Basic Values (basic + value)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The patient's vulnerability, dependence and exposed situation in the discharge process: experiences of district nurses, geriatric nurses and social workers

IngBritt Rydeman MSc
Aim., The aim of the study was to obtain a deeper understanding of the experiences of the discharge process among different professionals. Background., An optimal discharge process for hospitalized elderly to other forms of care is of crucial importance, especially since health and medical policies encourages shorter hospital stays and increased healthcare service in outpatient care. Methods., Nurses and social workers from inpatient care, outpatient care, municipal care and social services were interviewed. Eight focus-group interviews with a total of 31 persons were conducted. The subsequent analyses followed a phenomenological approach. Results., The findings revealed three themes, Framework, Basic Values and Patient Resources, which influenced the professionals' actions in the discharge process. The overall emerging structure comprised the patient's vulnerability, dependence and exposed situation in the discharge process. Conclusion., In conclusion some factors are of special importance for the co-operation and the actions of professionals involved in the discharge process. Firstly, a distinct and common framework, with conscious and organizationally based values. Secondly the need to take the patient resources into consideration. Together these factors could contribute to secure the patients involvement in the discharge process and to design an optimal, safe and good care. Relevance to clinical practice:, Collaborative approaches among a range of professionals within a variety of organizations are common, especially in the care of the elderly. The role and support of both the organizations and the educational units are decisive factors in this area. [source]

Analytische Herleitung von Anforderungen an den Luftschallschutz zwischen Räumen

BAUPHYSIK, Issue 4 2009
Beratender Ingenieur VBI Wolfgang Moll Prof. Ing.
Schall; Technische Regelwerke; sound protection and acoustics; technical recommendations Abstract Vor dem Hintergrund der Auseinandersetzungen um die Höhe des Schallschutzes der zurzeit überarbeiteten DIN 4109 "Schallschutz im Hochbau" befasst sich der Autor kritisch mit der bisherigen Art der Festlegung bauakustischer Anforderungen. In Anbetracht der fehlenden physikalischen Legitimation dieser Anforderungen , früher an die Schalldämmwerte, jetzt an die Schallschutzwerte , schlägt der Verfasser die gezielte Berechnung der nachhallzeitbezogenen Schallschutzanforderungen vor, und zwar auf der Basis allgemein bekannter Ausgangsdaten, wie z. B. der Schallleistung der einzelnen Quellen, der Verdeckung durch den Grundpegel etc. Das Verfahren wird ausführlich erläutert und beispielhaft erklärt. Für die Abstufungen Mindestschallschutz, erhöhter Schallschutz, hoher Schallschutz werden Basiswerte vorgeschlagen, die dann in die gezielte Bestimmung der Anforderungsgrößen einfließen. Analytical derivation of requirements for airborne sound insulation between rooms. Against the background of the debate about sound protection levels in the current revision of DIN 4109 "Sound insulation in buildings" the author critically examines the existing methodology for determining acoustic requirements. In view of the lack of physical legitimation of these requirements , previously sound insulation values, now sound protection values , the author proposes targeted calculation of reverberation-related sound protection requirements based on generally known basic data, including the sound power levels of individual sources, masking through background noise, etc. The technique is explained in detail and illustrated by means of examples. Basic values are proposed for minimum sound protection, increased sound protection and high sound protection, which are then used for determining the requirements for individual parameters. [source]

Effects of temperature and sediment properties on benthic CO2 production in an oligotrophic boreal lake

Summary 1. Temperature and many other physical and chemical factors affecting CO2 production in lake sediments vary significantly both seasonally and spatially. The effects of temperature and sediment properties on benthic CO2 production were studied in in situ and in vitro experiments in the boreal oligotrophic Lake Pääjärvi, southern Finland. 2. In in situ experiments, temperature of the water overlying the shallow littoral sediment varied seasonally between 0.5 and 15.7 °C, but in deep water (,20 m) the range was only 1.1,6.6 °C. The same exponential model (r2 = 0.70) described the temperature dependence at 1.2, 10 and 20 m depths. At 2.5 and 5 m depths, however, the slopes of the two regression models (r2 = 0.94) were identical but the intercept values were different. Sediment properties (wet, dry, mineral and organic mass) varied seasonally and with depth, but they did not explain a significantly larger proportion of variation in the CO2 output rate than temperature. 3. In in vitro experiments, there was a clear and uniform exponential dependence of CO2 production on temperature, with a 2.7-fold increase per 10 °C temperature rise. The temperature response (slope of regression) was always the same, but the basic value of CO2 production (intercept) varied, indicating that other factors also contributed to the benthic CO2 output rate. 4. The annual CO2 production of the sediment in Lake Pääjärvi averaged 62 g CO2 m,2, the shallow littoral at 0,3 m depth releasing 114 g CO2 m,2 and deep profundal (>15 m) 30 g CO2 m,2. On the whole lake basis, the shallow littoral at 0,3 m depth accounted for 53% and the sediment area in contact with the summer epilimnion (down to a depth c. 10 m) 75% of the estimated total annual CO2 output of the lake sediment, respectively. Of the annual production, 83% was released during the spring and summer. 5. Using the temperature-CO2 production equations and climate change scenarios we estimated that climatic warming might increase littoral benthic CO2 production in summer by nearly 30% from the period 1961,90 to the period 2071,2100. [source]

A measurement-communication-recognition framework of corporate culture change: An empirical study

Kwai-Sang Chin
Company culture, consisting of a shared pattern of basic values, beliefs, and organizational assumptions, is widely accepted as a powerful force to drive performance-enhancing behavior in an organization. Changing a well-established culture is, however, a highly complex issue. It is thus very challenging to implement a new organizational culture. This article presents the measurement-communication-recognition (MCR) framework to manage culture changes in an organization. Ten cultural elements are strategically identified, whereas a four-stage approach of implementation methodology is proposed in the framework. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Cultivation and engineering of a software metrics program

Jakob Iversen
Abstract. This paper reports from a case study of an organization that implements a software metrics program to measure the effects of its improvement efforts. The program measures key indicators of all completed projects and summarizes progress information in a quarterly management report. The implementation turns out to be long and complex, as the organization is confronted with dilemmas based on contradictory demands and value conflicts. The process is interpreted as a combination of a rational engineering process in which a metrics program is constructed and put into use, and an evolutionary cultivation process in which basic values of the software organization are confronted and transformed. The analysis exemplifies the difficulties and challenges that software organizations face when bringing known principles for software metrics programs into practical use. The article discusses the insights gained from the case in six lessons that may be used by Software Process Improvement managers in implementing a successful metrics program. [source]

A critical appraisal of evidence-based medicine: some ethical considerations

Abstract Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a concept that has grown to dominate the medical literature over the last decade. EBM has provoked a variety of criticisms, scientific, philosophical and sociological. However, while its basic conclusion , that we should practise EBM , is ethical, there has been limited ethical analysis of EBM. This paper aims to provide an analysis of EBM from an ethical perspective and identify some of EBM's potential ethical implications. Following a description of what constitutes EBM, this paper will identify and assess some of the basic values and epistemological assumptions of EBM that provide support for the moral duty to practise EBM. It will then examine potential ethical implications that could arise from practising EBM, given the challenges that have been made of EBM's assumptions and claims to authority. This paper will conclude by arguing that practitioners could strengthen the ethics of EBM by embracing a broader definition of evidence and including ethical criteria in the critical appraisal of research studies. [source]

Hate Speech and Constitutional Protection: Priming Values of Equality and Freedom

Gloria Cowan
Freedom of speech and equality are two basic values in American culture that cause a value conflict with regard to hate speech. This study examined the effects of priming of values of freedom of speech and equal protection (equality) on perceptions of and attitudes toward hate speech and value prioritization. Data were collected from 159 college students. Priming of freedom of speech directed participants' attitudes and values toward advocating freedom of speech, whereas priming for equal protection directed attitudes and values toward the harm of hate speech. Participants primed for free speech viewed hate speech (introduced via scenarios) as less harmful and the speaker as less accountable than those primed for the harm of hate speech and a control group. [source]