Basic Techniques (basic + techniques)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Using soft computing techniques for improving foot trajectories in walking machines

Elena Garcia
Walking machines have been investigated during the last 40 years and some basic techniques of this field are already well known. However, some aspects still need to be optimized. For instance, speed seems to be one of the major shortcomings of legged robots; thus, improving leg speed has been chosen as the main aim of this work. Although some algorithms for optimizing trajectory control of robot manipulators already exist, we propose a more computationally efficient method that employs fuzzy set theory to involve real dynamic effects over leg motion instead of an inaccurate mathematical model. In this article, we improve leg speed by automatically tuning the acceleration of legs. For this purpose, we define fuzzy rules based on experiments and we find the optimal acceleration for every given trajectory. A simple fuzzy inference system is used to compute the required acceleration. It is based on five rules using three linguistic variables. Final results show that foot acceleration tuning for straight trajectory generation is a suitable method for achieving accurate, smooth and fast foot movements. Also it is shown that under some conditions average leg speed can be increased up to 100% using the control methods herein proposed. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

A simple method for isolation of microsatellites from the Japanese squirrel, Sciurus lis, without constructing a genomic library

K. Shibata
Abstract We developed a simple and easy method to isolate microsatellites without screening genomic libraries by hybridization. The method requires only three basic techniques: polymerase chain reaction, DNA cloning and sequencing. We applied this method to develop microsatellite markers for the Japanese squirrel and isolated 45 clones that contained repetitive sequences. Among the 22 clones that we tested further, we found 11 diagnostic microsatellite loci that are applicable to the molecular ecological study of Japanese squirrels. [source]

Cost Analysis: Concepts and Application

Christine A Brosnan Dr.P.H., R.N.C.
Public health nurses are increasingly called upon to justify the cost of care or to decide which of two alternative programs is more cost-effective. Cost studies can be complex and difficult to conduct, but an understanding of the basic techniques allows nurses to fully participate in planning, implementing, and evaluating programs that greatly impact the health of the community. This article defines some of the basic terms used in health economics, discusses standard methods of cost analysis, and provides an example of neonatal screening to illustrate methods of describing, measuring, and assigning a value to cost items. [source]

Quantifying the condition of Hawaiian coral reefs

Ku'ulei S. Rodgers
Abstract (1)This investigation developed and tested descriptive models designed to evaluate coral reef ecological condition based on data developed using the basic techniques most often used in coral reef surveys. (2)Forty-three variables at 184 stations were analysed in order to identify specific factors that are useful metrics for describing reef condition. (3)The common practice of using ,reference sites' for paired site comparisons was evaluated by developing a reference site model (RSM). This use of reference sites proved to be subjective and unreliable, especially when multiple factors and multiple sites are involved. However, in some cases the RSM is appropriate in demonstrating severe degradation based on factors such as sediment, coral cover and fish abundance. (4)An objective ecological gradient model (EGM) was developed based on a wide range of metrics at numerous sites. A computer program was developed that allows a quantitative ranking of reef condition along a continuum and can be used to compare reefs across a wide range of conditions. Further, this approach permits the operator to alter and define criteria appropriate to a specific question. (5)Results of this investigation provide ecological insights into the importance of natural and anthropogenic ecological factors in determining coral reef condition. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Anatomical considerations for natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery

Erica A. Moran
Abstract Success in surgical procedures relies on the surgeon's understanding of anatomy and the ways in which the internal organs relate to one another. Recently, a new surgical technique has been introduced. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) uses the body's natural orifices (mouth, anus, urethra, or vagina) as entrance points to the peritoneal cavities (through the stomach, rectum, bladder, or posterior vaginal fornix). NOTES techniques have proven feasible in both animal and early human trials. While it remains to be seen what advantages NOTES possesses over traditional surgical approaches, a clear understanding of human anatomy will be critical for successful, safe NOTES procedures. This article summarizes the development and the basic techniques of NOTES and reviews those anatomical considerations specific to NOTES. Clin. Anat. 22:627,632, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]