a located mediascape, now and in the future? Use examples from resources above. 2.,Cultural geographies of site-specific art and sound Theories of place; experiments in mapping and site-specific performance. 3.,Walk activity: Westergard Hildekamp , sound walk, or one of the trails mentioned above The best way , and perhaps the only way , to really appreciate located media is to try one in the location they have been designed to be experienced. I would strongly advise any teaching in this field to include outdoor, on-site experiences. Even if you are out of reach of a mediascape experience, taking students on a sound walk can happen anywhere. See Autumn Leaves reference above. 4.,Researching local history An introduction to discovering historical information about places could be held at a local archive and a talk given by the archivist. 5.,Creating located multimedia using Google maps/Google earth A practical exercise-based session going through the basics of navigating Google maps, creating points and routes, and how to link pictures and sound files. 6.,Recording sound and oral history interviews A practical introduction to the techniques of qualitative interviewing and sound recording. There are lots of useful online guides to oral history recording, for example, an online oral history primer; a more in depth guide to various aspects of oral history or this simple oral history toolkit, with useful links to project in the North of England 7.,Sound editing skills Practical editing techniques including working with clips, editing sound and creating multi-track recordings. The freeware software Audacity is simple to use and there are a lot of online tutorials that cover the basics, for example, 8.,Web page design and Google maps How to create a basic web page (placing pictures, text, hyperlinks, buttons) using design software (e.g. Dreamweaver). How to embed a Google map and add information points and routes. There is a great deal of online tutorials for web design, specific to the software you wish to use and Google maps can be used and embedded on websites free for non-profit use. 9,and 10. Individual or group project work (staff available for technical support) 11.,Presentations/reflection on practice Focus Questions 1What can sound tell us about the geographies of places? 2When you walk through a landscape, what traces of the past can be sensed? Now think about which elements of the past have been obliterated? Whose past has been silenced? Why? How could it be put back? 3Think of a personal or family story that is significant to you. In your imagination, locate the memory at a specific place. Tell a fellow student that story, and describe that place. Does it matter where it happened? How has thinking about that place made you feel? 4What happens when you present a memory of the past or a located vision of the future in a present landscape? How is this different to, say, writing about it in a book? 5Consider the area of this campus, or the streets immediately surrounding this building. Imagine this place in one of the following periods (each group picks one): ,,10,000 years ago ,,500 years ago ,,100 years ago ,,40 years ago ,,last Thursday ,,50 years time What sounds, voices, stories or images could help convey your interpretation of this place at that time? What would the visitor hear or see today at different points on a trail? Sketch out an outline map of a located media trail, and annotate with what you hear/see/sense at different places. Project Idea small group project: creating a located mediascape Each small group must create a located media experience, reflecting an aspect of the history/geography/culture of an area of their choosing, using the knowledge that they have acquired over the course of the semester. The experience may be as creative and imaginative as you wish, and may explore the past, present or future , or elements of each. Each group must: ,,identify an area of interest ,,research an aspect of the area of the groups choosing; this may involve visiting local archives, libraries, discussing the idea with local people, physically exploring the area ,,take photographs, video or decide on imagery (if necessary) ,,record sound, conduct interviews or script and record narration ,,design a route or matrix of media points The final project must be presented on a website, may embed Google maps, and a presentation created to allow the class to experience the mediascape (either in the classroom or on location, if convenient). The website should include a brief theoretical and methodological explanation of the basis of their interpretation. If the group cannot be supported with tuition and support in basic website design or using Google mapping with sound and imagery, a paper map with locations and a CD containing sound files/images might be submitted instead. For examples of web projects created by masters degree students of cultural geography at Royal Holloway (not all sound based) see [source]

Proceedings of the Tunnel Day 2008

Article first published online: 20 FEB 200
Abstract The construction of the first tube of the Tauern tunnels in the years 1970 to 1975 was a milestone in the development of the NATM and of modern tunnelling. The driving of the second tube of the Tauern tunnel between 2006 and 2008 has shown that the basics of the NATM are still valid (see pages 14 ff and 24 ff). Der Bau der ersten Röhre des Tauerntunnels Anfang von 1970 bis 1975 war ein Meilenstein in der Entwicklung der NÖT und des modernen Tunnelbaus. Der Vortrieb der zweiten Röhre des Tauerntunnels von 2006 bis 2008 hat gezeigt, dass die Grundsätze der NÖT unverändert ihre Gültigkeit haben (siehe Seite 14 ff und 24 ff.). [source]

How do hydraulic vibrators work?

A look inside the black box
ABSTRACT In order to have realistic expectations of what output is achievable from a seismic vibrator, an understanding of the machine's limitations is essential. This tutorial is intended to provide some basics on how hydraulic vibrators function and the constraints that arise from their design. With these constraints in mind, informed choices can be made to match machine specifications to a particular application or sweeps can be designed to compensate for performance limits. [source]

Survey ranking of job competencies by perceived employee importance: Comparing China's three regions

Jin Xiao
The acquisition of skills that match job requirements has become an issue in human resource development. A uniform but vague list of desirable skills often provided by policymakers or advocated by scholars is used as a guide in education and training programs in China. Using survey data, this study analyzes the core skills that workforces in China consider to be important in carrying out job routines in different jobs, different industries, and different geographical regions. This study surveyed 25,933 employees from 397 randomly sampled firms of four counties in each of the East, Central, and West regions of China. Twenty kinds of job skills were deduced from interviews conducted in the field. Five categories of skills were identified by the employees: dispositional characteristics, technical know-how skills, job basics, problem solving, and communication. Using a hierarchical model, the analysis is focused on whether employees in different occupations ( for example, managerial, professional, salesperson, frontline workers) had different perceptions of required job skills. The results show both differences related to occupation and work experience and similarities in perceived job competencies among industries and across three regions. [source]

Back to basics: Learning about employee energy and motivation from running on my treadmill

Theresa M. Welbourne
Abstract In an effort to understand how to optimize employee energy at work, we borrow from the sports physiology literature to develop and test several concepts that have now been used in more than 75 large and small organizations (e.g., automobile firms, banks, hospitals, manufacturing, high technology, service businesses, financial services, and more). Our focus on employee energy led us to develop new measures and processes for our research. The resulting studies presented in this article test two hypotheses focusing on the link between employee energy, turnover, job performance, and job satisfaction. Consistent with what we know about athletic performance, we found that energy is an optimization construct and that variation in employee energy at work has detrimental consequences for performance and satisfaction. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]