Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Basis

  • ad hoc basis
  • anatomic basis
  • anatomical basis
  • annual basis
  • area basis
  • auf basis
  • auf der basis
  • autoimmune basis
  • average basis
  • biochemical basis
  • biologic basis
  • biological basis
  • case basis
  • case-by-case basis
  • cell basis
  • cellular basis
  • chemical basis
  • clinical basis
  • common basis
  • comparative basis
  • conceptual basis
  • continuous basis
  • daily basis
  • day basis
  • day-to-day basis
  • der basis
  • developmental basis
  • dm basis
  • dry basis
  • dry matter basis
  • dry weight basis
  • dry-weight basis
  • ecological basis
  • elective basis
  • empirical basis
  • epistemological basis
  • ethical basis
  • evolutionary basis
  • excellent basis
  • experimental basis
  • firm basis
  • fresh weight basis
  • functional basis
  • fundamental basis
  • genetic basis
  • good basis
  • historical basis
  • hoc basis
  • hormonal basis
  • immunological basis
  • important basis
  • individual basis
  • intention-to-treat basis
  • leaf area basis
  • little basis
  • long-term basis
  • mass basis
  • matter basis
  • mechanistic basis
  • molar basis
  • molecular basis
  • molecular genetic basis
  • morphological basis
  • national basis
  • neural basis
  • neuroanatomical basis
  • neurobiological basis
  • new basis
  • outpatient basis
  • pathogenic basis
  • pathological basis
  • pathophysiological basis
  • per-cell basis
  • philosophical basis
  • physical basis
  • physiological basis
  • pixel-by-pixel basis
  • polynomial basis
  • population basis
  • quantitative basis
  • rational basis
  • regional basis
  • regular basis
  • reliable basis
  • routine basis
  • scientific basis
  • seasonal basis
  • solid basis
  • sound basis
  • strong basis
  • structural basis
  • technical basis
  • theoretical basis
  • thermodynamic basis
  • underlying basis
  • underlying genetic basis
  • useful basis
  • voluntary basis
  • wavelet basis
  • weekly basis
  • weight basis
  • wet basis
  • yearly basis

  • Terms modified by Basis

  • basis behavior
  • basis function
  • basis function network
  • basis function neural network
  • basis neural network
  • basis point
  • basis risk
  • basis set
  • basis set limit
  • basis set superposition error
  • basis underlying
  • basis vector

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2008
    Lila Fishman
    Conspecific pollen precedence (CPP) is a major component of reproductive isolation between many flowering plant taxa and may reveal mechanisms of gametophytic evolution within species, but little is known about the genetic basis and evolutionary history of CPP. We systematically investigated the genetic architecture of CPP using patterns of transmission ratio distortion (TRD) in F2 and backcross hybrids between closely related species of Mimulus (Phrymaceae) with divergent mating systems. We found that CPP in Mimulus hybrids was polygenic and was the majority source of interspecific TRD genome-wide, with at least eight genomic regions contributing to the transmission advantage of M. guttatus pollen grains on M. guttatus styles. In aggregate, these male-specific transmission ratio distorting loci (TRDLs) were more than sufficient to account for the 100% precedence of pure M. guttatus pollen over M. nasutus pollen in mixed pollinations of M. guttatus. All but one of these pollen TRDLs were style-dependent; that is, we observed pollen TRD in F1 and/or M. guttatus styles, but not in M. nasutus styles. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in pollen tube performance accumulate gradually and may have been driven by coevolution between pollen and style in the predominantly outcrossing M. guttatus. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2006
    Sharon N. ClarkeArticle first published online: 10 FEB 200
    Studies estimate that between three and ten million children in the United States witness domestic violence annually. Although studies have demonstrated a co-occurrence of domestic violence and child abuse, there is no concrete evidence to support the assumption that a child's exposure to domestic violence increases the risk to the child of abuse or neglect. Recently the New York State Court of Appeals determined that a child's witness to abuse does not suffice, in and of itself, to show that removal of the child is necessary or that removal is in the "best interests" of the child. Programs which have developed alternatives to presumptive removal understand the importance of viewing the interests of the battered parent and children as being in accord with each other rather than in opposition. Private and government sponsored programs have demonstrated some success in protecting the parent-child relationship, ensuring the safety of both parent and child, and increasing accountability of batterers while reducing the necessity for removals. Alternative programs are less costly to the state than foster care, and emotionally less costly to the families. [source]




    Lisa M. Oakes
    First page of article [source]


    Keith DeRose
    I present the features of the ordinary use of ,knows' that make a compelling case for the contextualist account of that verb, and I outline and defend the methodology that takes us from the data to a contextualist conclusion. Along the way, the superiority of contextualism over subject-sensitive invariantism is defended, and, in the final section, I answer some objections to contextualism. [source]

    Implicit Surface Modelling with a Globally Regularised Basis of Compact Support

    C. Walder
    We consider the problem of constructing a globally smooth analytic function that represents a surface implicitly by way of its zero set, given sample points with surface normal vectors. The contributions of the paper include a novel means of regularising multi-scale compactly supported basis functions that leads to the desirable interpolation properties previously only associated with fully supported bases. We also provide a regularisation framework for simpler and more direct treatment of surface normals, along with a corresponding generalisation of the representer theorem lying at the core of kernel-based machine learning methods. We demonstrate the techniques on 3D problems of up to 14 million data points, as well as 4D time series data and four-dimensional interpolation between three-dimensional shapes. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Curve, surface, solid, and object representations [source]

    On Historicized Meanings and Being Conscious about one's own Theoretical Premises,A Basis for a Renewed Dialogue between History and Philosophy of Education?

    Marc Depaepe
    First page of article [source]

    Characterization of Nanopore Electrode Structures as Basis for Amplified Electrochemical Assays

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 19-20 2006
    Sebastian Neugebauer
    Abstract A nanopore electrode structure was fabricated consisting of ensembles of nanopores with separately addressable electrodes at the pore bottoms and the rims. A metal/insulator/metal layer structure allowed for adjusting the spacing between the bottom and rim electrodes to be in the range of about 200,nm. Pore diameters varied between 200 and 800,nm. The electrochemical properties of this electrode structure and its perspectives for applications in bioelectronics were studied using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry along with high-resolution scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in constant-distance mode. It was possible to visualize the electrochemical activity of a single nanometric electrode using high-resolution SECM in a combination of sample-generation-tip-collection mode and positive feedback mode. The SECM images suggested an influence of the unbiased rim electrode on redox amplification which was used as a basis for evaluating the feasibility of current amplification by means of redox cycling between the bottom and rim electrodes. Amplification factors superior to those obtained with interdigitated array electrodes could be demonstrated. [source]

    Toward a Theoretical Basis for Understanding the Dynamics of Strategic Performance in Family Firms

    James J. Chrisman
    An important distinction between family and nonfamily firms and among different types of family firms is the manner in which strategy is formulated and implemented. These differences in strategic behaviors can cause variations in firm performance. Understanding the nature of these differences and how the family form of organization drives them therefore contributes to the development of a strategic management theory of the family firm, a unifying theme of the series of special issues published in Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice to date. This article briefly reflects on the progress made in understanding the strategic differences of family firms in this ongoing series and discusses the contributions of the articles and commentaries contained in this fifth special issue on theories of family enterprise. [source]

    Synthesis, Structure and Magnetic Properties of a Tetranuclear Copper(II) Complex on the Basis of a 2-Substituted Glucopyranoside Schiff Base Ligand,

    Anja Burkhardt
    Abstract Condensation of a derivatized 2-aminoglucose fragment with salicylaldehyde affords the new sugar-based Schiff base ligand benzyl 4,6- O -benzylidene-2-deoxy-2-salicylideneamino-,- D -glucopyranoside (H2L). The reaction of the dibasic ligand H2L with [Cu(CH3COO)2]·H2O leads to the formation of the tetranuclear copper(II) complex [{Cu(L)}4] (3) by a self-assembly process. The X-ray structural analysis of complex 3 which crystallizes together with two molecules of chloroform and one molecule of ethanol in the space group P212121 revealed for all copper atoms a NO3 coordination environment with a square-planar geometry. The tetranuclear molecule 3 consists of four chiral building blocks {Cu(L)} with the rare 2,3-coordination of the trans -configured donor atoms of the sugar backbone. The observed coordination mode of the building blocks exemplifies how chitosan-derived polysaccharide ligands can act as a chiral support for transition-metal complexes. The C-3 alcoholate oxygen atoms of the carbohydrate unit is bridging adjacent {Cu(L)} moieties resulting in an eight-membered Cu4O4 ring with a boat-like conformation. Temperature-dependent magnetic measurements of 3 indicate moderate antiferromagnetic interactions between the four copper(II) ions with a coupling constant of J = ,130 cm,1.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    (Pyrazole)silver(I) and -gold(I) Complexes with Strong and Weak Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions as the Basis of One- or Two-Dimensional Structures

    M. Luz Gallego
    Abstract New AuI/AgI complexes containing one or two substituted pyrazole ligands [Au(Hpzbp2)(PPh3)](p -CH3C6H4SO3) [Hpzbp2 = 3,5-bis(4- n -butoxyphenyl)pyrazole] (1) and [M(HpzR2)2]nX [HpzR2 = Hpzbp2, M = Au, n = 1, X = p -CH3C6H4SO3 (2), NO3, (3); n = 2, X = 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate (1,5nds) (4); HpzR2 = Hpzbp2, M = Ag, n = 1, X = BF4, (5), CF3SO3, (6); HpzR2 = HpzNO2 (3,5-dimethyl-4-nitropyrazole), M = Ag, n = 1, X = BF4, (7), CF3SO3, (8)], have been prepared and characterized. Compounds 1, 2, 5 and 8 have been proved to be useful for supramolecular assembly from their single X-ray diffraction analysis. In all cases strong hydrogen bonds maintain the cationic units bonded to their corresponding counterions. The crystal packing arrangement of 1, 2 and 5 is, however, determined by weak C,H···O/F hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the remaining O/F atoms of the counterion. By contrast, for 8 a two-dimensional layer-type polymeric network is formed by ,···, (NO2···NO2) and coordinative Ag···O interactions in which the NO2 substituent on the pyrazole is implicated. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2004) [source]

    Structural and Molecular Basis of Skeletal Muscle Diseases Gerorge Karpati (volume ed.)

    K. A. Jellinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Beyond Radical Interpretation: Individuality as the Basis of Historical Understanding

    Serge Grigoriev
    First page of article [source]

    Legal Basis and Scope of the Human Rights Clauses in EC Bilateral Agreements: Any Room for Positive Interpretation?

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 1 2001
    Elena Fierro
    It is well known nowadays that the European Community includes a so-called human rights clause into the framework agreements that it concludes with third countries. It is also widely recognised that, in virtue of the relevant provisions of the Vienna Convention on the Law of the Treaties, such a clause grants the Community a right to suspend the agreement should human rights and/or democratic principles be breached. The question to be explored in the present paper is whether, in the light of its legal basis, the clause fulfils a mere ,negative' or ,sanctioning' function or, by contrast, there is room for the pursuit of positive measures of active promotion of human rights,that is the granting of technical and financial aid. It is argued here that the clauses present an ideal starting point for the pursuit of a comprehensive human rights policy at the EU level. Such a policy should encompass positive measures in the first place, systematic dialogue in the second, and suspension or negative measures of less extent only as ultima ratio in particularly grave cases which cannot be addressed through ordinary (dialogue and aid) routes. [source]

    Multifunctional Magnetic Optical Sensor Particles with Tunable Sizes for Monitoring Metabolic Parameters and as a Basis for Nanotherapeutics

    Günter Mistlberger
    Abstract Magnetic optical sensor particles with multifunctional cores and shells are synthesized via a facile nanoprecipitation method and the subsequent modification of the particle shell. The hydrophobic particle core includes optical oxygen indicators, a light harvesting system, photosensitizers, and magnetic nanoparticles. Further functionalities are introduced by modifying the shell with enzymes, antibodies, multiple layers of polyelectrolytes, stimuli-responsive polymers, and luminescent indicator dyes. The hydrodynamic diameter is tunable by varying different precipitation parameters. [source]

    Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics

    J Thompson Coon

    Liquid Crystal Emulsions as the Basis of Biological Sensors for the Optical Detection of Bacteria and Viruses

    Sri Sivakumar
    Abstract A versatile sensing method based on monodisperse liquid crystal (LC) emulsion droplets detects and distinguishes between different types of bacteria (Gram +ve and ,ve) and viruses (enveloped and non-enveloped). LCs of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl transition from a bipolar to radial configuration when in contact with Gram ,ve bacteria (E. coli) and lipid-enveloped viruses (A/NWS/Tokyo/67). This transition is consistent with the transfer of lipid from the organisms to the interfaces of the micrometer-sized LC droplets. In contrast, a transition to the radial configuration is not observed in the presence of Gram +ve bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus) and non-enveloped viruses (M13 helper phage). The LC droplets can detect small numbers of E. coli bacteria (1,5) and low concentrations (104,pfu mL,1) of A/NWS/Tokyo/67 virus. Monodisperse LC emulsions incubated with phosholipid liposomes (similar to the E. coli cell wall lipid) reveal that the orientational change is triggered at an area per lipid molecule of ,46,Å2 on an LC droplet (,1.6,×,108 lipid molecules per droplet). This approach represents a novel means to sense and differentiate between types of bacteria and viruses based on their cell-wall/envelope structure, paving the way for the development of a new class of LC microdroplet-based biological sensors. [source]

    Fact, Truth, and Text: The Quest for a Firm Basis for Historical Knowledge Around 1900

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 3 2003
    Rolf Torstendahl
    The object of this essay is to discuss two problems and to present solutions to them, which do not quite agree with what is generally said of them. The first problem concerns the history of methods for reaching firm historical knowledge. In three methodological manuals for historians, written by J. G. Droysen, E. Bernheim, and C.-V. Langlois and C. Seignobos and first published in the late nineteenth century, the task of the historian was said to be how to obtain firm knowledge about history. The question is how this message should be understood. The second problem concerns the differences between the three manuals. If their common goal is firm historical knowledge, are there any major differences of opinion? The answer given in this article is yes, and the ground is sought in their theories of truth. [source]

    Basis of occlusive therapy in psoriasis: correcting defects in permeability barrier and calcium gradient

    Sang Min Hwang MD
    Background Although occlusive dressings have great potential in the management of psoriasis vulgaris, the therapeutic mechanism is not completely understood. Occlusion artificially restores and corrects the defective barrier in psoriasis plaques. Additionally, occlusion is know to normalize the epidermal calcium gradients in hyperproliferative murine skin models. Methods To investigate the basis of the therapeutic effect of occlusion on psoriatic plaques, we investigated the ultrastructural morphology of intercorneocyte lipid layers, lamellar bodies, and calcium gradient in chronic plaque-type psoriasis after occlusion with a water vapor-impermeable membrane. The specimens were processed for electron microscopy using: (i) ruthenium tetroxide postfixation; and (ii) ion-capture cytochemistry for calcium localization. Results Occlusion for 7 days resulted in a nearly mature pattern of intercellular multilamellar structures, re-establishment of the near-normal epidermal calcium gradient, and disappearance of calcium precipitates from the stratum corneum interstices. Conclusions The normalization of the permeability barrier and epidermal calcium gradient may play important roles in the therapeutic effects of occlusive dressings in chronic plaque-type psoriasis. [source]

    Self-sterilizing catheters with titanium dioxide photocatalyst thin films for clean intermittent catheterization: Basis and study of clinical use

    Yuki Sekiguchi
    Objective: Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) requires a large number of disposable catheters or a large amount of water and disinfectant. We made titanium dioxide (TiO2)-coated catheters for CIC using technology we have developed previously, and examined the photocatalytic antibacterial effect of this catheter using only light energy and the safety of this type of catheter for practical clinical use. Methods: TiO2 -coated catheters were filled with bacterial cell suspensions and illuminated with a 15-W black-light lamp for testing antibacterial potency. Next, we soaked control toxic materials (zinc diethyldithiocarbamate) and the tips of TiO2 -coated catheters in M05 medium, and evaluated cell toxicity from the numbers of V79 colonies in these dilutions. Then, bodyweight curves and histological tissue changes were observed over a period of time in mouse-transplanted TiO2 -coated catheters and control catheters. Finally, we investigated the use of these TiO2 -coated catheters in 18 patients by questionnaire and bacterial culture of TiO2 -coated catheters and control catheters. Results: The survival rate of Escherichia coli in the liquid inside the TiO2 catheter decreased to a negligible level within 60 min under ultraviolet (UV)-A illumination. The survival rate of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens also decreased to a negligible level within 60 min. V79 cells showed no cytotoxicity of this catheter, and there was no difference in bodyweight or foreign body reaction between mouse-transplanted TiO2 -coated catheters and control catheters. In a preliminary clinical analysis of 18 patients who voluntarily used this catheter, the rate of positive bacterial culture of the tips of TiO2 -coated catheters was 20% versus 60% for conventional catheters after 4 weeks of use. Conclusion: TiO2 -coated silicone catheters were easily sterilized under certain light sources and were shown to be safe in an experiment using cultured cells and in animal experiments. Sterilizing catheters with TiO2 photocatalyst thin films are expected to be used clinically for clean intermittent catheterization after proper modification based on this study. [source]

    Secondary Production and Its Trophic Basis of Two Mayfly Species in a Subtropical Stream of China

    Yunjun Yan
    Abstract During June 2003 to June 2004, an investigation on life cycle, production and trophic basis of two species of mayfly in a second-order river of Hanjiang River Basin, Hubei, China was conducted. The results showed Epeorus sinensisUmler and Caenis nigropunctataWu both developed two generations a year. The mean annual production and P/B ratio of E. sinensis were 9.154 g m,2 a,1 dry weight and 16.0, and those of C. nigropunctata were 1.554 g m,2 a,1 and 9.6, respectively. For E. sinensis , the proportions contributing to secondary production of the main food types were: amorphous detritus 33.46%, fungi 10.8%, vascular plant detritus 1.8%, diatoms 53.9%; for C.nigropunctata , the proportions were 70.8%, 6.90%, 3.5% and 18.8%, respectively. Compared with those species reported in North America and Europe, although land use mode and local climate were greatly different in China, life history and trophic basis of the mayflies seemed roughly similar, yet secondary production appeared to be much higher. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Social Policymaking and Its Institutional Basis: Transition of The Chinese Social Security System

    Ka Lin
    This article discusses Chinese social policy development in response to the growth of the market economy. It provides a general overview of the system's evolution in three stages: (1) the pre-reform period when a system of enterprise welfare was in operation; (2) a period of system transition; (3) the stage when state welfare began to take shape. These developmental trends are interpreted on the basis of three types of institutional relations: the State-enterprise relation, the enterprise- (or employer-) employee relation, and the individual/worker-State relation. Moreover, the discussion deals with policy perceptions at each stage of the developmental process. Based on these analyses, it illustrates the transformation of the Chinese social security system in a broad socioeconomic and political context, where China struggled to establish a modern, market-based enterprise system. The paper thus expounds issues of socialism, market forces and the power of organized labour. [source]

    Steps Towards a Unified Basis for Scientific Models and Methods by Inge S. Helland

    David Cox
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Reassurance: A Strategic Basis of U.S. Support for Israel

    Ariel Ilan Roth
    This article argues that Israel experiences a unique perception of the perils of anarchy that drives it to a strategic preference for disproportionately offensive action against rivals and enemies. Actions taken pursuant to that doctrine have caused serious inconvenience to U.S. foreign policy in the Mideast for over four decades. This article argues that by reassuring Israel, both diplomatically and with arms sales, that the United States is committed to its survival, the United States has obtained significant measures of strategic restraint on Israel's part. That restraint has brought significant benefit to the United States as it seeks to guarantee regular access to the vital resources of the Middle East. This article provides examples of both successful reassurance and reassurance denied to illustrate the argument that U.S. support produces tangible strategic benefits for the United States. [source]

    Serpin polymerization and its role in disease,The molecular basis of ,1 -antitrypsin deficiency

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 1 2009
    Anja S. Knaupp
    Mechanism of ,1 AT polymerization. See Serpin Polymerization and Its Role in Disease,the Molecular Basis of ,1 -Antitrypsin Deficiency by Knaupp and Bottomley, pp. 1,5. [source]

    Molecular Basis of the Anaerobic Response in Plants

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 2 2001
    Rudy Dolferus
    The response of plants to flooding is complex and involves the induction of specific gene sets. A multidisciplinary approach by several research teams has led to a reasonably good understanding of the low oxygen response, and many of the genes and proteins that are involved are known. But the factors that are critical in determining tolerance or intolerance remain unknown. Microarray technology offers renewed hope to unravel the complex changes in gene expression occurring in plants upon low oxygen treatment and what mechanisms are involved in the response. [source]

    Scientific Basis of Health Care, 1st edition edited by O. Westwood, Harcourt Health Services, London, 1999, 595 pages, £19·95, ISBN: 0 723 42440 3.

    Dinah Gould
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Diversity in five goat populations of the Lombardy Alps: comparison of estimates obtained from morphometric traits and molecular markers

    P. Crepaldi
    Phenotypic and genetic variability were studied within and between the goat populations of Bionda dell'Adamello, Frisa, Orobica, Verzaschese and Val di Livo. These are populations reared for most of the year on pastures of the Lombardy Alps, numbering a minimum of 1000 and a maximum of 8000 individuals per breed. The first four are standardized breeds of recent formation; at present they are supported by the European Union measures for the conservation of rare breeds. On the basis of its visible genetic profile the Val di Livo goat may be classified as a primary population. Phenotypic variability was estimated on the basis of six somatic measurements on 60,140 adult goats per breed, whereas genetic variation was measured on the basis of 201 AFLP loci. The partition of the total molecular variation into the within and between breed components indicates that the majority of the molecular variability is conserved within populations, whereas only 8.8% can be attributed to between population variation. Morphometric and molecular marker data produced unrelated distance values and different topology of UPGMA clusters. It may be hypothesized that the morphometric originality of the Val di Livo goat is mostly determined by environmental factors and selection pressure rather than by different origin and genome evolution. Conversely Orobica seems to have diverged from the other breeds at the genome level, which may be explained by an undocumented Southern Italian origin. An objective evaluation of conservation priorities may in the near future be based on the integrated use of molecular markers and of information on quantitative traits and allelic variation with adaptive relevance. Diversité dans cinq populations de chèvres des Alpes lombardes: comparaisons entre estmations obtenues par des mesures somatiques et par des marqueurs moléculaires On a etudié la variabilité phénotypique et génétique entre et parmi les populations de chèvres Bionda dell'Adamello, Frisa, Orobica, Verzaschese et Val di Livo. Il s'agit de populations qui content entre 1000 et 8000 sujets, elevés pour la plus part de l'année sur les pâturages des Alpes de Lombardie. Les quatre premières, actuellement sauvegardées par des mesures communautaires, sont des races à standard recemment constituées. La chèvre de la Val di Livo peut être rangée parmi les races primaires. La diversité phénotypique a été montrée par un dendrogramme obtenus des distances euclidiennes calculées à partir de six mesures somatiques qui avaient été prises sur 60,140 chèvres adultes pour chaque race. La diversité génétique a été montrée par un dendrogramme bâti sur la matrice des distances de Nei obtenues des 201 marqueurs moléculaires AFLP, produits par 7 combinaisons de primers, sur 30 sujets pour chaque race. La décomposition de la variabilité génétique totale estimée par les données moléculaires a montré que la plus part de la variabilité est conservée parmi la population, tandis que seulement l,8,8% peut être imputé aux différences entre populations. Les données moléculaires et somatiques ont donné lieu à des distances qui ne sont pas corrélées et à des cluster avec une topologie nettement différente. La comparaison entre les deux approches permet d'avancer l'hypothèse que l'originalité somatique de la chèvre de la Val di Livo pourrait être due à des facteurs d'environnement et/ou à la pression de sélection plutôt qu'à des facteurs liés à l'évolution du genome. Au contraire ces derniers seraient responsables de l'originalité génétique de la race Orobica et confirmeraient des témoignages orals non documentés. Un choix objectif des ressources génétiques qui méritent d'être conservées pourra probablement se baser sur l'employ conjoint des marqueurs et de renseignements sur les caractères quantitatifs et sur les variantes alléliques des gènes qui ont une valeur adaptative. Diversität in fünf Ziegenpopulationen der lombardischen Alpen: Vergleich von Schätzungen auf der Basis morphologischer Eigenschaften und molekularer Marker Es wurden die phänotypische und genetische Variabilität innerhalb und zwischen Bionda dell'Adamello, Frisa, Orobica, Verzaschese und Val di Livo Ziegenpopulationen untersucht. Diese Populationen, mit Größen zwischen 1000 und 8000 Tieren, werden den größten Teil des Jahres auf Weiden der lombardischen Alpen gehalten. Die vier erstgenannten Populationen sind erst kürzlich standardisierte Rassen; gegenwärtig werden sie mit EU-Mitteln für die Erhaltung seltener Rassen, unterstützt. Auf der Basis des erkennbaren genetischen Profils muß die Rasse Val di Livo als eine Primärpopulation eingeordnet werden. Phänotypische Variabilität wurde auf der Basis von sechs Körpermaßen an 60,140 ausgewachsenen Ziegen je Rasse geschätzt, die genetische Variation wurde auf der Basis von 201 AFLP-Loci gemessen. Die Aufteilung der gesamten molekularen Varianz in Varianzkomponenten innerhalb und zwischen Populationen zeigt, daß der größte Teil der molekularen Variabilität innerhalb der Populationen auftritt, und nur 8,8% der Gesamtvarianz auf die Varianz zwischen den Populationen entfällt. Morphologische und molekulare Marker erzeugten unabhängige Distanzwerte und unterschiedliche upgma-Cluster. Es kann die Hypothese aufgestellt werden, daß die morphologische Einzigartigkeit der Val di Livo Ziege stärker auf Umwelteffekte und Selektionsdruck als auf eine unterschiedliche Herkunft oder genomische Evolution zurückzuführen ist. Dagegen scheint Orobica auf Genomebene von den anderen Rassen abzuweichen, was durch einen nicht dokumentierten süditalienischen Ursprung erklärt werden könnte. Eine objektive Bewertung von Prioritäten für Konservierungsmaßnahmen dürfte in Zukunft auf einen integrierten Gebrauch molekularer Marker, Informationen über quantitative Merkmale sowie der genetischen Variation bezüglich der Adaptationsfähigkeit basieren. [source]

    A male bovine linkage map for the ADR granddaughter design

    H. Thomsen
    Summary The aim of this paper is to present the construction of a male genetic linkage map as a result of the bovine genome mapping project, which is a common effort of the German cattle breeding federation (ADR), four animal breeding institutes, three blood group laboratories and two animal data and breeding value evaluation centres. In total 20 grandsires with 1074 sires were provided from the German cattle population as reference families, 16 of these paternal half-sib groups are German Holstein families (DH), three are German Simmental (ST) families, and one is a Brown Swiss family (BS). Of 265 markers included in the linkage map, 248 were microsatellite markers, five were bovine blood group systems, eight SSCP markers and four proteins and enzymes. More than 239 000 genotypes resulted from typing the offspring for the respective markers and these were used for the construction of the map. On average 478 informative meioses were provided from each marker of the map. The summarized map length over all chromosomes was 3135.1 cM with an average interval size of 13.34 cM. About 17, 35.7 and 79.1% of the map intervals showed a maximum genetic distance between the adjacent markers of 5, 10 and 20 cM, respectively. The number of loci ranged from two (pseudoautosomal region of the sex chromosome, BTAY) to 15 (BTA23) with an average of 8.8 markers per chromosome. Comparing the length of the chromosomes shows variation from 49.6 cM for BTA26 to 190.5 cM for BTA1 with a mean of 107.7 cM for all autosomes of the genetic linkage map. It was possible to identify chromosomal discrepancies in locus order and map intervals by comparison with other published maps. The map provided sufficient marker density to serve as a useful tool for a scan of segregating quantitative trait loci. Zusammenfassung Im vorliegenden Artikel wird die Erstellung der genetischen Markerkarten für das Rindergenom im Rahmen des Genomanalyseprojektes der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Rinderzüchter (ADR) vorgestellt. Auf der Basis des ,Granddaughter Designs' wurde ein Familienmaterial bestehend aus 20 väterlichen Halbgeschwistergruppen mit 1074 Söhnen für die Typisierung mit genetischen Markern bereitgestellt. Insgesamt 16 dieser paternalen Halbgeschwisterfamilien lassen sich der Rasse Deutsche Holsteins zuordnen, drei Familien entstammen der Rasse Deutsches Fleckvieh, und eine Familie gehört der Rasse Deutsches Braunvieh an. Dabei variiert die Anzahl der Söhne von 19,128 pro Vater. Für die Typisierung wurden 248 Mikrosatellitenmarker aus bereits publizierten Karten ausgewählt. Zusätzlich konnten 8 SSCP-und RFLP Marker, 5 Blutgruppensysteme und 4 Proteinmarker zur Entwicklung der genetischen Karte herangezogen werden. Die Anzahl der Marker variierte von 2 (pseudoautosomaler Bereich des Geschlechtschromosoms) bis 15 (Chromosom 23), wobei durchschnittlich 8.8 genetische Marker pro Chromosom typisiert wurden. Im Durchschnitt lieferten die genetischen Marker 478 informative Meiosen pro Marker. Alle Typisierungsergebnisse wurden in die Kieler Markerdatenbank übertragen und auf etwaige Fehler geprüft. Als Ergebnis konnten die genetischen Karten für alle 29 Autosomen und den pseudoautosomalen Bereich des Geschlechtschromosoms erstellt werden. Dabei wurde ein Bereich von 3135.1 cM des Rindergenoms abgedeckt, wobei die Länge des durchschnittlichen Markerintervalls 13.34 cM beträgt. Die Längen der Chromosomen zeigten eine Variation von 49.6 cM für Chromosom 26 bis zu 190.5 cM für Chromosom 1. Aufgrund der Anzahl informativer Meiosen und der Markerdichte bildet diese genetische Markerkarte in gutes Instrument für eine genomweite Suche nach segregierenden Genorten, die für die Variation von quantitativen Merkmalen verantwortlich sind. [source]

    Intrinsic Need Satisfaction: A Motivational Basis of Performance and Weil-Being in Two Work Settings,

    Paul P. Baard
    Studies in 2 work organizations tested a self-determination theory based model in which employees' autonomous causality orientation and their perceptions of their managers' autonomy support independently predicted satisfaction of the employees' intrinsic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, which in turn predicted their performance evaluations and psychological adjustment. Path analysis indicated that the self-determination theory model fit the data very well and that alternative models did not provide any advantage. [source]