Basic Training (basic + training)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Design of a new suture practice card for microsurgical training

MICROSURGERY, Issue 8 2002
Jesús Usón D.V.M., Ph.D.
Suturing technique is of paramount importance in microsurgery. Basic training in this technique can be done using the practice card, a purpose-made polyurethane card. A practice card has been designed in the Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre to closely resemble microsurgical requirements in order to practice and learn correct microsuturing maneuvers. This practice card is a key part of microsurgical training. After many years of experience, and based on a survey we conducted, we can conclude that this practice card is essential for step-by-step microsurgical training. Using this card, the number of animals required to attain necessary microsurgical skills is reduced significantly. Furthermore, costs are also reduced, and the trainee can avoid mistakes during training with live animals, thus optimizing results. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MICROSURGERY 22:324,328 2002 [source]

Robotic Surgery Using ZeusÔ MicroWristÔ Technology

The Next Generation
Methods: We used the ZeusÔ (Computer Motion Inc., Goleta, Calif, USA) telemanipulation system to perform the internal mammary artery (IMA) takedown in 56 patients, in 12 of whom we used the newest model with MicroWristÔ (Computer Motion Inc., Goleta, Calif, USA) technology. Port orientation was based on thoracic anatomy, the decisive landmarks being the mammillary line and the axillary line. The distance between ports was at least 9 cm, and the patient's arm was positioned with the left shoulder raised and angulated by not more than 90 degrees. Results: Mean setup time was 44 ± 18 minutes for the first five patients and 16 ± 7 minutes for the last five patients, with an overall average of 24 ± 12 minutes. IMA harvest time at the beginning reached a mean of 95 ± 23 minutes and decreased to 44 ± 18 minutes in the last five cases. Average IMA takedown time was 58 ± 17 minutes. The IMA was patent with a good flow in all 56 patients. Conclusions: The introduction of robotic technology into clinical routine has resulted in safe procedures with a short learning curve. However, basic training in the modality is a must in order to achieve technical excellence. (J Card Surg 2003; 18:1-5) [source]

Medical students' errors in pharmacotherapeutics

Objectives This study analysed the errors made by 16 final-year medical students in a classroom prescribing exercise. The aim was to gain greater understanding of the reasons for non-optimal prescribing and of how to improve basic training in pharmacotherapeutics. Methods The task was to adjust a patient's phenytoin sodium dosage to achieve better control of seizures. It was based on a real-life case, and was presented as a written exercise. Process-tracing and think-aloud techniques were used to study the students' performance. Results The results suggest that the root cause of the errors was lack of a knowledge base which integrated scientific knowledge with clinical know-how. Three different clinical reasoning strategies were observed. Students who followed an incremental strategy demonstrated superior scientific knowledge and this resulted in less hazardous errors. Those who followed gambling or backward-reasoning strategies appeared to possess inferior scientific knowledge and this resulted in more hazardous errors. Conclusions The results support current trends towards integrating basic medical science into a foundation of clinical know-how, as in the problem-based curriculum. They also emphasize the importance of a thorough grounding in medical science as a means of minimizing error. [source]

Inexpensive Phantom for Fluoroscopy Guided Nerve Block Training,

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 7 2008
Satoki Inoue MD
ABSTRACT Objective., Regional anesthesia simulation manikins with phantom skeletal structures are commercially available. Unfortunately, they are quite expensive. This article introduces our handmade, low cost, phantom for training of nerve block with fluoroscopic guidance. Materials., The phantom consisted of artificial bone models to resemble human lumbar vertebrae with disks, covered with 5,7 sheets of self-adhesive sponge. Posteriorly, mobility between sheets was retained in order to deflect needles and provide practice of redirecting needles. Conclusions., Although it might lack radiographic fidelity, our inexpensive phantom can be used for basic training of nerve block with fluoroscopic guidance. [source]

Training to Provide for Healthy Rural Aging

B.A.(Hons), Joseph Troisi Ph.D., M. Phil., M.A.(Soc), M.Th.
ABSTRACT: More than 60 percent of the world's aged population is in developing countries, the majority living in rural and remote areas. Resources in these areas are scarce and there is a lack of services and programs, especially in the areas of health, housing and social welfare. The most serious deficiency faced by many countries in meeting the challenges of population aging is the pronounced scarcity of trained caregivers. Little attention has been given to developing effective training policies and programs. Most of the people providing a service to older people lack basic training and this is more so in rural and remote areas. The processes for extending liealthy aging and postponing the onset of chronic diseases and disabling conditions exist already. Unfortunately, these processes are not disseminated in appropriate ways. It is therefore imperative to disseminate this information by training people at the grass roots level to reach the most vulnerable and isolated older people. Primary care workers should have the necessary skills, knowledge and techniques to facilitate good care of older people in their environment. This article reviews and analyzes attempts being made by a number of countries to meet this need. Though the basic issues dealt with are often the same, the approach used differs. [source]

Participation in research program

A Novel Course in Undergraduate Education of Life Science
Abstract A novel course, "Participation in Research Program (PRP)" in life sciences is open for 1st to 3rd year undergraduates. PRP introduces the principles of a variety of biological methods and techniques and also offers an opportunity to explore some specific knowledge in more detail prior to thesis research. In addition, the PRP introduces some methodologies that have been proven to be successful at each institution to participants. Through disciplines crossing, students were trained theoretically and practically about modern techniques, facilitating the efficient commutation of general laboratory skills and modern laboratory skills, and the possession of higher research ability. Therefore, during some basic training (e.g., usage and maintenance of equipments, designing and completing experiments, analyzing data and reporting results, etc.), a series of capabilities are strengthened, such as basic experimental skills, searching appropriate methods, explaining unknown biological phenomena, and the capacity of solving problems. To determine the efficiency of these strategies, we carefully examined students' performance and demonstrated the progress in students' basic abilities of scientific research in their training. [source]

Factors that influence physicians' detection of distress in patients with cancer,

CANCER, Issue 2 2005
Can a communication skills training program improve physicians' detection?
Abstract BACKGROUND No study to date has assessed the impact of skills acquisition after a communication skills training program on physicians' ability to detect distress in patients with cancer. METHODS First, the authors used a randomized design to assess the impact, on physicians' ability to detect patients' distress, of a 1-hour theoretical information course followed by 2 communication skills training programs: a 2.5-day basic training program and the same training program consolidated by 6 3-hour consolidation workshops. Then, theinvestigate contextual, patient, and communication variables or factors associated with physicians' detection of patients' distress were investigated. After they attended the basic communication skills training program, physicians were assigned randomly to consolidation workshops or to a waiting list. Interviews with a cancer patient were recorded before training, after consolidation workshops for the group that attended consolidation workshops, and , 5 months after basic training for the group that attended basic training without the consolidation workshops. Patient distress was recorded with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale before the interviews. Physicians rated their patients' distress on a visual analog scale after the interviews. Physicians' ability to detect patients' distress was measured through computing differences between physicians' ratings of patients' distress and patients' self-reported distress. Communication skills were analyzed according to the Cancer Research Campaign Workshop Evaluation Manual. RESULTS Fifty-eight physicians were evaluable. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no statistically significant changes over time and between groups in physicians' ability to assess patient distress. Mixed-effects modeling showed that physicians' detection of patients' distress was associated negatively with patients' educational level (P = 0.042) and with patients' self-reported distress (P < 0.000). Mixed-effects modeling also showed that physicians' detection of patient distress was associated positively with physicians breaking bad news (P = 0.022) and using assessment skills (P = 0.015) and supportive skills (P = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS Contrary to what was expected, no change was observed in physicians' ability to detect distress in patients with cancer after a communication skills training programs, regardless of whether physicians attended the basic training program or the basic training program followed by the consolidation workshops. The results indicated a need for further improvements in physicians' detection skills through specific training modules, including theoretical information about factors that interfere with physicians' detection and through role-playing exercises that focus on assessment and supportive skills that facilitate detection. Cancer 2005. © 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]

Physicians' communication with a cancer patient and a relative

CANCER, Issue 11 2005
A randomized study assessing the efficacy of consolidation workshops
Abstract BACKGROUND Although patients with cancer are often accompanied by a relative during medical interviews, to the authors' knowledge little is known regarding the efficacy of communication skills training programs on physicians' communication skills in this context. The objective of the current study was to assess the efficacy of 6 consolidation workshops, 3 hours in length, that were conducted after a 2.5-day basic training program. METHODS After attending the basic training program, physicians were assigned randomly to consolidation workshops or to a waiting list. Training efficacy was assessed through simulated and actual interviews that were recorded on an audio tape at baseline, after consolidation workshops for the consolidation-workshops group, and 5 months after the end of basic training for the waiting-list group. Communication skills were assessed according to the Cancer Research Campaign Workshop Evaluation Manual. Patients' and relatives' perceptions of and satisfaction with physicians' communication performance were assessed using a 15-item questionnaire. RESULTS Sixty-two physicians completed the training program. Compared with physicians who participated to the basic training program, when addressing the patient, physicians who were randomized to the consolidation workshops used more open, open directive, and screening questions (P = 0.011 in simulated patient interviews and P = 0.005 in actual patient interviews) and elicited and clarified psychologic concerns more often (P = 0.006 in simulated patient interviews and P < 0.001 in actual patient interviews). When they addressed the relative, physicians who were randomized to the consolidation workshops gave less premature information (P = 0.032 in simulated patient interviews and P < 0.001 in actual patient interviews). When they addressed the patient and the relative simultaneously, physicians who were randomized to the consolidation workshops used more empathy, educated guesses, alerting to reality, confronting, negotiating, and summarizing (P = 0.003 in simulated patient interviews and P = 0.024 in actual patient interviews). Patients, but not relatives, who interacted with physicians in the consolidation-workshops group were more satisfied globally with the interviews (P = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS Six 3-hour consolidation workshops resulted in improved communication skills addressed to patients and to relatives. The current results showed that the transfer of skills addressing relatives' concerns remained limited and that consolidation workshops should focus even more systematically on the practice of three-person interviews. Cancer 2005. © 2005 American Cancer Society. [source]