Basic Cell Functions (basic + cell_function)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

In vitro effects of lidocaine on the contractility of equine jejunal smooth muscle challenged by ischaemia-reperfusion injury

Summary Reasons for performing study: Post operative ileus (POI) in horses is a severe complication after colic surgery. A commonly used prokinetic drug is lidocaine, which has been shown to have stimulatory effects on intestinal motility. The cellular mechanisms through which lidocaine affects smooth muscle activity are not yet known. Objectives: To examine the effects of lidocaine on smooth muscle in vitro and identify mechanisms by which it may affect the contractility of intestinal smooth muscle. Hypothesis: Ischaemia and reperfusion associated with intestinal strangulation can cause smooth muscle injury. Consequently, muscle cell functionality and contractile performance is decreased. Lidocaine can improve basic cell functions and thereby muscle cell contractility especially in ischaemia-reperfusion-challenged smooth muscle. Methods: To examine the effects of lidocaine on smooth muscle function directly, isometric force performance was measured in vitro in noninjured and in vivo ischaemia-reperfusion injured smooth muscle tissues. Dose-dependent response of lidocaine was measured in both samples. To assess membrane permeability as a marker of basic cell function, release of creatine kinase (CK) was measured by in vitro incubations. Results: Lidocaine-stimulated contractility of ischaemia-reperfusion injured smooth muscle was more pronounced than that of noninjured smooth muscle. A 3-phasic dose-dependency was observed with an initial recovery of contractility especially in ischaemia-reperfusion injured smooth muscle followed by a plateau phase where contractility was maintained over a broad concentration range. CK release was decreased by lidocaine. Conclusion: Lidocaine may improve smooth muscle contractility and basic cell function by cellular repair mechanisms which are still unknown. Improving contractility of smooth muscle after ischaemia-reperfusion injury is essential in recovery of propulsive intestinal motility. Potential relevance: Characterisation of the cellular mechanisms of effects of lidocaine, especially on ischaemia-reperfusion injured smooth muscle, may lead to improved treatment strategies for horses with POI. [source]

Functions and pathophysiological roles of phospholipase D in the brain

Jochen Klein
Abstract Ten years after the isoforms of mammalian phospholipase D (PLD), PLD1 and 2, were cloned, their roles in the brain remain speculative but several lines of evidence now implicate these enzymes in basic cell functions such as vesicular trafficking as well as in brain development. Many mitogenic factors, including neurotransmitters and growth factors, activate PLD in neurons and astrocytes. Activation of PLD downstream of protein kinase C seems to be a required step for astroglial proliferation. The characteristic disruption of the PLD signaling pathway by ethanol probably contributes to the delay of brain growth in fetal alcohol syndrome. The post-natal increase of PLD activities concurs with synapto- and myelinogenesis in the brain and PLD is apparently involved in neurite formation. In the adult and aging brain, PLD activity has antiapoptotic properties suppressing ceramide formation. Increased PLD activities in acute and chronic neurodegeneration as well as in inflammatory processes are evidently due to astrogliosis and may be associated with protective responses of tissue repair and remodeling. ARF-regulated PLD participates in receptor endocytosis as well as in exocytosis of neurotransmitters where PLD seems to favor vesicle fusion by modifications of the shape and charge of lipid membranes. Finally, PLD activities contribute free choline for the synthesis of acetylcholine in the brain. Novel tools such as RNA interference should help to further elucidate the roles of PLD isoforms in brain physiology and pathology. [source]

Effects of etomidate on free intracellular amino acid concentrations in polymorphonuclear leucocytes in vitro

J. Mühling
Background: Previous studies have shown the inhibitory effects of etomidate on polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) function. No reports exist, however, regarding free intracellular amino acid metabolism, although physiological cell metabolism and basic cell functions rely upon a balanced intracellular amino acid content and the cell membrane-mediated separation of cellular amino acids from the extracellular plasma amino acid pool. Thus, in the current study, we evaluated the effects of etomidate on free intracellular amino acid metabolism in PMN. Methods: With ethics committee approval, blood was withdrawn from 35 healthy volunteers and incubated (1 h) either with 0 ,g/ml, 0.0156 ,g/ml, 0.0625 ,g/ml or 0.5 ,g/ml of etomidate as well as with its additives (propylene glycol and Lipofundin MCT® 10%). The PMN were separated using standardized Percoll® -gradient and centrifugation procedure before deep-freezing and lyophilization techniques were employed. All PMN samples were dissolved in methanol/H2O, and the concentrations of free intracellular amino acids were monitored using both novel advanced PMN-separation and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. Results: Etomidate influenced important free amino acid profiles in PMN in a dose-dependent manner, indicating complex changes of cellular amino acid turnover. Neither propylene glycol nor Lipofundin MCT® 10% changed free amino acid concentrations in PMN. Conclusions: For the first time, the effects of etomidate on free intracellular amino acid metabolism in PMN have been investigated. Our results draw attention to the biochemical pathways which may be involved in etomidate-induced alterations in PMN function and cellular immunocompetence. [source]

New insights into form and function of fibronectin splice variants,

ES White
Abstract The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a highly dynamic structure that not only provides a physical framework for cells within connective tissues, but also imparts instructive signals for development, tissue homeostasis and basic cell functions through its composition and ability to exert mechanical forces. The ECM of tissues is composed of, in addition to proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid, a number of proteins, most of which are generated after alternative splicing of their pre-mRNA. However, the precise function of these protein isoforms is still obscure in most cases. Fibronectin (FN), one of the main components of the ECM, is also one of the best-known examples of a family of proteins generated by alternative splicing, having at least 20 different isoforms in humans. Over the last few years, considerable progress on elucidating the functions of the alternatively spliced FN isoforms has been achieved with the essential development of key engineered mouse strains. Here we summarize the phenotypes of the mouse strains having targeted mutations in the FN gene, which may lead to novel insights linking function of alternatively spliced isoforms of fibronectin to human pathologies. Copyright © 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]